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OTN and ASON Fundamentals Training

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Agenda
 Day-1
 Basics of Transport Network
 DWDM Overview
 Introduction to OTN
 OTN interface Structure
 OTN Multiplexing and Mapping
 OTN Overhead Description

2
Agenda
 Day-2
 ASON Overview
 System Structure of ASON
 Feature of ASON
 SLA for ASON

3
Basics of Transport Network

4
Transport Network
• Inter-connection of different transmission nodes to carry clients signals.

• Components of a Transport Network


– Customer Services (audio, video, Data)
– Devices for Transport Technologies
 PDH
 SDH
 ATM
 MPLS
 DWDM/OTN
– NMS
– Medium (wireless, wired)

5
Requirements of Transport Network

Support any number Low protocol Monitor end to end Support any type of
of nodes within the complexity with performance and client traffic with
entire network unified management connection oriented quality of service.
control with strong OAM

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Multiplexing
• Combining of multiple streams of information for transmission over a
single medium.

• Splitting a combined stream arriving from a single medium into the


original multiple streams.

• Types of Multiplexing
– FDM
– TDM
– WDM

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of TDM
Example of TDM?

?
PDH and SDH

8
Disadvantages of PDH
• Inability to identify the individual channels in higher order stream.

• There are different hierarchies in use in the world.

• Changing from one hierarchical level to another requires additional


equipment.

• Globally no compatibility of signals between different vendors.

• More stuffing bits used, so wastage of Bandwidth.

• Insufficient capacity for network management.

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Advantages of SDH
• The SDH is based on global international standard.

• Standard interfaces between equipment.

• Facilities to add or drop tributaries directly from a high speed signal.

• SDH allows existing PDH hierarchies to be transported on it.

• Greater equipment reliability due to protection.

• Single stage multiplexing into the higher bit rates.

• Advance network management OAM features.

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Methods for expanding Network Capacity
• Increasing the number of fibers

• Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

• Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)

• Combination of TDM and WDM


 WDM

 Economical &
Mature & Quick
 TDM
 Keeps same Fiber,
 SDM  STM-16→ STM-
same bit rates
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 Add fiber &
equipment  Cost
&Complication
 Time & cost

Solution of capacity expansion

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What's WDM?

Gas Station

Free Way

Patrol Car

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WDM System
• Multiple wavelength onto a single fiber.
• OSC is added for network manageability.

OSC

Transponder Transponder

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Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM)
• CWDM typically uses 20-nm spacing (3000 GHz) of up to 18 channels.

• Target distances up to about 50 km on single mode fibers

• Within the range 1270 nm to 1610 nm. Used in metro city i.e CATV.

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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
• DWDM spaces the wavelengths more closely, may be 100, 50, or 25 GHz
within C-band 1530-1565nm.

• With a channel count reaching up to 192, distances of several thousand


kilometers.

Single Fiber

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Drawbacks of Existing DWDM
• Each input client signal will utilise a wavelength.

• Not able to groom different types of services, as no common mapping is


available or no electrical grooming, no frame structure.

• No traffic switching.

• Not able to take different types of services as there is no electrical


interfaces.

• Less OAM information and protection for network Management.

“Next is OTN transport technology”

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Optical Transport Network (OTN) Overview

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Optical Transport Network (OTN) Concept
• An OTN is composed of a set of Optical Network Elements connected by
optical fiber links.

• Provide functionality of transport, multiplexing, routing, management,


supervision and survivability of client signals.

• Non associated Overheads are added into a separate wavelength to


monitor optical signal.

• OTN is the combination of SDH and DWDM concept.


– DWDM for high bandwidth
– SDH concept for better OAM facilities

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Advantages of OTN
• Compared with SDH
– Ultra capacity with high accuracy, Terabit/second per fiber via DWDM lines

– Service transparency for client signals

– Asynchronous mapping, powerful FEC function, reduce the cost

• Compared with traditional WDM


– Enhanced OAM, protection & networking functionality.

– Dynamically electrical/optical layer grooming

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Why OTN
• SDH uses more no. of OH which uses Bandwidth and causes delay, that
is why the practical use of SDH has stopped at STM 64 (10 Gbps).

• Stronger Forward Error Correction, reducing the no. of regenerator in tern


network cost.

• Six TCM connections can be monitored.

• Transparent Transport of Client Signals, no client signal data or OH are


modified.

• Switching can be at any rate, no restriction of data rate per fiber.

• Grooming at electrical level instead sending no. of wavelengths.

