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MS.

ANNU PANCHAL
NURSING TUTOR
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT :-
 A) Atmospheric Air Temperature:-
 The human body is very sensitive to the air
temperature or our environment .
 If the temperature is decreased even slightly , we
being to feel cold, we begin to feel discomfort at the
higher than accustomed temperature.
 The workload of the cardiovascular and pulmonary
system either increase or decrease of atmospheric
temperature, which in turn affect the body
temperature.
B) HUMIDITY
 The amount of moisture in the atmosphere called humidity. It
affects the evaporation of perspiration from the skin.
 When the humidity is very high, there is little or no
evaporation from the skin so that the heat is not carried away
from the body.
 Dry air causes increased evaporation, the skin and mucous
membranes become dry which produces nose, throat and
bronchial irritation.
 The most comfortable range of humidity is from 30% to
60%.
C) AIR POLLUTION

 Pollutants like dust, smoke, and gases. Dust is


irritating to the nasal mucosa membranes and the
lungs.
 Dust within the hospital can be controlled by
dusting with damp cloth and cleaning the floor
with a wet mop.
 Bed linen is folded without shaking to prevent
dust and lint in the air.
 Tobacco smoke from cigarettes is dangerous to
the smokers because they inhales the smoke,
which causes serious damage to the lungs.
 Smokes from burning rubbish , factories and
cooking fires also irritation to eyes or
respiratory tract.
 Some of the gases are poisonous, some will
produces explosions or fire. Hospital personnel
should have proper knowledge about the
dangers and precautions
D) NOISE
 Sick persons are usually more sensitive to sounds
than healthy persons.
 Sounds is measured in decibels. Sound about 120
decibels is painful and damaging to the ears.
 Noises can be reduced by:-
 Handling equipment carefully to prevent
dropping, bumping or rattling noises.
 Answering the telephone promptly and speaking
in a normal voices.
 Going to people when you wish to speak to them
rather than calling from a distances.
 Avoiding laughter and social chatter in the
nursing unit.
 Reminding patients courteously to keep the
volume of radio and television set low.
E) VENTILATION

 Electric fans are widely used to produce a


comfortable atmosphere
 Open doors and windows to take advantage of
natural breezes, along with the fans keep many
hospital rooms comfortable.
 Safety precautions are essential in providing this
comfort.
F) LIGHT
 The preferred source of the light is the sun., but it
is necessary to prevent sunrays from falling
directly on the patient or producing glare by
reflection from white washed or painted surface.
 Electric lights should not shine directly into a
patient’s eyes
 Place night lights to provide a measures of
darkness for sleep, but enough light to be able to
move about without danger of falling
G) ODOR
 An unpleasant odor is frequently caused by waste
material.
 Dispose all the waste and refuse promptly in the proper
manner and place, empty bedpans, urinals and emesis
basins promptly and clean them well.
 Report about the toilets, sinks or drainage pipes that are
not functioning properly.
 Remove left over food from the patient’s room and
discard it in the assigned place as soon as the meal is
finished.
H) PEST CONTROL

 The problem of controlling air temperature,


humidity and purity are solved ideally by using
an air conditioners.
 Pests are known carriers of disease and their
presence in hospitals is not desirable. Pestofix
provides commercial pest control for hospitals
using latest technologies,
REDUCTION OF PHYSICAL HAZARDS
 Accidents and injuries in a hospital are commonly from
mechanical, chemical, electrical or radiation cause.
 Most injuries are due to mechanical problems that lead to
falls.
 Measures that will help prevent falls include:-
 - Use side rails on beds
 - Keep the floor free of clutter(paper, food, water,
electric cords etc)
 - Use night lights
 - Have brakes and safety straps on wheelchairs
and stretchers and use them.
 - Keep bathroom and toilet floors free of algea
and other slippery substances.
 -keep equipments in good condition.
 -Store all equipments and supplies in a safe place
and not in patient’s room or in passageways.
 -Use properly applied restraints when indicated.
SAFETY DEVICES

 Restraints: restraints are protective devices used


to limit the physical activity of the client or part
of the body.
 Physical restraints: mechanical device, material
or equipment is attached to the body
 Chemical restraint: medications e.g.
sedatives
 Side rails: side rails help to increase a patient's
mobility or stability when in bed or moving from
bed to wheel chair. Side rails are used to prevent
fall from bed. Always ensure the latches securing
the bed rails are stable
 Airway: When a patient's airway is at risk of
being obstructed or is obstructed an artificial
airway is inserted to maintain airway patency
 Trapeze: Used for getting up in bed, for support,
ROLE OF NURSE IN PROVIDING SAFE&
CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
 Ensure optimum temperature of the ward
 Ensure units are well ventilated

 Ensure noise is within prescribed levels

 Provide sufficient light

 Ensure rodent/ pest control

 Update safety precautions for fire breakout

 Risk factors for falls are eliminated