This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PRESENTED BY: Sachin Dhopade B.E IV/IV Ph No. 09866584839 firstname.lastname@example.org Mechanical Engineering (Production) MVSR
ABSTRACT: Changes in today·s manufacturing environment allow tedious,fatiguing and repetitive tasks to be mechanically performed by robots, as manually controlled work is transition to auto-cycle control equipment.Such changes tend to take advantage of, and expand upon, an operators process knowledge. As this trend continuous, the operator·s contribution becomes more technically oriented and less physically oriented with significantly greater product output being released.
A robot is a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials , parts , tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of variety of tasks. A robot may include a feedback-driven connection between sense and action, not under direct human control, although it may have a human override function. The action may take the form of electromagnetic motors or actuators (also called effectors) that move an arm, open and close grips, or propel the robot. The step by step control and feedback is provided by a computer program run on either an external or embedded computer or a microcontroller. By this definition, a robot may include nearly all automated devices.
This distinction divides robotics into two mostly separate categories: mobile robotics (moving) and manipulator robotics (grabbing). manipulation and self-reconfiguration. The most notable exception to this rule is the self-reconfigurable robot which potentially is able to use its effectors in three basic ways: locomotion. Two basic ways of using effectors are to move the robot around (locomotion) or to move other objects around (manipulation). . where the robot changes its own shape and/or function to better solve the task at hand.
the term implies a degree of autonomy that would exclude many automatic machine tools from being called robots. such as waldoes and ROVs.The term robot is also often used to refer to sophisticated mechanical devices that are remotely controlled by human beings. a robot can be seen as a form of biomimicry. Alternately. or an automaton resembling an animal. even though these devices are not autonomous«« . In this way. in modern understanding. It has come to be applied to many machines which directly replace a human or animal in work or play. However. Lack of anthropomorphism is perhaps what makes us reluctant to refer to the highly complex modern washer-dryer as a robot. robot has been used as the general term for a mechanical man. either real or imaginary. It is the search for ever more highly autonomous robots or cognitive robots which is the major focus of robotics research and which drives much work in artificial intelligence.
In this paper we deal with the current . In industries the robots are widely used for developing and improving the productivity and quality of product . . The industrial are used in various fields applicable in following categories . feature & future applications of industrial robots«..
Also pertains to the technique of making a device. The automatic. machine. process or procedure more fully automatic. or processes . systems.INTRODUCTION: AUTOMATION & ROBOTICS: DEFINITIONS The art of making processes or machines self-acting or self-moving. self regulating control of equipment.
mechanics and software .A manufactured product that is made through a series of machines all controlled through sensors. electronics. Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics. construction. theory and application of robots. Robotics is the science or study of the technology associated with the design. and computer control.
DESCRIPTION: Basically automation is classified into 3 types 1) Fixed automation 2) Flexible automation 3) Programmable automation .
1. Ex: The best example is in manufacturing of bolts & nuts of same size.FIXED AUTOMATION: Fixed automation is used when the volume of production is very high and it is therefore appropriate to design specialized equipment to process the product or component of the product very effectively efficiently and at high production rate. .
but the variety of configurations is usually more limited than for programmable automation. .2. Ex: The best example is in manufacturing of bolts & nuts of different sizes. which allows a certain amount of integration to occur in the system.FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION : This type of automation is categorized between Fixed and Programmable Automation. it possess some of the features of both Fixed & Programmed Automation. It must be programmed for different configurations.
the production equipment is designed to be adoptable to variations in product configurations For a given product the adaptability feature is accomplished under the control of ´ PROGRAMµ of instructions.In this case. .3.PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION : It is used when volume of production is relatively low and there are variety of products to be made .
OF DIFFERENT PARTS .EX: PARTS PER YEAR FIXED AUTOMATION ROBOTICS FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION NO.
or human like characteristics. robotics coincides most closely with programmable automation.Spray painting«« . It is a step beyond mechanization. Spot welding . the programming feature allows robots to be used for a variety of different industrial operations.. The robot can be programmed to move its arm through a sequence of motions in order to perform some useful task. programmable machine which possess certain anthropomorphic. An industrial robot is a general-purpose.. many of which involve the robot working together with other pieces of automated or semi-automated equipment . Hence. . The most visible part of automation can be said to be industrial robotics. These operations include Machine loading& Unloading . It will repeat the motion pattern over and over until reprogrammed to perform some other task. where human operators are provided with machinery to help them in their jobs. Of the three types of automation. The most typical characteristic of present-day robots is there movable arms.
bend and/or rotate from one state to another. their structure and behaviour are based much on the same principles. . The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called chain (its functionality is more or less like the skeleton of a body). which are connected by joints. Each section can pivot. but technically speaking. manipulate objects. The chain includes the robot·s actuators and is composed by links (that can be compared to bones). Additional components may include some sensors to give information about the surroundings or the robot itself and motors to move the actuators (they perform actions ² move the robot. etc.).Robots may have various forms and may perform many different tasks. move parts of the robot.
underwater and space exploration. Other applications include toxic waste cleanup. or dangerous for humans. Industrial robots used in manufacturing lines used to be the most common form of robots. and searching for IEDs and land mines. search and rescue. dirty. but that has recently been replaced by consumer robots cleaning floors and mowing lawns. mining. surgery. Robots are used to do tasks that are too dull. Robots are also finding their way into entertainment and home health care .