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Features of OTN

1 2 3 4

Electrical Optical  ASON  OAM & P


Grooming Grooming

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OTN Interface Structure

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OTN Network Layers/Trails
• OPUk: Optical channel Payload Unit-k
IP/MPLS ATM Ethernet STM-N
• ODUk: Optical channel Data Unit-k
OPUk
• OTUk: Optical channel Transport ODUk
Unit
OTUk

• OCh: Optical Channel OCh

OMSn
• OMS: Optical Multiplex Section
OTSn

• OTS: Optical Transmission Section

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Signal flow in OTN Layers

Client signal
Client signal

OPUk OH OPUk payload


TU … TU
ODU OH OPUk
k XCS XCS
OTUk[V] OH ODUk FEC …
LU LU
OCh OChOH OCh payload …
OCCo
OCCo

OCCo

OCG-n.m OCCp OCCp OCCp


Non-associated OH

OMU-n.m OS MUX
comms OH

OMSn OH
SC
OTM-n.m OTSn OH
FIU
OOS
U

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OTN System Block Diagram

OSC

Mux
Client ODD
Cross Line
Trib Connect ITL OA
Signal card (DWDM)
card card FIU

Mux
Line
EVEN
card
(DWDM)
ROADM
Optical D A
Fiber
DeMux Line Cross Client
OA ITL ODD Connect Trib
FIU card
card card Signal
(DWDM)
Line
card
DeMux
OSC
EVEN

(DWDM)

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Are you aware of OTN Layers or Trails now ?
• OH is added to the client signal to form OPU Layer.

• OH is then added to the OPU to form ODU Layer.

• OH and FEC are added to ODU to form OTU Layer.

• Adding further OH to OTU to create OCH Layer.

• Additional OH may be added to the OCH to form OMS Layer.

• OMS is added with another OH to create OTS Layer.

• Supervisory management channel create OSC Layer.

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OTN Multiplexing/Mapping

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Types and capacity

Types nominal bit rate bit rate


tolerance
OTU1 2 666 057.143 kbit/s

OTU2 10 709 225.316 kbit/s

OTU3 43 018 413.559 kbit/s

ODU1 2 498 775.126 kbit/s

ODU2 10 037 273.924 kbit/s ±20 ppm

ODU3 40 319 218.983 kbit/s

OPU1 2 488 320 kbit/s

OPU2 9 995 276.962 kbit/s

OPU3 40 150 519.322 kbit/s

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ODU-k(TDM)
• Low rate ODUk signals are multiplexed into high rate ODUk signals using
time division multiplexing

– Up to 4 ODU1 signals are multiplexed into an ODU2 using time division multiplexing

– A mixture of  4 ODU2 and  16 ODU1 signals can be multiplexed into an ODU3 using
time division multiplexing.

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ODU1 into ODU2 multiplexing method

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OTU3e

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ODUflex
• ODUflex enables an ODU container to flexibly resize its capacity based
on service capacities of ODU0 (1.25Gbps).

• Ensuring that services are not affected during the adjustment (Hitless).

• Maximizing the utilization of line bandwidth.

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Final OTN Structure (Mapping and Multiplexing)

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OTN Overhead Description

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OTN Frame Formats

3824
3825

4080
14
15
16
17
1

7
8
OTUk
1 Alignm
OH

OPUk OH
2 Client Signal
OTUk
mapped
OPU in
k Payload
3 ODUk FEC
OPUk Payload
4

Client Signal
k indicates the order:
OPUk - Optical Channel Payload Unit 1 2.5G
2 10G
ODUk - Optical Channel Data Unit 3 40G
OTUk - Optical Channel Transport Unit
Alignment

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OTN Electrical Overhead Overview

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

 OPUk OH  ODUk OH
PSI: Payload Structure Identifier TCM ACT: Tandem Connection Monitoring
JC: Justification Control Activation/deactivation control channel
NJO: negative justification opportunity TCMi:Tandem Connection Monitoring i
FTFL:Fault Type & Fault Location reporting
 OTUk OH channel
SM: Section Monitoring PM: Path Monitoring
GCC0:General Communication Channel0 EXP:Experimental
RES: Reserved for future international GCC1/2: General Communication Channel 1/2
standardisation APS/PCC:Automatic Protection Switching
/Protection Communication Control channel
 Alignment OH
FAS: Frame Alignment Signal
MFAS: multi-frame Alignment Signal

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Frame Alignment Signal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

byte 1 byte 2 byte 3 byte 4 byte 5 byte 6


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
OA1 OA1 OA1 OA2 OA2 OA2

 FAS (Frame Alignment Signal)


A six byte OTUk-FAS signal is defined in row 1, columns 1 to 6 of the OTUk overhead.

OA1 is (1111 0110 ) ,OA2 is (0010 1000).

