BY: COOPERATE 2 DOMINATE MEMbers: N spandana Alok kumar Md zeeshan ali Arijit ghosh Jitendra kr jha Amar prasad Vamshi krishna

NANOTECHNOLG Y

INTRODUCTION
Definition: nanotech is the study of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Nanotechnology uses techniques, processes and materials at the supramolecular level, approximately in a range between 1100 nanometers (nm), in order to create new properties and to stimulate particular desired functionalities.

 Carbon nanotubes  Molecular Manufacturing  Nano materials Areas under nanotech .

There are two models which can be used to describe the structures of multiwalled nanotubes. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).000th of the width of a human hair). Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphite. The interlayer distance in multi-walled nanotubes is close to the distance between graphene layers in graphite. The ends of a nanotube might be capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure. . This bonding structure. a single sheet of graphite is rolled in around itself. since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/50.3 Å (330 pm). while they can be up to several millimeters in length (as of 2008). e. orbital hybridization. provides the molecules with their unique strength. The nature of the bonding of a nanotube is described by applied quantum chemistry. The chemical bonding of nanotubes is composed entirely of sp2 bonds. resembling a scroll of parchment or a rolled newspaper.Carbon nanotubes     Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. giving the possibility of producing strong. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes" held together by Van der Waals forces. specifically. Under high pressure. sheets of graphite are arranged in concentric cylinders. approximately 3. unlimited-length wires through high-pressure nanotube linking. In the Russian Doll model. trading some sp2 bonds for sp3bonds. Their name is derived from their size. which also includes the spherical buckyballs. a (0. nanotubes can merge together.10) single-walled nanotube. similar to those of graphite. which is stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamonds. In the Parchment model.8) single-walled nanotube (SWNT) within a larger (0.g.

Singl e walle d  Diffe rent type s of carb Multi on walle d nano tube s  .

Carbon nanotubes and graphene exhibit extraordinary electrical properties for organic materials.g. semiconductor devices. and have a huge potential in electrical and electronic applications such as sensors. displays. conductors and energy conversion devices (e. harvesters and batteries). fuel cells..Application of carbon nanotubes   Carbon Nanotubes in Batteries and Capacitors Carbon Nanotubes in Fuel Cell Applications  carbon nanotubes with biological systems can significantly improve medical science — especially diagnostics and disease treatment. Carbon Nanotubes May Exhibit High Thermal Conductivity         .

a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. molecular manufacturing also has the potential to revolutionize medicine. these sensors could provide very accurate diagnoses. is a term given to the concept of engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Nanorobots could be built using molecular manufacturing to perform surgical procedures in a more precise way. sensors that are smaller than blood cells could be produced inexpensively. It is especially associated with the concept of a molecular assembler.Molecular manufacturing  molecular manufacturing. For example.     . When released into a patient's blood stream in large numbers.

 . Nanoparticles have been used as quantum dots and as chemical catalysts.      Nanoparticles or nanocrystals made of metals. or oxides are of particular interest for their mechanical. semiconductors. optical. chemical and other properties. It studies materials with morphological features on the nanoscale. magnetic. electrical. and especially those which have special properties stemming from their nanoscale dimensions.Nanomaterials    Nanomaterials is a field which takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology.

TYPE S OF NAN OMA TERI ALS .

and abrasion resistance extreme high thermal conductivity in axial directions.leaving high anisotropy in the heat transport in the materials . durability.Properties of nanomaterials          large fraction of surface atoms high surface energy spatial confinement reduced imperfections high Young’s modulus and high tensile strength improve adhesion.

materials that combine one or more separate components and which are designed to exhibit overall the best properties of each component. This multi-functionality applies not only to mechanical properties. as they absorb and reflect ultraviolet (UV) rays and yet are transparent to visible light and so are more appealing to the consumer. electrical and magnetic ones Phosphors for High-Definition TV Elimination of Pollutants High-Sensitivity Sensors .Application of nanomaterials        Sunscreens and Cosmetics : Nanosized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are currently used in some sunscreens. but extends to optical. Composites : An important use of nanoparticles and nanotubes is in composites.

APPLICATIONS By: Md. Zeeshan Ali Alok Kumar .

Nanotechnology in Medicine       Employing nano-particles to deliver drugs. in a blood sample. thereby minimizing the damage to healthy cells in the body. Development nanocrystalline silver is already being used as a antimicrobial agent in the treatment of wounds Nanotubes used in broken bones to provide a structure for new bone material to grow. the particular disease. . heat.  Nanoshells that concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. Nanoparticles that can attach to cells infected with various diseases and allow a doctor to identify. light or other substances to specific cells in the human body.  For a good visual explanation of nanoshells  . Engineering particles to be used in this way allows detection and/or treatment of diseases or injuries within the targeted cells.

Nanotech & cancer .

Air Pollution & Nanotechnology  There are two major ways in which nanotechnology is being used to reduce air pollution:  Ø By catalyst method Ø By nano-structured membranes .

Water Pollution & Nanotech  Used as a cleaning agent  Use deionization method using electrodes to remove salt or metals from water  removes virus cells from water using filters  .

Energy and Nanotechnology    Used in fuel cells Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells to produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol and to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases such as oxygen.   Used in solar cells .

and the equipment used to explore planets and moons nanomaterials make lightweight solar sails and a cable for the space elevator Using carbon nanotubes to make the cable needed for the space elevator.Nanotechnology and Space    nanosensors and nanorobots could improve the performance of spaceships. spacesuits. a system which could significantly reduce the cost of sending material into orbit  .

minimizing health risks from harmful bacteria. and the health benefits that food delivers.  Clay nanocomposites are being used to provide an impermeable barrier to gasses such as oxygen or carbon dioxide in lightweight bottles.Food and Nanotechnology  Nanotechnology is having an impact on several aspects of food science. cartons and packaging films Storage bins are being produced with silver nanoparticles embedded in the plastic. The silver nanoparticles kill bacteria from any material that was previously stored in the bins.that will make a difference not only in the taste of food. from how food is grown to how it is packaged. but also in food safety.      .

Fabric and Nanotechnology .

Sporting Goods with Nanotechnology .

Disadvantages .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful