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Muhammad Nazarudin, S.ST

 Platelets, or thrombocytes (from Greek
θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell")
 small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments
 2–3 µm in diameter
 derived from fragmentation of precursor
 lifespan of a platelet is normally just in avg 5
to 9 days
 involved in hemostasis, leading to the
formation of blood clots
 Pro-coagulation
 Inflammation
 Cytokine signalling
 Phagocytosis
 An abnormality or disease of the platelets is
called a thrombocytopathy, which could be
either a low number of platelets
(thrombocytopenia), a decrease in function
of platelets (thrombasthenia), or an increase
in the number of platelets (thrombocytosis).
 There are disorders that reduce the number
of platelets, such as heparin-induced
thrombocytopenia (HIT) or thrombotic
thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) that
typically cause thromboses, or clots, instead
of bleeding.
 Platelets are produced in blood cell
formation (thrombopoiesis) in bone marrow,
by budding off from megakaryocytes.
 The physiological range for platelets is (150–
400)×109per liter.
 Around 1011 platelets are produced each day
by an average healthy adult.
 The lifespan of circulating platelets is 5 to 9
 Megakaryocyte and platelet production is
regulated by thrombopoietin, a hormone
usually produced by the liver and kidneys.
 Each megakaryocyte produces between 5,000
and 10,000 platelets.
 Old platelets are destroyed by phagocytosis 
in thespleen and by Kupffer cells  in
the liver.
 Reserve platelets are stored in the spleen,
and are released when needed by
sympathetically induced splenic contraction.
 Role
A normal platelet count in a healthy individual is
between 150,000 and 450,000 per μl (microlitre) of blood
 Both thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis may
present with coagulation problems.  In general, low
platelet counts increase bleeding risks; however
there are exceptions (such as immune-
mediated heparin-induced
thrombocytopenia or paroxysmal nocturnal
hemoglobinuria). High counts may lead
to thrombosis, although this is mainly when the
elevated count is due to myeloproliferative disorder.
 Disorders leading to a reduced platelet
 Thrombocytopenia
 Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura – also known as
immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
 Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
 Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura (for
example heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT))
 Gaucher's disease
 Aplastic anemia
 Onyalai
 Alloimmune disorders
 Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia
 Some transfusion reactions
 Disorders leading to platelet dysfunction or
reduced count:
 HELLP syndrome
 Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
 Chemotherapy
 Dengue
 Disorders featuring an elevated count:
 Thrombocytosis, including essential
thrombocytosis (elevated counts, either reactive
or as an expression of myeloproliferative disease);
may feature dysfunctional platelets
 Disorders of platelet adhesion or aggregation:
 Bernard-Soulier syndrome
 Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
 Scott's syndrome
 von Willebrand disease
 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome
 Gray platelet syndrome
 Disorders of platelet metabolism
 Decreased cyclooxygenase activity, induced or
 Storage pool defects, acquired or congenital
 Disorders that indirectly compromise platelet
 Haemophilia
 Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome
 Disorders in which platelets play a key role:
 Atherosclerosis
 Coronary artery disease, CAD and myocardial
infarction, MI
 Cerebrovascular disease and Stroke, CVA
(cerebrovascular accident)
 Peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD)
 Cancer 
 Malaria 
non vi è alcuna blu
nel mio sangue

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