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Multi-Frame Alignment Signal

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

MFAS OH Byte
 MFAS (Multi-Frame Alignment Signal)
12345678 Defined in row 1, column 7.
.
.
The value of the MFAS byte will be incremented each
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OTUk/ODUk frame and provides as such a 256 frame
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
MFAS sequence

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0.. 0 0 1 0 0 multi-frame.
..

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0.. 0 0 0 0 1

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OTUk Section Monitoring overhead

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3  TTI (Trail Trace Identifier)


TTI BIP-8
A one-byte overhead is defined to transport the 64 byte
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TTI signal.
BDI
IAE

SAPI BEI/BIAE RES


15
16

DAPI The 64-byte TTI signal shall be aligned with the OTUk
31
32
multi-frame and transmitted four times per multi-frame.
Operator
specific

63

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OTUk Section Monitoring Overhead
• BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8)
– In Section Monitoring, a one-byte error detection code signal is defined.

– This byte provides a bit interleaved parity-8 (BIP-8) code.

– The OTUk BIP-8 is computed over the bits in the OPUk (columns 15 to 3824) area of
OTUk frame i, and inserted in the OTUk BIP-8 overhead location in OTUk frame i+2.

1 14 15 3824

Frame i OPUk
BIP8

Frame i+1

Frame i+2

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OTUk Section Monitoring Overhead

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3

TTI BIP-8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDI
IAE

SAPI BEI/BIAE RES


15
16

DAPI
31 BEI/BIAE: Used to return the detected BER to the upstream.
32

Operator
BDI: Used to return the signal failure status detected, if defect=1.
specific

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IAE: To inform egress point that alignment error in the incoming
signal has been detected, if error=1.

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OTUk GCC0 and RES Overhead
• GCC0 (General Communication Channel)
– Two bytes are allocated in the OTUk overhead to support a general communications
channel between OTUk termination points
– Located in row 1, columns 11 and 12

• RES (Reserved)
– Two bytes of OTUk overhead are reserved for future international standardization
– Located in row 1, columns 13 and 14
– Set to all ZEROs

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC


TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

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ODUk Path Monitoring Overhead

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3
TTI BIP-8 TTI / BIP-8 / BEI / BDI

In Path Monitoring, these overheads’ function are the


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDI

SAPI BEI STAT same as OTUk SM signal, except it doesn’t support


15
16 BIAE function. In row 3, columns 10 to 12.
DAPI
31
32

Operator
specific

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ODUk Path Monitoring overhead

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3
 STAT (Status)
TTI BIP-8 In Path Monitoring, these three bits indicate presence or
status of a maintenance signal.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDI

SAPI BEI STAT Bit 6 7 8 status


15 000 Reserved for future international standardization
16
001 Normal path signal
DAPI
31 010 Reserved for future international standardization
32 011 Reserved for future international standardization
100 Reserved for future international standardization
Operator 101 Maintenance signal: ODUk - LCK
specific
110 Maintenance signal: ODUk - OCI
63 111 Maintenance signal: ODUk - AIS

FTFL: Tandem Connection endpoints insert FTFL in forward direction on detection of SF or SD


condition.
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ODUk TCM overhead

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

1 2 3
TTIi BIP-8i  TTIi / BIP-8i / BEIi/BIAEi / BDIi
For each tandem connection monitoring field,
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDIi

SAPI BEIi/BIAEi STATi this overheads’ function are the same as OTUk
15
16
SM signal.
DAPI
31 IAE status is optional
32

Operator
Six fields of ODUk TCM overhead are defined in
specific
row 2, columns 5 to 13 and row 3, columns 1 to
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9 of the ODUk overhead

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ODUk TCM overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

 STAT (Status)
1 2 3
For each tandem connection monitoring field, three bits are defined as
TTIi BIP-8i status bits..

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDIi

SAPI BEIi/BIAEi STATi


Bit 6 7 8 status
15
16 000 No source TC
DAPI 001 In use without IAE
31 010 In use with IAE
32
Reserved for future international
011
standardization
Operator Reserved for future international
specific 100
standardization
101 Maintenance signal: ODUk -LCK
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110 Maintenance signal: ODUk -OCI
111 Maintenance signal: ODUk -AIS

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Nested and Cascaded ODUk connection

TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6


TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5
TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4
TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3
TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2
TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1

A1 B1 C1 C2 B2 B3 B4 A2

C1 - C2

B1 - B2 B3 - B4

A1 - A2

TCMi TCM OH field not in use TCMi TCM OH field in use

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Overlapping ODUk Monitored Connections

TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6 TCM6


TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5 TCM5
TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4 TCM4
TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3 TCM3
TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2 TCM2
TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1 TCM1

A1 B1 C1 B2 C2 A2

C1 - C2

B1 - B2

A1 - A2

TCMi TCM OH field not in use TCMi TCM OH field in use

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ODUk GCC1/GCC2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

 GCC1 / GCC2 (General Communication Channel)


Two fields of two bytes are allocated in the ODUk overhead to support two

general communications channels between any two network elements with

access to the ODUk frame structure.

The bytes for GCC1 are located in row 4, columns 1 and 2, and the bytes for

GCC2 are located in bytes row 4, columns 3 and 4 of the ODUk overhead.

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OPUk Payload Structure Identifier
• PSI (Payload Structure Identifier)
– One byte is allocated in the OPUk overhead to transport a 256-byte payload structure identifier (PSI)
signal
– Aligned with the ODUk multi-frame.
– PSI[0] contains a one-byte payload type. PSI[1] to PSI[255] are mapping and multiplexing specific .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 FAS MFAS SM GCC0 RES RES JC
TCM
2 RES ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 FTFL RES JC
3 TCM3 TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP RES JC
4 GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC RES PSI NJO

0 PT
1

Mapping
& concatenation
specific
255
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OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)

FDI-O

Non-Associated
n
TTI FDI-P

overhead
3
2
1
BDI-O BDI-O FDI-O

BDI-P BDI-P FDI-P

OMSn
OTSn

OCh
PMI PMI OCI

General Management Communications

TTI: Trail Trace Identifier BDI-P: Backward Defect Indication – Payload

PMI: Payload Missing Indication FDI-O: Forward Defect Indication –Overhead

FDI-P: Forward Defect Indication – Payload


OCI: Open Connection Indication

BDI-O: Backward Defect Indication –Overhead

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Maintenance and Management signal

Management
signal
function
Alignment LOF/LOM
Connectivity TTI
AIS
OCI
Maintenance LCK
Signal LTC
BDI
BEI
IAE/BIAE

Signal quality BIP-8

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Alarms

Layer Alarms

OTUk OTUk_LOF,OTUk_AIS,OTUk_LOM,OTUk_TIM,OTUk_DEG,
OTUk_EXC,OTUk_BDI,BEFFEC_EXC

ODUk_PM ODUk_PM_TIM,ODUk_PM_DEG,ODUk_PM_EXC,
ODUk_PM_BDI,ODUk_PM_LCK,ODUk_PM_OCI,ODUk_PM_AIS,ODUk
_LOFLOM

ODUk_TCMi ODUk_TCMi_TIM,ODUk_TCMi_DEG ,ODUk_TCMi_EXC ,ODUk_TCMi_


BDI, ODUk_TCMi_LCK,ODUk_TCMi_OCI,
ODUk_TCMi_AIS,ODUk_TCMi_LTC

OPUk OPUk_PLM,OPU2_MSIM,OPU3_MSIM

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Performance events

layer Performance events


OTUk OTUk_BBE ,OTUk_BBER,OTUk_BIAES,OTUk_ES,OTUk_FEBBE,OTUk_FEBBER,OTUk
_FEES,OTUk_FESES,OTUk_FESESR,OTUk_FEUAS,OTUk_IAES,OTUk_SES,OTUk_SE
SR,OTUk_UAS,FEC_AFT_COR_ER

ODUk_PM ODUk_PM_BBE,ODUk_PM_BBER,ODUk_PM_ES,ODUk_PM_FEBBE,ODUk_PM_FEBB
ER,ODUk_PM_FEES,ODUk_PM_FESES,ODUk_PM_FESESR,ODUk_PM_FEUAS,ODUk
_PM_SES,ODUk_PM_SESR,ODUk_PM_UAS

ODUk_TCMi ODUk_TCMi_BBE,ODUk_TCMi_BBER,ODUk_TCMi_BIAES,ODUk_TCMi_ES,ODUk_TC
Mi_FEBBE,ODUk_TCMi_FEBBER,ODUk_TCMi_FEES,ODUk_TCMi_FESES,ODUk_TCM
i_FESESR,ODUk_TCMi_FEUAS,ODUk_TCMi_IAES,ODUk_TCMi_SES,ODUk_TCMi_SE
SR,ODUk_TCMi_UAS

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100G OTN

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Major Challenges for 100G OTN
• Higher OSNR requirement

• Lower chromatic dispersion tolerance

• Lower PMD tolerance

• Intensified nonlinear effects of fibers

• Larger bandwidth for optical modulators and optical receivers, which is


difficult to achieve and requires high costs

• Baseband modulation results in wide spectrums, making WDM


transmission with 50 GHz channel spacing impossible

63
Key Technologies for the Coherent Feature

High-speed analog-to-digital converter


(ADC) as the core technique, which can be High-performance forward error
High-speed ADC correction (FEC) algorithm, improving
provided only by a few suppliers
the OSNR tolerance

