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MICHAEL P.

VALE
Instructor I
 The teacher and learner are key players
in the learning environment
 The LEARNER is an embodied spirit
 He is the union of sentient body and
rational soul
 COGNITIVE equipments- senses, instinct,
imagination, memory and intellect
 APPETITIVE equipments- feelings,
emotion and rational will
 ABILITY- Capacity to understand and
assimilate information for own use and
application
 APTITUDE- Students innate talent or gift
 INTERESTS- Activities undertaken due to
appeal or attraction
 FAMILY AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND-
Varied behavior due to different
upbringing faculties
 ATTITUDES- Unique way of thinking and
reacting
 POSITIVE ATTITUDES:
 CURIOSITY- Anxiousness and eagerness
to learn
 RESPONSIBILITY- Pursue assigned tasks
 CREATIVITY- Generating new ideas
 PERSISTENCE- Sustain interests
 Howard Earl Gardner

 VERBAL LINGUISTIC- Language smart


 LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL- Number smart
 SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE- Picture smart
 BODILY-KINESTHETIC- Body smart
 MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE- Music and sound
smart
 INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE- People smart
 INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE- Self smart
 NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE- Nature smart
 SENSING-THINKING (Mastery Learner)-
Hands-on experience, drills, demonstrate
 INTUITIVE-THINKING (Understanding
Learner)- Problem solving, arguing,
debating
 SENSING-FEELING (Interpersonal learner)-
Group activities and projects, role playing
 INTUITIVE-FEELING (Self- Expressive
learner)- Creativity, imagination, arts and
discovery
 Duly licensed professionals who possess
dignity and reputation with high moral
values as well as technical and
professional competence
 SENSE OF EFFICACY- Someone who can
effect change or learning
 SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE- Expert
in what he teaches
 PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE- How a
teacher teaches
 PASSION- Compelling force emerging from
one’s inborn love for children and learning
 HUMOR- Being funny and able to elicit smile
 VALUES AND ATTITUDE- Standard code of
ethics and strong beliefs
 Fairness and impartiality- unbiased
 Sincerity and honesty- being true
 Professionalism- knowledgeable, value
laden and skilled
 PATIENCE- Uncomplaining
 ENTHUSIASM- Eagerness and excitement
 Physical and psychological environment
that surrounds' and influences learners
 ARRANGEMENT OF FURNITURE-
 Table-in front and in side
 Chairs- facing front, neat with sufficient
spaces in between for moving
 Display Shelves- located at sides
 Bulletin Boards- Attached to walls
 CONDUCIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT-
Clean, orderly, well-ventilated, well-lighted,
spacious that allow movements, free from
unnecessary distractors.
 Encourages people to be active
 Promotes and facilitates individual
discovery of the personal meaning of
idea
 Emphasizes uniquely personal and
subjective nature of learning
 Difference is good and desirable
 Learning is an activity which occurs inside
the learner and is activated by him- Process
of learning is controlled by the learner and
not by the teacher
 No one directly teaches anyone anything of
significance- Students readily internalize
concepts relevant to them
 Learning (behavior change) is a
consequence of experience
 Direct experience- Real experience
 Vicarious experience- Learning from
experiences of others
 Learning is a cooperative and collaborative
process- Cooperation fosters learning. “Two
heads are better than one”
 Learning is an evolutionary process-
Behavior change requires time and patience
 Learning is sometimes a painful process-
Behavior change may at times mean giving
up the old and comfortable way of
believing, thinking and valuing
 One of the richest source of learning is the
learner himself- There is just a need to
guide learners towards learning
 The process of learning is emotional as well
intellectual- People are thinking and feeling
being. These must be harmonized to
maximize learning
 The process of Problem solving and
learning are highly unique and individual-
Each has unique learning styles
 COGNITIVE- knowledge
 AFFECTIVE- values
 PSYCHOMOTOR- skills

 At the end of the 45 minute, discussion the


students are expected to:
 Define Science
 Create a diagram showing branches of
science
 Utilize the importance of following the
scientific method
 S-pecific
 M-easurable
 A-ttainable
 R-esultOriented
 T-ime Bounded

