Milling Machin e



What is Milling

Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges..

Milling Operations
‡ Milling operations may be classified under four general headings as follows: ‡ Face milling. Machining flat surfaces which are at right angles to the axis of the cutter. ‡ Plain or slab milling. Machining flat surfaces which are parallel to the axis of the cutter. ‡ Angular milling. Machining flat surfaces which are at an inclination to the axis of the cutter. ‡ Form milling. Machining surfaces having an irregular outline.

Milling The usual Mill consists basically of a ‡ motor driven spindle .which mounts and revolves the milling cutter.which mounts and feeds the workpiece . and a ‡ Reciprocating adjustable worktable.


‡ Knee and Column type ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Horizontal Vertical Universal Turret type Types of Milling Machines ‡ Production (Bed) type ‡ Simplex ‡ Duplex ‡ Triplex .

Plano millers Special type Types of Milling Machines ‡ Rotary table ‡ Drum type ‡ Copy milling (Die sinking machines) ‡ Key way milling machines ‡ Spline shaft milling machines .



Depending upon the direction of the rotation of tool and workpiece we have two types of cuttings ‡ Up Milling ‡ Down Milling .Methods Of Cutting ways in a A workpiece can be cut in different Milling machine.

. yIn the conventional or up milling.Up Milling yIn up milling the cutting tool rotates in the opposite direction to the table movement. yThere is a possibility that the cutting tool will rub the work piece before starting the removal. the chip starts as zero thickness and gradually increases to the maximum size.

yIn the climb or down milling. yIn down milling the cutting tool . the chip starts as maximum thickness and goes to zero thickness gradually.Down Milling (Climb Milling) rotates in the same direction as that of the table movement.

yThis is good for thin and frail workpieces.Down Milling (Climb Milling) ‡ The cutting force will act downwards and as such would keep the workpiece firmly in the work holding device. yIt may be used where breakout at the edge of the workpiece could not be tolerated. . yIt requires upto20% less power to cut by this method.

MILLING CUTTERS Classification of Milling Cutters .

Based on construction ‡ Solid ‡ Inserted tooth type Milling Cutters Classification Based on mounting ‡ Arbour mounted ‡ Shank mounted ‡ Nose mounted Base on rotation ‡ Right hand rotation (Counter clockwise) ‡ Left hand rotation (Clockwise) Based on helix ‡ Right hand helix ‡ Left hand helix .

If this cannot be done.Size of Milling Cutter job. choose In selecting a milling cutter for a particular one large enough to span the entire work surface so the job can be done with a single pass. . remember that a small diameter cutter will pass over a surface in a shorter time than a large diameter cutter which is fed at the same speed.

. The right-hand helix is shown by the flutes leading to the right. A right-hand cutter must rotate counter clockwise. a left-hand cutter must rotate clockwise.Types of Teeth The teeth of milling cutters may be made for right-hand or left-hand rotation. a left-hand helix is shown by the flutes leading to the left. and with either right-hand or lefthand helix.

and end milling cutters. .Saw Teeth Saw teeth are either straight or helical in the smaller sizes of plain milling cutters. metal slitting saw milling cutters.

or with an integral shank with or without a pilot. They are available for arbour mounting.Helical Milling Cutters The steep helix produces a shearing action that results in smooth. vibration-free cuts. This type of helical cutter is particularly useful for milling elongated slots and for light cuts on soft metal .

Interlocking tooth side milling cutters can be repeatedly sharpened without changing the width of the slot they will machine. .Side Milling Cutters ‡ Side milling cutters are essentially plain milling cutters with the addition of teeth on one or both sides. ‡ Interlocking tooth side milling cutters and staggered tooth side milling cutters are used for cutting relatively wide slots with accuracy. Side milling cutters are generally used for slotting and straddle milling.


‡ They are used for milling slots. key ways and pockets where other type of milling cutter cannot be used.End Milling Cutters ‡ These are shank mounted and generally used in vertical axis milling machine. . ‡ There are a large variety of end mills. ‡ High cutting speed are recommended for this type of milling cutter.

and other holding devices. fixtures.T-Slot Milling Cutter The T-slot milling cutter is used to machine T-slot grooves in worktables. The throat of the T-slot is first milled with a side or end milling cutter and the headspace is then milled with the T-slot milling cutter. . The cutter has a plain or side milling cutter mounted to the end of a narrow shank.

60. or 60°. The angle of the cutter edge is usually 30°. Angle cutters may be single-angle milling cutters or double-angle milling cutters. 45°. The single-angle cutter contains side-cutting teeth on the flat side of the cutter. and 90 degrees. Double-angle cutters have included angles of 45.Angle Milling Cutters The angle milling cutter has peripheral teeth which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the cutter axis. Common operations performed with angle cutters are cutting V-notches and serration's. . both right and left.


FORM MILLING Form milling is the process of machining special contours composed of curves and straight lines. shaped to the contour to be cut. This is done with formed milling cutters. The more common form milling operations involve milling half-round recesses and beads and quarter-round radii on workpieces. or entirely of curves. at a single cut. . concave. and corner rounding milling cutters ground to the desired circle diameter. This operation is accomplished by using convex.


Rotary or Circular Milling yA number of fixtures depending are located on a rotary table such that a number of workpieces can be loaded simultaneously on the machine table. . yThis will save the setting time of the workpieces and keeps the machine cutting all the time except during the indexing of the rotary table.


Gang Milling yIn gang milling a number of milling cutters are fastened to the arbour to suit the profile of the workpiece to be machined. yThe advantage of gang milling is that several surfaces are machined at the same time. .

.String Milling ‡ A number of the workpieces will be kept on the machine table in a line and hence called as 'string milling' or 'line milling'. ‡ By having a number of workpieces kept in line the approach distance will be only at the beginning and end of the line. thus considerably saving the machine time.


connected to the index head spindle by a worm gear and shaft. An index plate containing graduations is used to control the rotation of the index head spindle. and footstock which is similar to the tailstock of a lathe. and an index crank. .INDEXING FIXTURE The index fixture consists of an index head. also called a dividing head. The index head and footstock attach to the worktable of the milling machine by T-slot bolts. The plate is fixed to the index head.

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