High-performance FEC
Advanced ePDM-QPSK
module 100G key
technologies
Advanced PDM modulation and
Digital signal processing (DSP)
format, reducing innovations
transmission baud rate technology, improving the CD and
PMD compensation capabilities
DSP
Coherent receiver High-speed DSP

Coherent detection technology,


increasing the OSNR tolerance
by 3 dB in theory

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Advantages of the 100G OTN Coherent Technology

Application Coherent Technology Non-coherent Technology

Offers high dispersion tolerance and no DCMs are Offers a low dispersion tolerance. DCMs must be used
1. DCM-free systems
required, reducing the CAPEX and OPEX. on the line

Makes ASON rerouting easier and quicker because of Route selection during rerouting is affected by the
high dispersion tolerance. (The DSP enables dispersion compensation design and therefore
2. ASON systems
dispersion search to complete within 1000 rerouting is slow. (TDC adjustment is completed within
milliseconds.) seconds.)

Uses DQPSK modules that allow for PMD of 6


Allows for PMD as high as 25–30 ps@1 dB and
3. High PMD fiber transmission ps@1dB and therefore electrical regenerators must be
therefore suitable for most fiber transmission.
used when high PMD fibers are used.

DCMs are not required. The transmission latency only DCMs are required and latency is introduced. For
4. Low-latency applications
results from fibers and FEC processing. 1000 km transmission, DCMs introduce 1 ms latency.

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What you have learned today?
• What is the drawback of DWDM?
• What are the non-associated overheads?
• What is the advantage of OTN over DWDM?
• What is the sequence of trail creation?
• What is OSC?
• Client trail is between_______________
• OMS trails is between_______________
• What you have learned today?
FEC is added in which OTN layer?
• OSC is added to which card?
• How many ODU0 will make one ODU3?
• External line-fiber is connected to which card of OTN equipment?
• Cross-connection cards are coming between which service cards
• What is purpose of ITL card?
• 3xODU1 will make_______

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What you have learned today?
• What is the function of TTI byte?
• What is the function of BIP-8 byte?
• What are the maintenance signals?
• When MUT_LOS alarm comes?
• SM and PM bytes belongs to which OH?
• How many rows and columns are there in one OTN frame?
• What is the function of PSI byte?

67
THANK YOU

68
www.cognitel.com
ASON Overview

69
Network Facing Big Challenges

Earthquake Networks need enhance reliability

Flood

IP Protection cost is very high


Construction

Fiber cut due to Natural calamity and man-made


geological hazard
Traditional optical protection is insufficient

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IP Protection is Very Costly
• All the services are to be converted into IP.

• No. of routers are required more which are protocol based and cost
effective.

• Transmission performance of IP network is poor.


– Delay, jitter, BER

IP layer

Optical layer

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Traditional Optical Protection is Insufficient
• Half ring bandwidth need be reserved for protection, low protection
efficiency.

• Limited protection ability, only can resist once fiber-cut.

• Optical Protection requires extra wavelength and route.

• Wavelength conflict at intermediate site may take place.

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What is ASON?
• Traditional network=MP+TP.

• ASON network=MP+TP+CP.

• Introduction of CP make optical network have automation ability of service


connectivity and restoration

Management Plane
=“Retina”+“Neural Networks”
Manage whole network, coordinate the
other two layers function
NMI

Control Plane
=“Brain”
Control service connectivity, provide
automatic protection and restoration
CCI

Transport Plane
= “Hand”+ “Feet”

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Functions of ASON
• Configures end-to-end services automatically.
– Supports the route calculation automatically.
– Supports the automatic adjustment of wavelengths during rerouting.
– Wavelengths can be automatically allocated for newly created services.

• Discovers the topology automatically.

• Provides traffic engineering and dynamically adjusts the network logical


topology in real time.

• Mesh networking enhances the survivability of the network.

• Supports different services with different levels of protection.

74
Benefits from ASON Network

High reliability

Mesh networking

Anti multi-failures
High availability, up to
99.9999%

Simplified OAM
New service provisioning
Auto-discovery
SLA Auto route-fix
Flex-expansion
Lower OPEX

75
ASON Logical Structure

GMPLS
OCC OCC
Control Plane NMI
OCC OCC
OSPF

OCC

CCI Management
Plane

Switch Switch
NMI
Transport Plane Switch
Switch
CSPF
Switch

OCC: Optical Connect Control OSPF: Open Shortest Path First


Switch: Switching Equipment NMI : Network Management Interface
CCI: Connect Control Interface

76
Transport Plane
• The Transport Plane contains a number of optical switches, responsible
for transporting user data via connections.