 To
provide match between instruction
and assessment
 COGNITIVE: (Bloom)
 Knowledge or recall- memorization
 Comprehension- understanding
 Application- Use of abstract to practical
situation
 Analysis- breaking whole to parts
 Synthesis- putting parts to whole, new
form
 Evaluation- Judgment
 AFFECTIVE: (KRATHWOHL) lowest-highest
 Receiving- awareness, willingness
 To listen attentively
 Responding- compliance
 To contribute to group discussion by asking
questions
 Valuing- acceptance, commitment, defend
 Argue over an issue on good health practices
 Organization- conceptualization of values
 Organize a meeting about good health practices
 Characterization- generalized philosophy
 Join a rally with a noble cause
 PSYCHOMOTOR: (Harlow)
 Reflex movements- Fundamental movements
 To run a 100 meters
 Perceptual abilities- Senses
 Distinguish distant and close sound
 Physical abilities- endurance, strength
 To do five sit ups
 Skilled movements- relate to games, dance,
sports and arts
 To dance the basic waltz steps
 Nondiscursive communication- movements
trough gesture, facial expressions and creative
movements
 PSYCHOMOTOR: (Moore)
 Imitation-Copy
 Manipulation- Do independently
 Precision- Do with mastery

 AUTOMATICITY- Abilty to perform a skill


with unconscious efforts
 Begin with an end in mind- Begin lesson
with clearly defined lesson objectives
 Share lesson objectives with students
 Work on significant and relevant lesson
objectives
 Lesson objectives must be aligned with
the aims of education
 Aim at developing critical and creative
thinking
 The ability to visualize the future.
 The framework of the lesson

 IMPORTANCE:
 Provides overview of instruction
 Facilitates good management of
instruction
 Makes learning purposeful
 COMPONENTS:

 Objectives
 SubjectMatter
 Learning Activities
• Review
• Motivation
• Lesson Proper
• Generalization
• Application
 Evaluation
 Assignment (enrichment, extension,
remedial)
 VALIDITY- Contents must be in accordance to
national standards
 SIGNIFICANCE- What we teach must respond to
students needs
 BALANCE- Contents must include facts, concepts
and values
 SELF SUFFICIENCY- Content fully covers essential
 INTEREST- Teachers considers interests of students
 UTILITY- Learning contents can be used to
practical situations
 FEASIBILITY- Important matters are covered in an
ample amount of time
 HOW TO HELP STUDENTS LEARN MORE:
 Provide opportunities for
experimentation
 Present ideas of others
 Explore topics in depth
 Show students
 Ask students to teach others
 Promote dialogue
 Use authentic activities
 FACT- idea or action that can be verified
 I am handsome
 CONCEPT- Categorization of events, places, people, ideas
 Have fair skin, chinito eyes, red lips
 PRINCIPLE- relationship between facts and concepts
 People with fair skin, chinito eyes and red lips are called
handsome
 HYPOTHESIS- Educated guess
 Women will easily fall with men who have fair skin, chinito
eyes and red lips
 THEORIES- Set of facts, concepts and principles
 Michael’s Theory of handsomeness
 LAWS- Tested Theories
 Michael’s way to handsomeness
 Use gluta to have fair skin
 Use eye liner to have chinito eyes
 Use lipstick to have red lips
 Thinking skills- Skillfull application of what is
learnt
 DIVERGENT THINKING: (Use of many thinking
skills and combining them to have a single
thought)
 Divergent Question: Why do Filipinos love
foreign products?
 Fluent thinking- Generating many possible ideas
 Flexible thinking- Thinking of different ideas
 Original Thinking- Thinking the way others have
not thought before
 Elaborative Thinking- Expanding ideas
 CONVERGENT THINKING- Narrowing down
of many thoughts to possible thoughts
 Convergent Question: Who is the national
hero of the Philippines?
 PROBLEM SOLVING
 Algorithm- Use of step by step instructions
to solve problems
 Heuristic- Informal and intuitive solutions to
problems
 Ex: Drug Problem
 Algorithm- Educate community, Record
pushers and users, enroll them to activities
 Heuristic- Kill the pushers and users
 Metaphorical/Analogical Thinking-
Implying similarity or parallelism
 Ex: Drug users are human. Human can be
taught. Drug users can be taught
 Critical Thinking- Evaluating information
or arguments based on accuracy
 Verbal reasoning- Use of persuations
 AWARENESS- Notice
 CURIOSITY- Wonder
 IMAGINATION- Speculate
 FLUENCY- Produce large quantities of ideas
 FLEXIBILITY- Look at things at different
perspectives
 ORIGINALITY- Produce new ideas
 ELABORATION- Add new idea
 PERSEVERANCE- Keep trying until finding
answers
 Values are TAUGHT and CAUGHT

 Deutoro-learning:
 Learn by exposing students
 Positively reinforce good behavior
 Discuss cognitive components of values
 Values are TAUGHT and CAUGHT

