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(7th Ed)

Chapter 3
The Nature and Nurture
Of Behavior
James A. McCubbin, PhD
Clemson University

Worth Publishers

Genes: Our Biological
 Chromosomes
 threadlike structures made of DNA that
contain the genes
 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
 complex molecule containing the genetic
information that makes up the chromosomes
 has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held
together by bonds between pairs of

Genes: Our Biological Blueprint  Genes  biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes  a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein  Genome  the complete instructions for making an organism  consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes .

Genes: Their Location and Composition Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA .

Evolutionary Psychology  Natural Selection  the principle that. among the range of inherited trait variations. those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations  Mutations  random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides  the source of all genetic diversity .

Evolutionary Psychology  Evolutionary Psychology  the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind. whether biologically or socially influenced. by which people define male and female . the characteristics. using the principles of natural selection  Gender  in psychology.

Evolutionary Psychology  Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health  Women preferred resources and social status .

Behavior Genetics  Behavior Genetics  study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior  Environment  every nongenetic influence. from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us .

Behavior Genetics Identical twins Fraternal twins  Identical Twins  develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two. but they share the fetal Same Same or environment sex only opposite sex . creating two genetically identical organisms  Fraternal Twins  develop from separate eggs  genetically no closer than brothers and sisters.

depending on the range of populations and environments studied .Behavior Genetics  Temperament  a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity  Heritability  the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes  may vary.

Behavior Genetics  Interaction  the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)  Molecular Genetics  the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes .

Environmental Influence  Two placental arrangements in identical twins .

Environmental Influence  Experience affects brain development Impoverished Rat brain Enriched Rat brain environment cell environment cell .

Environmental Influence  A trained brain .

ideas. attitudes. and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next  Norm  an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior .Environmental Influence  Culture  the enduring behaviors.

and innovations passed from person to person . fashions.Environmental Influence  Personal Space  the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies  Memes  self-replicating ideas.

males have one  an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child  Y Chromosome  the sex chromosome found only in men  when paired with an X chromosome from the mother.The Nature and Nurture of Gender  X Chromosome  the sex chromosome found in both men and women  females have two. it produces a male child .

The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Testosterone  the most important of the male sex hormones  both males and females have it  additional testosterone in males stimulates  growth of male sex organs in the fetus  development of male sex characteristics during puberty  Role  a set of expectations (norms) about a social position  defining how those in the position ought to behave .

The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Gender Role  a set of expected behaviors for males and females  Gender Identity  one’s sense of being male or female  Gender-typing  the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role .

The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Gender and Culture .

The Nature and Nurture of Gender .

The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Social Learning Theory  theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished  Gender Schema Theory  theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly .

The Nature and Nurture of Gender  Two theories of gender typing .