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By: Candice Carlson and Nina Saadati

 Rather than a formally tested model, the Generalized
Model for Program Planning is McKenzie and
colleagues (author s of the textbook) summary and
synthesis of multiple other programming models.
 The Generalized Model for Program Planning
represents the foundation of health education and
health promotion practice.

 It’s principles are the building blocks for all other

Benefits of GMPP
 Helps to better understand all planning models.
 Preparation to adapt to planning situations within a
professional practice.
 Helps adapt and respond to complex planning tasks
experienced in professional practice.
 Helps lead planning tasks and educate about the basic
sequence of the planning process.
Steps within the GMPP
 1) Needs Assessment
 2) Setting Goals and Objectives
 3) Developing an intervention
 4)Implementing the intervention
 5) Evaluating results
Assessing Needs
 1. Determine the purpose and scope.
 2. Gather the data.
 3. Analyze the data.
 4. Identify factors linked to the health problem.
 5. Identify the program focus.
 6. Validate the prioritized needs.
Conclusion of Needs Assessment
 Who is the priority population?
 What are the needs of the priority population?
 Which subgroups within the priority population have
the greatest need?
 Where are the subgroups located geographically?
 What is currently being done to resolve identified
 How well have the identified needs been addressed in
the past?
Setting Goals and Objectives
 Goals: General statements of desired outcomes (Who,
 Simple statements of direction.

 Objectives: Specific measurable steps to achieve the

goal (When, How much?)

 Goals and objectives provide the foundation for

planning and evaluation.
Types of Objectives
 Process/Administrative Objectives - Activities
presented and tasks completed.
 Learning Objectives - Change in awareness,
knowledge, attitude, and skills.
 Action/Behavioral Objectives - Change in behavior.
 Environmental Objectives - Change in environment.
 Program Objectives - Change in the quality of life,
health status, or risk, and social benefits.
Developing an Intervention
 Activities to reach goals and objectives.

 Methods Objectives Goals

Levels of Influence on Health related behaviors

1)Intrapersonal or individual factors
2)Interpersonal factors
3) Institutional or organizational factors
4)Community factors
5)Public Policy factors
Implementing the Intervention
 Implementation is the actual carrying out or putting
into practice the activities that make up the

 At this point, the planners will learn whether the

product (intervention) they developed will be useful in
producing the measurable changes as outlines in the
Evaluation of Results
 The process of assessing the program’s effectiveness
and achievement of objectives.

1) Plan the Evaluation

2) Collect the Data
3) Analyze the Data
4) Report the Results
5) Analyze the Results
Example of GMPP: Needs
 Scenario: A health educator was hired to develop a health
promotion program in a corporate setting.

 Assessing Needs
- Read material about the company
- Talked with individuals from the company
- Reviewed old documents from the company
- Formed a program planning committee
• Result: Identify target health problem.
- Higher than expected breast cancer cases
This was due in part to:

1) The limited knowledge of employees about breast

2) The limited number of employees conducting breast
self-examination (BSE).
3 ) The low number of employees having mammograms
on a regular basis.
Setting Goals and Objectives
1) Increase employee’s knowledge of breast cancer from
base line to after program participation.
2) Increase the number of women receiving
mammograms by 30 percent.
3) Increase the number of women reporting monthly
BSE by 50 percent.
Developing and Implementing
1) An information sheet to be distributed with employee
paychecks on the importance of BSE and mammography.
2) A mobile mammography van to be at the site every other
3) Plastic BSE reminder cards that can be hung from a
showerhead distributed to all female employees.
4) An article in the company newsletter on the high rate of
breast cancer in the company and the new program to
help women reduce their risk.
5) Posters and pamphlets from the American Cancer Society
to be displayed in the lunchroom.
 The health educator completed an evaluation to see if
there was an increase in knowledge, mammograms,
and monthly BSE.
 McKenzie, J. (2009). Principles and foundation of
health promotion and education. San Francisco:
Pearson Education, Inc.
 McKenzie, J. (2009). Planning, implementing, and
evaluation health promotion programs. San
Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc.
 McKenzie, J. (2008). An introduction to community
health. Sudbury: Jones and Barlett Publishers.