• These switches are connected to each other via PI (Physical Interface).

77
The Control Plane
• It consists of a series of OCC.

• OCCs have the following functions


– Network topology discovery (resource discovery)
– Routing address assignment
– Connection set-up/tear-down
– Connection protection/restoration
– Traffic engineering
– Wavelength assignment

78
Management Plane
• The Management Plane is responsible for managing the Control plane
and transport plane. Its responsibilities include
– Configuration Management
– Fault Management,
– Performance Management,
– Accounting and Security Management

• The Management Plane contains the Network Management Entity (NMS).

79
System Structure of ASON

80
ASON Function Structure
• ASON NE

NMS

Signaling Protocol Routing Protocol


(RSVP-TE) (OSPF-TE)
Link Management Protocol (LMP)

Communication and
control unit of NE
WDM-side WDM-side
/ Client- / Client-
side Wavelength side
Interface Grooming Interface

81
ASON Function Structure
• An ASON network consists of ASON NEs, TE links, domains and SPC
(soft permanent connections).

82
ASON Function Structure
• TE Link
– TE link is a traffic engineering link. The ASON NE sends its bandwidth information to
other ASON NEs through the TE link. Used to route calculation.

• ASON Domain
– An ASON domain consists of several ASON NEs and TE links for the purpose of route
selection and management. One ASON NE belongs to one ASON domain.

83
ASON Function Structure
• PC: Permanent connection is a service connection calculated beforehand
without ASON signaling. (i.e. user to network)

• SPC: Soft permanent connection, the connection created among NEs by


control plane through ASON signaling.

84
ASON Protocol
• ASON software is used in the control plane, using LMP, OSPF-TE, and
RSVP-TE.
– OSPF-TE (routing):
 Flood and gather topology for calculating service path

– RSVP-TE (signaling):
 Establish and maintain the service path

– LMP (link management):


 Discover the neighbors and links

85
ASON Protocol
• LMP
– A protocol used between adjacent nodes.

– LMP Creating and maintaining the Control Channels between adjacent nodes.

– LMP uses the OTN overheads or the DCC channels of the OSC to transmit messages.

Config ①
Config ③
Node A Node B
Config ④

ConfigAck/ConfigNack ②

86
ASON Protocol
• LMP Verifying TE Links
– An NE sends a hello message through a control channel to verify the link data between
adjacent NEs.

– Checking the TE links if the information is identical at the both ends.

– If the check succeeds, the TE links will be in the “UP” state and the OSPF protocol flood
the information of the TE links to the entire network called SLA.

LinkSummary ①

Node A LinkSummary ③ Node B

LinkSummary ④

LinkSummary/Ack/Nack ②

87
ASON Protocol
• OSPF-TE
– OSPF-TE is an extended protocol for OSPF, and performs the following functions.
 Creates neighbor relations.

 Creates and maintains control links.

 Generates the network topology in control plane, different rout available information.

 Calculate the best rout for service transfer in data plane.

88
OSPF-TE--Working Mechanism
• The control links use the OTN overheads or the DCC channels of the
OSC to transmit messages.

NodeID4

NodeID1 NodeID6

NodeID5 Hello message


(Include Local Node ID)
NodeID2
LSA message

NodeID3

89
ASON Protocol
• RSVP-TE
– RSVP with traffic engineering extensions

• The function of RSVP


– LSP establish

– LSP deletion

– LSP attribute modification

– LSP rerouting

– LSP path optimize

90
ASON Protocol

Routing Protocol (OSPF,CSPF) Path calculation Signaling Protocol (RSVP-TE)


Route distribution, collection demand LSP automatic creation, deletion,
and calculation maintenance

Fault
Service link
positioning
information
information

Link Management Protocol (LMP)


neighbor discovery, Link verification,
fault positioning

91
TE Links
• Different boards generate different TE links. TE links can be classified into
the following types
– OCh TE link

– OTU2 TE link and ODU2 TE link

– OTU1 TE link and ODU1 TE link

93
TE Links
• OTU2 TE link and ODU2 TE link

94
Case of Protocol Application

OSPF
LMP floods
verify
TE Link thethe
automatic TE
TEbe TE Link automatic be created
links
links
created LMP verify the TE links
OSPF floods the TE links
OSPF collects the TE links
NE get the information about the
network service topologies

NE get the
information about
the
OSPFnetwork
collectsservice
the TE
links
topologies

97
Questions
• The ASON has three planes: , , and
________.

• GCP applies the link management protocol (LMP) as neighbor discovery


protocol, as the routing protocol, and as the
signaling protocol.

