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 Webster’s Third Edition International

Research- to search or investigate.
- to search again or anew.

•Oxford Wordpower Dictionary 1994

Research- to study carefully and in detail.
- a detailed and careful study of
something; to find out more
information about it.
Research is the systematic
application of a family of methods
that are employed to provide
trustworthy information about

It must be reliable and practical for

future use.
is defined as human activity based on
intellectual application in the
investigation of matter. The primary
aim for applied research is
discovering, interpreting, and the
development of methods and systems
for the advancement of human
knowledge on a wide variety of
scientific matters of our world and the

“ Man cannot live without

What is not RESEARCH?
 A mere review of the academic "literature" in a field--i.e. a
summary of the existing body of knowledge on your subject--does
not make a good research. It is just a duplication or a fabrication
of an existing information.

 Publishing the same paper in two different journals without telling

the editors

 Submitting the same paper to different journals without telling

the editors

 Not informing a collaborator of your intent to file a patent in

order to make sure that you are the sole inventor

 Including a colleague as an author on a paper in return for a favor

even though the colleague did not make a serious contribution to
the paper

 Discussing with your colleagues data from a paper that you are
reviewing for a journal
What is not RESEARCH?
 Trimming outliers from a data set without discussing
your reasons in paper

 Using an inappropriate statistical technique in order

to enhance the significance of your research

 Bypassing the peer review process and announcing

your results through a press conference without
giving peers adequate information to review your

 Sabotaging someone's work

 Making unauthorized copies of data,

papers, or computer programs

 Using a racist epithet in the laboratory

Characteristics of a “Good” Research
1. It is highly purposive.
2. It is systematic.
3. It is critical, logical and objective.
4. It is accurate.
5. It involves formulation and testing of hypothesis
6. it records and reports data in quantitative terms.
7. Its ultimate goal is discovery of general principles.
8. It requires expertise.
9. It is empirical.
10. It is systematic .
11. It is valid.
12. It is reliability
13. It is critical thinking.
14. It is controlled.
Characteristics of a “Good” Research
 The purpose of research should be clearly defined and
sharply delineated in terms of ambiguous as possible.

 The study involves detailed methods, a rigorous approach to

data collection, data analysis, and report writing.

 The research design should be carefully planned to yield

results that are possible.

 Data is analyzed using multiple levels of abstraction. That

is, the researcher’s work is presented in a way that moves
from particulars to general levels of abstraction.

 The writing is clear, engaging, and full of unexpected ideas.

The story and findings become believable and realistic,
accurately reflecting all the complexities that exist in real
Purposes of Research
 1. Exploratory
This type of research investigates an area
or issue on which little previous work has
been carried out. In an organisational
setting it may be used to discover whether
or not a problem exists.
 2. Speculative
Sometimes research is implemented
strategically, where researchers take
account of current situations and
speculate as to their future implications.
Purposes of Research

3. Descriptive
Descriptive work aims to gather
information that illuminates
relationships, patterns and links
between variables. An example
would be an investigation of the
link between students' study
skills and course drop-out rates.
Purposes of Research

4. Explanatory
Explanatory research aims to
show why relationships, patterns
and links occur. Using the
example from 3, how could study
skills support improve student
retention? And does this depend
on other factors such as different
types of support available?
Purposes of Research

5. Predictive
The purpose of this type of
research is to develop a model that
predicts the likely course of events
given particular intervening
variables or circumstances.
Purposes of Research

6. Evaluative
To evaluate the impact of
something, for example a new
policy, event, law, treatment
regime or the introduction of a
new system.
Research Motives

To gather a body of empirical

knowledge and to advance
certain theoretical ideas.
1. public interest
2. professional interest
3. personal interest
Classification of Research
I. Quantitative Research - is similar to
traditional scientific methods. It determines the
relationship between one thing (an independent
variable) and another in a population.
Quantitative research designs are either
descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or
experimental (subjects measured before and after
a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only
associations between variables. An experiment
establishes causality.
Measurement in Quantitative
The following criteria should be fulfilled:

- Validity
- Objectivity (reliability)
- Accuracy
- Precision
Types of Quantitative Data

Data are used to classify

Examples; numbers,
amounts, prevalence,
Variables can be classified as
physical (wt.& Ht.),
physiological (attitude,
anxiety), social……etc.
Classification of Research

II. Qualitative Research

- seeks out the ‘why’, not the ‘how’ of
its topic through the analysis of
unstructured information – things like
interview transcripts, open ended
survey responses, emails, notes,
feedback forms, photos and videos.
Quantitative Approach
An approach which tests the researchers’
hypothesis in quantitative studies are
termed deductive.
As such approach tests whether variables
are correlated or one affects another e.g.
nutritional status and pressure ulcers, or
factors related to tobacco use.

Some quantitative studies are inductive as

they lead to formation of new questions (
generate new hypothesis )
Classification of Research
Qualitative research is an
approach which seeks to
understand , by means of
exploration, human
experience, perceptions,
motivations, intentions and
It is interactive, inductive,
flexible, holistic and reflexive
method of data collection
and analysis.
Main features of Qualitative
1- Exploration
2- Inductive approach
3- Interactive and Reflective
4- Holistic
5- Flexible
Common approaches in qualitative
1- Ethnography

2- Phenomenology

3- Discourse analysis

4- Grounded theory
Basic & Applied Research

Basic Research-research aimed at

obtaining empirical data used to
formulate and expand theory.

Applied Research-aims to solve an

immediate practical problem.
Basic Research

Is not oriented in design or purpose

toward the solution of practical
Its essential aim is to expand
knowledge without regard to the
practical application.
Applied Research

It is research performed in relation to

actual problems and under the
conditions in which they appear in
Educators can often solve their
problems at the appropriate level of
Research Problem
Teaching and Learning

Student Achievement
Career Paths/Tracks/Goals
Teaching and Learning

 Personality Traits
 Self-efficacy
 Special Education
 Gifted Education
 ICT Applications
Teaching and Learning

 SpiralProgression
 Assessment
 Materials and Resources
Child Protection

Teenage Pregnancy
Child Labor
Human Resource Development

Teaching and Non-teaching

Qualifications & Hiring
Career Development
Employees’ Welfare
Gender and Development
Possible Topics

Effects of Teachers' Mathematical

Knowledge for Teaching on Student
Achievement Author(s): Heather C. Hill,
Brian Rowan and Deborah Loewenberg
Ball Source: American Educational
Research Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2
Sample Title

Preparing teachers to teach science and

mathematics with technology: Developing
a technology pedagogical content
Sample Title

Teacher Burnout Factors as Predictors of

Adherence to Behavioral Intervention
Teacher Burnout: What Are the Warning
What fuels a teacher?
By Maurice J. Elias
May 23, 2012
Teacher and Classroom Context Effects
on Student Achievement: Implications for
Teacher Evaluation
Teacher Quality and Student
Achievement: A Review of K-12 Policy

1. Emotional Intelligence Test

2. Teacher Aptitude Test
Personality Tests

Big Five Personality Test

DISC Personality Test
Perfectionism Test
Extroversion Introversion Test
IQ Tests

•Classical IQ Test
•Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence Test
•Analytical Reasoning Test
•Multiple Intelligences & Learning Style
Relationship Tests

•Interpersonal Communication Skills Test

•Relationship Attachment Style Test
•Parenting Style Test
•Social Skills Test
Attitude and Lifestyle Tests

•Self-Esteem Test
•Values Profile
•Life Satisfaction Test
•Paranormal Beliefs Test

df (the competencies of modern the

MEQ Professional Teaching Competencies -

McGill University