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Dr.

Daisy Chauhan
Associate Professor
Management Development Institute
Gurgaon
daisy@mdi.ac.in
M: 9818762933
Relevance of OB
Environmental Influence on People Skills required
Factors Organisations

•Interpersonal Skills
•Continual Learning
•Globalisation Organisations •Emotional Intelligence
•Changing need to be: •Networking
nature of jobs •Flexible •Ability to work as team
•Diverse & •Fast-paced •Cultural Adaptability
changing •Knowledgeable •Adaptability to change
workforce •Ethical •members & team leaders
•Innovative •Ability to tolerate, manage
& cope with stress
Why Study OB?
• Help Managers deal with Practical day-to-day Problems

• Gain insight into the psychological processes affecting


behaviour and performance

 To apply all concepts related to other functional areas like


Operations, Marketing, Finance etc. on people.

 Complement Intuition with Logic by adopting a systematic


approach.
 To understand Cause-Effect Relationship.
If we know the person

If we know how the person perceived the


situation and what is important for him or her.

He has access to the same information


or perceives the environment in the
same manner as the other person.
 You are able to understand the Intentions
of another person which is not seen (unless
stated), it is the behaviour that is seen.
Two Ways of Understanding
Human Behaviour

 Internal Perspective:
 Thoughts, Feelings, Needs, Experiences.
 Actions and behaviours explained in terms of their
background (history) and personal value system
 Personality of individuals: Extrovert vs Introvert; Sensing vs
Intuitive; Thinking vs. Feeling; Perceiving vs Judging
 External Perspective:
 External events, Environmental Forces and consequences
Planning:
 Defining organisaitonal goals, establishing overall strategy,
Developing comprehensive set of plans
Organising:

 Designing structure, deciding on who does what, how,


whom to report etc.
Leading:

 Motivating people, directing, coordinating, resolving


conflicts

Controlling:
 Monitoring, comparing with goals, correcting
Interpersonal Roles:
1. Figurehead
2. Leader
3. Liaison
Informational Roles:
4. Monitor
5. Disseminator
6. Spokesperson

Decisional Roles:
7. Entrepreneur
8. Disturbance Handler
9. Resource Allocator
10. Negotiator
KNOW - Conceptual & Contextual
Top Level INTER- understanding
LINKAGES/
WHY

Middle Level -Process Innovation


KNOW HOW

- Knowledge
Lower Level KNOW WHAT - Skill

MANAGEMENT SKILLS
Management Skills

Top
Mgt.
People Skills

Middle
Mgt. People Skills

Lower
Mgt. People Skills

All other factors being constant, People/Human Skills is the


Differentiator for Effectiveness and Success
Managerial Skills
Conceptual Skills
 Ability to analyse and diagnose a situation and to
distinguish between cause and effect.
Human Skills
 The ability to understand, work with, lead and
control/influence other people and groups.
 A set of skills enabling a person to get along with
others, to communicate ideas effectively, to resolve
conflicts, and to achieve personal or business goals.
Technical Skills
 Job specific techniques
Five Ways of Thinking for
Managerial Effectiveness*
Type of Thinking Relevant for

Reflective Thinking Managing Self


Action Thinking Operational aspect of Work
Collaborative Thinking Managing Relationships
Analytical Thinking Problem Solving & DM
Worldly Thinking Managing Context

* Adapted from “The five minds of the manager”, HBR,


Nov., 2003
ORGANISATION
SYSTEMS LEVEL

GROUP LEVEL

INDIVIDUAL LEVEL
• Understand Self and Self in relation to others
•Help you to identify your strengths and weakness and
thus realise your potential
• Analyse your behaviour patterns and their impact on
others
• Encourage you to look at issues from different
perspectives and make effective decisions
•Question some of your assumptions about human
behaviour
At the Group Level
 Appreciate differences
 Helps you deal with different types of people
 Select people who are different from you into your group
 Encourage group members to come out with different
approaches to solving problems
 Be open to different views/ideas/perspectives
 Appreciate the value of having conflicts within groups
and resolve conflicts within your group/team
 Help you to be an effective team member/team leader
through better Inter-personal relationships
 Develop in you the ability to motivate, influence and
provide direction to others
THE OB MODEL

Two sets of variables in the OB Model:


1. Dependent Variables
2. Independent Variables

Dependent Variables:
 Productivity
 Absenteeism
 Attrition
 Organisational Citizenship
THE OB MODEL (Contd.)
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES:
1. Individual Level Variables
• Biographical characteristics (age, gender)
• Personality characteristics (extroversion, conscientiousness)
• Emotional Framework
• Values & Attitudes
• Basic Ability levels
2. Group Level Variables:
• Interpersonal relationships & interpersonal conflicts
• Group cohesiveness
• Trust and Openness
• Commitment
• Leadership
• Power & Politics
3. Organisation Systems Level Variables:
• Organisational Culture
• Organisational Structure
• Policies & Practices
CHALLENGES & OPP0RTUNITIES FOR OB
 Responding to Globalisation
 Managing Workforce Diversity
 Improving Quality and Productivity
 Attracting and Retaining Talent
 Deploying right people for the right job
 Improving Customer Service
 Improving People Skills – Empowering People
 Coping with Uncertainty and Ambiguity
 Managing Change
 Making work meaningful
 Helping Employees balance Work/Life Conflicts
 Improving Ethical Behaviour
OB DISCIPLINE
Behavioral Contribution Unit of Output
Science Analysis
Learning, Motivation, Personality,
Emotions, Perception, Training, Leadership
S
Psychology
Effectiveness, JS, Individual DM, PAS, Individual T
Attitude Measurement, Employee
Selection, Work Stress U
Group Dynamics, Work Teams, D
Communication, Power, Conflict,
Sociology Inter-group Behaviour Y
Formal Orgn. Theory, Technology, Group
Change, Culture
O
Social Psy. Behavioural Change, Attitudinal
Change, Communication, Group F
Processes, Group DM
Anthro Comparative Values & Attitudes,
pology Cross-cultural Analysis O
Organisational culture and Env. Org. System B
Political Conflict, Intra-organisational Politics,
Science Power
Age is a barrier to learning.
Happy workers are Productive Workers or happiness leads
to productivity.
Working collectively is better than working individually.
Experience makes a man perfect.
Men make better leaders than women.
Past success is a guarantee for future success.
Work pressure causes stress.