The controller and actuating devices. 2. Feedback elements(sensors). 4. 1. .CONTROL SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS: Every robot consists of five major components: The input to the system. The out put of the system. 5. 3. The plant (process being controlled).
Input Controller & actuator Robot joint Position Microprocessor controlled Feedback Elements .
Most of the robots used in plants (industries) today are mounted on a base which is fastened to the floor. arm and wrist of the machine. . The Wrist consists of no of components that allow it to be oriented in a variety of positions. At the end of the arm is the wrist.ROBOT ANATOMY: Robot anatomy is concerned with the physical construction of the body.
arm and wrist are provided by series of joints . Attachment to the robot·s wrist is a hand .These components all together called Manipulators.These movements involve either rotating or sliding motions . Relative movements between the various components of the body .. technical name for hand is ´End Effectorsµ .
2. . Types of End Effectors are: Grippers Tools 1.END EFFECTORS: An End Effectors is a device that attaches to the wrist of the robot arm and enables the generalpurpose robot to perform a specific task Specialpurpose tools are attached to this End Effectors.
These part-handling applications include loading and unloading and many more .Adhesive Grippers 4. Types of grippers 1.GRIPPERS Grippers are end effectors used to grasp and hold objects .Hooks.Vacuum cups 2.The objects are generally work-parts that are to be moved by the robot .and other miscellaneous devices .Magnetic Grippers 3. Scoops .
and thus facilitates this multitool handling function.Drilling 2. Some of the tools used as end effectors are: 1.Welding 3. of these applications the end effector is gripper that is designed to grasp and handle the tool .the robot is required to manipulate a tool rather than a work-part. The use of a gripper permits the tools to be exchanged during the cycle.Painting and more« .TOOLS AS END EFFECTORS: In many applications . In a limited no.
. In this paper we deal with the current . . feature & future applications of industrial robots«.APPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS: In industries the robots are widely used for developing and improving the productivity and quality of product . The industrial are used in various fields applicable in following categories .
CURRENT APPLICATIONS: In current applications the robots are used in the following fields:y y y y y y y y y Material handling Handling and the manufacturing processes Welding Spray painting Assembly Machining Inspection Nuclear Fields Rehabilitation .
Material transfer .1.Machine loading and unloading 2. MATERIAL HANDLING: It is further classified into two types : 1.
The robot can perform various welding processes : Spot welding y Arc welding y .WELDING: To the robots wrists the welding gun is arranged and the job is programmed and perform sequence of welding .2.
3. To over come this problem these robots are used.SPRAY PAINTING: This is a dangerous operation of human beings because of the fire hazard and a fine mist of a Car Cinogenic . .
The assembly systems using the robots are mainly used for small products . The assembly robots can be designed in a coordinate.ASSEMBLY: It is an important application of robots. . Cartesian and Articulated.
FEATURE APPLICATIONS: The feature applications of robots are seen in the following fields: y y y y y y y y y y Coal mines Waste disposals Security Agricultural Utilities . Military and Fire fighting operations Under sea Teaching Bank tellers Medical Space .
replacing "dumb" appliances with smart robotic equivalents. . Domestic robots capable of performing many household tasks.FUTURE APPLICATIONS: Robotics will probably continue its spread in offices and homes. described in science fiction stories and coveted by the public in the 1960s. are likely to be eventually perfected.
accuracy and ease of use for most of the applications . In many cases the same technology might be used both in robotics and in medicine . There is likely to be some degree of convergence between humans and robots. . Other developments include downsizing industrial arms for consumer applications and using industrial arms in combination with more intelligent Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) to make the automation chain more flexible between pick-up and drop-off. such as Pacemakers. As of 2005. Some humans are already cyborgs with some body parts and even parts of the nervous system replaced by artificial analogues. the robotic arm business is getting to a mature state. where they can provide enough speed.
CONCLUSION: These industrial robots play a vital role in manufacturing industries. . there is an immense scope for research for further development in this field. Despite the enormous work put in by the earlier researchers. and there is a bright and wide future for these robots.
Weiss Roger N Nagel Robotics-Control Sensing Viscon & Inteligence K. Mir Publications .Jschilling Automation & Cad-Cam Groover Industrial Robots YV.S.BIBLIOGRAPHY: Industrial robotics P.F.V Fundementals Of Robotics Robert.Kozyrev.Groover M.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.