99
Features of ASON

100
Networking Characteristics of ASON
• Resource Automatic Discovery
– Each NE can search the neighbor NE automatically
– Each NE can build the topology by itself
– ASON software detects change in the resource topology in real time

T1 T4

1000km 200km

E
700km 400km
D 800km F

A C H
200km
200km
T2
I
B 200km

G T5

101
Networking Characteristics of ASON
• End to End Wavelength Service Configuration.

• End to end service based on wavelength (OCh trail) is configurable.

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

1×N

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

MUX

MUX
In 1×N

1×N

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

OTU

NE3 NE1
NE2

102
Networking Characteristics of ASON
• Only need to specify its source and sink node, bandwidth requirement,
and protection level.

• Service routing and cross-connection at intermediate nodes are all


automatically completed by the ASON NEs.

• You can also set some nodes or links that the service necessarily passes
through or not pass through to restrict the service routing.

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

1×N

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

MUX

MUX
In 1×N

1×N

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

NE3 NE1
NE2

103
Networking Characteristics of ASON
• The routing protocol selects the best route.

• It is based on three conditions


– transmission distance, Hops and Bandwidth balance.

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

1×N

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

MUX

MUX
In 1×N

1×N

DMUX
DMUX
1×N

OTU

NE3 NE1
NE2

104
SLA for ASON

105
Service Level Agreement
• SLA
– The service level agreement (SLA) is used to classify services according to the service
protection level.

– SLA satisfy different protection requirement

– Service protection level are Protection + Restoration, Restoration, and Non-protection.

106
Protection Switching types of ASON
• Protection switching
– Redundancy resource is reserved to protect the working traffic in very short time when
working channels is failed.
– Switching time is short but the bandwidth utilization ratio is low.

• Restoration switching
– Resources for an alternative route are not reserved before a failure occurs
– Real time reroute.
– Routing protocol will re-calculate the service path, then signaling protocol re-build the
new LSP to restore service.
– Restoration time is long depends on the topology but the bandwidth utilization ratio is
high.

107
Service Level Agreement
• SLA satisfy different protection requirement

Protection + Restoration Restoration Non-protection


VIP customer private line i.e. Unimportant
Service Common IP data private line
voice service occasional service

Protection type Diamond Silver Copper

Diamond service:
a. Permanent 1+1 protection
1. Dynamic restoration
Mechanism b. Rerouting 1+1 protection NA
2. Pre-Calculation restoration
c. Non-rerouting 1+1 protection

Support O&E O&E O&E


Protection time <50ms;
Performance Protect multi failures -
Protect multi failures
BW Utilization Medium High Very high

108
Permanent 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

109
Permanent 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

110
Permanent 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

111
Permanent 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

112
Permanent 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

113
Rerouting 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

114
Rerouting 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

115
Rerouting 1+1 Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

116
Non-rerouting Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

117
Non-rerouting Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

118
Non-rerouting Diamond Service

U2000 NMS

Working
ASON NE Client Protection

119
Silver Service
• Real-time rerouting protection, the restoration time is related to service
type and network configuration.

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

120
Silver Service
• Real-time rerouting protection, the restoration time is related to service
type and network configuration.

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

121
Silver Service
• Real-time rerouting protection, the restoration time is related to service
type and network configuration.

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

122
Copper Service

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

123
Copper Service

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

124
Service Association: Dual Homing Protection
• Service association could provide dual homing protection, it’s at the
highest protection level.

Mode1: two channels of client-side signals access

Mode2: one channels of client-side signals access

125
Electrical-layer ASON protection DEMO

C
1

B 2 D
C
A

B D
1

working trail
protection trail
A restoration trail

126
Comparison Between Optical and Electrical ASON

Item Optical ASON Electrical ASON

Configuration ROADM OTN XC

Protection granule OCH ODU

Protection
1+1 1+1
switching principle

Restoration •Preset restoration •Preset restoration


mechanism •Best-effort restoration •Best-effort restoration

Rerouting
Redundant OCH trail Redundant ODU trail
resource
Protection switching time <50ms Protection switching time <50ms
Rerouting time: several seconds Rerouting time: milliseconds to
Performance
to tens of seconds(depending on several seconds (depending on
topology and service capacity.) topology and traffic.)

127
Rerouting Strategy
• Overlapping policy
– New LSP overlaps the original route
– When bandwidth resources are insufficient

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

128
Rerouting Strategy
• Overlapping policy
– New LSP overlaps the original route
– When bandwidth resources are insufficient

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

129
Rerouting Strategy
• Separating policy

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

130
Rerouting Strategy
• Separating policy

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

131
Rerouting Strategy
• Separating policy

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

132
Trigger Conditions of Rerouting
• Rerouting trigger condition

U2000 NMS

OCh,ODUk

Fiber

ASON NE

Client

133
Trigger Conditions of Rerouting
• Rerouting trigger condition

U2000 NMS
SF/ FIU Offline

OCh,ODUk

Fiber

ASON NE

Client

134
Trigger Conditions of Rerouting
• Rerouting trigger condition

U2000 NMS

Fiber OCh,ODUk

Fiber

ASON NE

Client

135
Blockless Rerouting
• Wavelength collision will make service blocked. GMPLS/ASON supports
wavelength adjustment in the rerouting process. Thus eliminate the bad
influence of wavelength collision.

Source Sink
λ1 used

λ1

λ2

136
Resource Sharing Restoration
• Resource sharing restoration based on main and backup trails increase
the anti-multi-failure survivability and protection efficiency.

137
Path Pre-Calculation

Path Pre-Calculation

U2000 NMS
Report to NMS

ASON NE

Client

138
Path Pre-Calculation

Path Pre-Calculation

U2000 NMS
Report to NMS

ASON NE
Explicit Node

Client

139
Preset Restoring Trail

U2000 NMS

ASON NE
Preset Restoring Trail

Client

140
Preset Restoring Trail

U2000 NMS

ASON NE
Preset Restoring Trail

Client

141
Revertive Service
• Non-revertive ASON trail can be revert to its original route manually.
Revertive ASON trail can revert to the original route automatically.
– Diamond and Silver ASON OCh do not support revertive, but Diamond and Silver ODUk

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

142
Revertive Service
• Non-revertive ASON trail can be revert to its original route manually.
Revertive ASON trail can revert to the original route automatically.
– Diamond and Silver ASON OCh do not support revertive, but Diamond and Silver ODUk

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

143
Revertive Service
• Non-revertive ASON trail can be revert to its original route manually.
Revertive ASON trail can revert to the original route automatically.
– Diamond and Silver ASON OCh do not support revertive, but Diamond and Silver ODUk

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

144
Revertive Service
• Non-revertive ASON trail can be revert to its original route manually.
Revertive ASON trail can revert to the original route automatically.
– Diamond and Silver ASON OCh do not support revertive, but Diamond and Silver ODUk

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

145
Revertive Service
• Non-revertive ASON trail can be revert to its original route manually.
Revertive ASON trail can revert to the original route automatically.
– Diamond and Silver ASON OCh do not support revertive, but Diamond and Silver ODUk

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Revert to original reroute Client

146
Service Path Optimization
• Optimizing the service path is very useful when you adjust or extend
networks
U2000 NMS

Optimize the
Path

ASON NE

Client

147
Service Path Optimization
• Optimizing the service path is very useful when you adjust or extend
networks

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

148
PC/SPC Migration
• Smoothly upgrade of the legacy network to ASON

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Non-ASON NE
PC SPC Signaling

149
PC/SPC Migration
• Smoothly upgrade of the legacy network to ASON

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Non-ASON NE
PC SPC Signaling

150
PC/SPC Migration
• Smoothly upgrade of the legacy network to ASON

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Non-ASON NE
PC SPC Signaling

151
In-Service Migration
• Only available for electrical service, among diamond/silver/copper.

U2000 NMS

Diamond service (Working)


ASON NE Client Diamond service (Protection)

Sliver service

152
In-Service Migration
• Only available for electrical service, among diamond/silver/copper.

U2000 NMS

Diamond to Sliver

Diamond service (Working)


ASON NE Client Diamond service (Protection)

Sliver service

153
SRLG
• In the ASON network, the SRLG needs to be set when a group of optical
fibers are in one cable.

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

154
SRLG
• In the ASON network, the SRLG needs to be set when a group of optical
fibers are in one cable.

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

SRLG, fibers Client


are in one
cable

155
SRLG
• In the ASON network, the SRLG needs to be set when a group of optical
fibers are in one cable.

U2000 NMS

ASON NE

Client

156
How much you know about ASON?
• What are the three planes of ASON NE?
• Difference between SDH NE and ASON NE?
• Name the protocol of control plane of ASON.
• What are the protocols of GMPLS?
• Which network topology is good for ASON?
• What is function of LMP, RSVP-TE and OSPF-TE?
• How ASON functions?
• How much you know about ASON?
Based on what ASON select best route?
• What is difference between protection and restoration?
• How silver protection scheme works?
• What are the protection granularity of ASON?
• How rerouting 1+1 diamond protection works?
• What is block-less rerouting in ASON?
• What is SRLG in ASON?

157
 OTN Overview
 OTN interface Structure
 OTN Multiplexing and Mapping
 OTN Overhead Description
 ASON Overview
 System Structure of ASON
 Feature of ASON
 SLA for ASON

158
THANK YOU

159
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