 Deutoro-learning:
 Learn by exposing students
 Positively reinforce good behavior
 Discuss cognitive components of values
 GUIDING PRINCIPLES:
 Learning is an active process- involve students
 More senses, more learning
 “What I hear, I forget, What I see, I remember,
What I do, I understand”
 A non-threatening atmosphere enhances
learning
 Emotion increases retention and learning-
cognitive process is emotionally charged
 Learning is meaningful if it is connected to
student’s life
 Good teaching go beyond memory recall
 An integrated teaching approach is better than
teaching isolated information-connect
everything
 Authentic problem solving- to engage
learners
 Project making- increase meaning and
motivation
 Simulations and role plays- To make
meaning
 Visual processing- A picture is worth a
thousand words
 Songs, Jingles and raps
 Mnemonic strategies
 Writing strategies
 Active review- students review themselves
at alloted time
 Hands-on activities- learn by doing
 There
is no such thing as best method or
approach

 DIRECT/EXPOSITIVE INSTRUCTION
APPROACH
 Direct Instruction- procedural knowledge
in a step by step manner
 Used for organized body of knowledge
 Link new knowledge with prior learning
 Deductive method- General to specific
 Presents rule/generalization with
examples

 Anticipatory- Forecast details found in


students
 Explanatory- Connects facts with
principles
 Showing method- Promotes learning of
procedural and declarative knowledge
 Ensures mastery of skills
 Demonstration method- Observing
performers
 Show and tell method
 GUIDED/ EXPLORATORY APPROACH
 Inquiry- students ask and discover
 Engages learner with in critical thinking,
analysis and problem solving
 Engages student in investigative work
 FORMS:
 Guided Inquiry- Teacher provides data,
problems and questions
 Open Inquiry- Students give solutions,
gather data and draw conclusions
 Individualized Inquiry- Students work
 GUIDED/ EXPLORATORY APPROACH
 Inquiry- students ask and discover
 Problem-solving Use of scientific method
 Scientific method:
 Observation
 Defining the problem
 Formulating hypothesis
 Testing hypothesis
 Formulation of Conclusion
 Inductive Method- Specific to general
 Discovery- observations to
generalization
 Laboratory Method- Hands on
experience about materials obtained
from research, investigation and
experiences
 Teacher is supervisor
 Ability to handle and improvise tools
 GUIDED/ EXPLORATORY APPROACH
 Project method- create a product
 Involves planning and carrying out of
planned activities
 Use of physical materials to complete
unit
 Develops sense of cooperation,
responsibility and creativity
 Reflective teaching- Make students
reflect on their ideas
 Problem Based Learning- Students were
given authentic situation as springboard
of investigation and inquiry
 Students pursue investigation that seek
real solutions to problems
 Constructivist- Piaget and Vygotsky
 Learner constructs meaning from
experience and interaction with others
 Teacher provides relevant experiences
and students creates own meaning
 Metacognitive learning- Students learn and
control learning through their own
metacognitive abilities
 Cooperative learning- Students are
heterogeneously grouped and collaborates
with each other
 Jigsaw: Groups are formed
 Materials are divided into sections
 One member takes care of one section
 Each members meets with members of
other groups who have the same section
 Members discuss on the material
 Goes back to previous group
 Completes puzzle
 Cooperative learning- Students are
heterogeneously grouped and
collaborates with each other
 Students Team Achievement Strategy
(STAS)
 Students interact to achieve mastery
 Information is presented
 Students are divided into teams to master
lesson using worktexts
 Discussion, tutoring, testing
 Scores are recorded
 Discussion- Teacher explains, ask
questions and students answer
 Democratic
 Panel Forum- Direct, interactional
discussion among small group of experts
 Chairperson serves as moderator-
summarizes points and provide
comments
 Participants- talk about the topic
 Discussion Forum- More formal
 Public speaking and not conversational
 Speakers speak
 Chairperson/moderator- receives
questions from audience
 Debate- Two sides provide arguments on
topic
 Round table conference- Group seated
on a table and talks about a topic
 Role playing- Acting out on situations
with specific roles
 Case study- Group Discussion talks about
solutions to problems to simulate
discussion
 Buzz session- Groups not exceeding 6
persons
 A leader and secretary leads discussion
and records what has been discussed
 Group presents outcomes of discussion
 Workshop- A resource person is invited
as speaker
 Varied activities are conducted to
provide participants suggest solutions to
problems
 Values are both intellectual and social
 Seminar- Speaker is invited
 Participants looks and suggest for
solutions to problems
 Attempts to develop new policy/solution
to what is existing
 PRINCIPLES:

 Allmaterials are aid, they do not replace


the teacher
 Choose materials that suits instructional
objectives- Objectives must be
considered before choosing instructional
materials
 Use variety of tools
 Check materials before lesson
 AUDIO RECORDINGS- tapes, recordings, compact
discs
 OVERHEAD PROJECTORS- transparencies and slides
 BULLETIN BOARDS- stationary on the wall or
movable. Cork or soft wall for pictures, clippings,
newspapers
 CHALKBOARD/VISUAL DISPLAY DEVICES- Oldest
instructional material
 CHARTS/GRAPHICS- maps, graphs, cut outs
 MOCK-UPS- Replica that is larger or smaller and are
detachable
 MODELS- Scaled replica of larger object
 REALIA- Real object
 VIDEO TAPE/FILMS
 PICTURES
 BOOKS
 ELECTRONIC MATERIALS- CD, DVD, Internet
 PRINCIPLES:

 Assessment is an integral part of the


teaching-learning process
 Assessment tool must match with objective
 Results of assessment must be fed back to
students
 Teachers must use variety of assessment
strategies in consideration to learning styles
and multiple intelligence
 Emphasize on self-assessment- Not to
compete with each other but to compete
with self
 Assessment of learning must never be used
as punishment or a disciplinary means
 Results of assessment must be
communicated regularly and clearly to
parents
 Emphasize on real world problems
(application)

 ASSESSMENT IN DIFFERENT PHASES


 Assessment FOR learning- Before
 Assessment AS learning- During
 Assessment OF learning- After
 Principles:
 Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux
of effective classroom management-
Prevention is better than cure
 Establish routines for all daily tasks and
needs
 Orchestrate smooth transitions and
continuity of momentum throughout the day
 Strike a balance between variety and
challenge in students abilities- Find the
“golden mean” Not too easy or too difficult
 Operation and control of classroom activities; done to
sustain order and sustain student attention
 Be aware of actions and activities in the classroom-
“with-it-ness” eyes at the back
 Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they
become major disruptions- respond to inappropriate
behavior promptly
 Reinforce positive behavior- provide genuine praise
 Treat minor disturbance calmly
 Work out physical arrangements of chairs that
facilitates an interactive teaching-learning process-
create physical arrangement that allow maximum
interaction
 Make good use of every instructional moment-
Minimize discipline time to maximize instructional
time
 3 C’s of classroom control:
 Content- facilitate delivery of instruction
 Conduct- Promotion of orderly and safe learning
activity
 Context- emphasis of communication rather than
physical elements associated with classroom
setting
 TYPES of CONTROL:
 Preventive Control- minimize onset of anticipated
discipline through planning
 Supportive control- Directing students behavior
before it becomes full blown
 Corrective control- discipline students behavior
to direct to standard conduct
 MOTIVATION- Driving force or inner
urge that moves a person
 Helps the learner gets interested and
engaged in learning
 INTRINSIC- The students inner motivation
 Students participate because they enjoy
the activity
 EXTRINSIC- Outside motivation factor.
From the students environment that is
unrelated to the task
 Students participate because there is a
 MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES:
 Employing variety of techniques to show
something new
 Use story and poetry
 Use sense of humor
 Have a pleasing personality
 Plan lessons that will arouse curiosity
 Require manipulation of tools
 Use games
 Use activities such as role playing,
simulation, drama presentation, musical
show, etc.
 Film showing
 Principle of content- Learning depends
on materials
 Principle of focus- Learning must have
specific topic to focus
 Principle of Socialization- Instruction
depends on social setting
 Principle of individualization- Instruction
must progress into learner’s own focus
 Principle of sequence- Instruction
depends on effective ordering of tasks
 Principle of evaluation- learning should
 TYPES OF QUESTIONS:
 Low Level- Memory questions
 High Level- Analysis, Synthesis and
evaluation
 Convergent- Questions that require one
possible answer
 When did Magellan landed in Leyte?
 Divergent- Questions that require many
answers/different directions
 Why did Spain conquer the Philippines?
 If we will kill all drug pushers and users,
 Varying type of questions- Ask
convergent, divergent and evaluative
questions
 Ask non-directed questions- Pose
question first, then call students to
answer
 Calling non-volunteers
 Rephrasing
 Sequencing Logically- Asking related
questions from simple to complex
 Requiring abstract thinking- Going
beyond simple recall (generalization)
 Asking open ended questions- Asking
divergent questions to develop Higher
Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
 Allow for sufficient time
 Assess comprehension- To know if
students are with you
 Involving as many as possible
 Extended practice
 Advance preparation for next lesson
 Help cultivate good study habits
 Assessment tool

 PRINCIPLE:
 Differentiated based on levels
 Enhances parents involvement (in a minimal
level)
 Has a relevant function and purpose
understood by all
 Evaluated and commented on
 Establish and communicate homework
policy
“WHEN YOU ARE
TIRED WITH WHAT
YOU’RE DOING,
ALWAYS GO BACK
TO YOUR REASON
WHY.”
BREAK THE ODDS,
CONQUER YOUR
FEARS,
BE THE NEXT LET
TOPNOTCHER!

-MICHAEL P. VALE
Licensed Professional
Teacher (LPT)
September 2016 LET,
4th National Placer