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Mechanical Properties

Pivotal Questions:

- How do I know how to measure properties?

- What properties can be measured and what do

they tell me?

- Will I get the same result every time I run a

specific test?

- Why do materials fail under stress?

- How do mechanical properties change over

time?

ASTM Standards

ASTM International

has compiled over

12,000 standards for

materials testing.

Provide detailed

descriptions of testing

procedures.

Allow for comparison

of data from different

labs.

Tensile Testing

Sample secured in fixed

clamps

Upper clamp is attached to a

fixed bar and a load cell

Lower clamp is attached to a

moveable bar that moves

downward slowly

Force (measured by the load

cell) and elongation data are

used to calculate a series of

fundamental quantities.

Tensile Test

Engineering Stress and Strain

Engineering Stress (s) is

calculated as

s = F/A0

where F is the applied load and

A0 is the initial cross-sectional

area of the sample.

calculated as

e = (l – l0)/l0

Where l0 is the initial sample

length

Stress-Strain Curves

Below the yield stress (sy),

elastic stretching occurs and the

material returns to its original

state when the stress is removed.

permanent plastic deformation

occurs.

the tensile strength (ss), while

the stress at which the material

finally fails is the breaking

strength (sB)

Brittle Materials

Ductile materials can

experience plastic

deformation without failing,

but brittle materials cannot.

brittle material looks

different and the yield

strength, breaking strength,

and tensile strength are all

equal.

Other Quantities Obtained from

Tensile Tests

Elastic Modulus (E) is the slope of the linear portion of the

stress-strain curve (E = Ds/De). The quantity is also called the

Tensile Modulus or Young’s Modulus.

The elastic energy (eE) is the area beneath the elastic portion of

the stress strain curve and represents the amount of energy a

material can absorb without permanently deforming.

The elastic energy is used to calculate the modulus of

resilience (Er), which determines how much energy will be lost

to deformation and how much will be translated to motion.

Er = eE /ey

Still more quantities

Poisson’s ratio (m) relates the longitudinal

deformation (stretching) to the corresponding lateral

shrinking. Most materials have a Poisson’s ratio of

around 0.3.

withstand without breaking. Two measures are used:

Solution

True Stress and Strain

Accounts for the fact that the area changes as the

tensile test progresses. Often ignored because of the

complexity it adds to testing and its minimal impact

on properties of interest.

Necking

Phenomena occurs when a dramatic reduction in

cross-sectional area occurs in a highly localized area

(like stretched chewing gum.

soft metals

induced with the application of the tensile load

Off-set Yield Strength

Used when the transition

between elastic stretching

and plastic deformation is

not clearly defined.

A line is drawn with the

initial slope of the stress-

strain curve beginning at a

strain value of 0.002.

The point at which the

straight line intersects the

stress strain curve is called

the off-set yield strength.

Compressive Testing

Utilizes the same equipment

as tensile testing, but the

sample is pushed together

rather than pulled apart.

Many materials display

similar tensile and

compressive properties, so

compressive tests are

performed only when the

materials is expected to

withstand large compressive

forces

Modes of Deformation

Bend Testing

Bend Test

Flexural Strength and Modulus

Flexural Strength (sF) is defined as

the bottom rollers, and h is the thickness of the

sample.

Flexural Modulus (EF) is defined as

during bending.

Hardness Testing

Hardness is the resistance of the surface of a material

to penetration by a static force

Relates to wear resistance because harder materials

abrade softer ones

There are dozens of techniques to measure hardness,

but all involve applying a static force to a hard object

and determining the amount of penetration in the

sample

The most common hardness test is the Brinell Test

Brinell Hardness Testing

A static force is applied to a

10-mm diameter tungsten-

carbide sphere.

The impression diameter (Di)

is measured and used to

calculate the Brinell

Hardness from the equation

Brinell Test

Relation between hardness scales

The Brinell values can be

compared with other

common scales including

Rockwell and Moh using the

chart to the right

harder than metals which are

harder than polymers

Moh Hardness Scale

Common scale that uses real minerals as integer points

Creep

Creep is the plastic deformation experienced by a

material subjected to a continuous stress over time.

Most materials experience creep at elevated

temperatures

Dislocations are more likely to diffuse and propagate at

higher temperatures, making failure more likely

Creep Testing

Three stages of creep

During Primary Creep

(stage 1), dislocations slip and

move around obstacles.

During Secondary Creep

(stage 2), the rate of

dislocation propagation is

equal to the rate at which

they are blocked.

During Tertiary Creep

(Stage 3), the rate of

deformation increases rapidly

and continues until rupture.

Creep Calculations

Creep Rate is the change in slope of the stress-strain

curve at any point:

minutes, and A and B are material specific empirical

constants.

Impact Testing

Toughness is the ability of a

material to withstand a blow

and is measured by an

impact test.

A hammer with an initial

elevation h0 is situated on a

pendulum. When released it

passes through the sample

and finishes at a lower height

(hf )

The impact energy is equal to

the loss of potential energy

eI = mg(h0 - hf ) Charpy Test

Sample orientation

The sample used in an impact

test is rectangular with a

notch cut into one side.

The difference between

impact tests lie in the

orientation of the sample:

(a) Izod Test – the sample is

aligned so the notch faces the

hammer

(b) Charpy Test – the sample

faces away from the hammer

Error and Reproducibility in

Measurement

Small differences in samples and

testing procedures will result in

random error

variation is to run multiple trials

and calculate the mean

at the right have the same mean,

but are very different

Variance

To more appropriately characterize the sample, a

statistical quantity called the variance (s2) is calculated

using the formula

Standard Deviation

The square root of the variance is called the standard

deviation, which provides more direct knowledge of

how far from the mean a random sample is likely to be

True vs calculated means

Standard deviations can be used to make probability

statements about the calculated means using the

equation

if infinite samples were tested, x-bar is the estimated

mean based on the number of samples tested and d is

a statistical quantity called the confidence limit or

error bar.

Confidence Limits (error bars)

The size of the error bars or confidence limits depend

on the number of samples, the standard deviation, and

the desired level of confidence (for most applications,

95% confidence is standard)

The error bars are determined by the equation

Table 3-6.

Using the t-table

The axes on the table are

confusing. The F value across the

top is a complex function related

to the level of uncertainty (a) by

the eqn:

F = 1 - a/2

F = 0.975

N = n – 1 where n is the number of

samples

Comparing 2 sample sets

Fracture Mechanics

All material failure results

from the formation and

propagation of a crack

Ductile materials deform in

the area of the crack and

adapt to its presence.

Failure in ductile materials

tends to be slow (and some

cracks may be stable) and

fails either in a cup-and-cone

mode (a) or in lateral shear

(b)

Brittle Materials

Brittle materials cannot

undergo the plastic

deformation needed to

stabilize a crack without

failing

Small cracks propagate

spontaneously and result in

failure

Brittle materials form a

simple cleavage fracture

surface like the one shown on

the right

Stress Raisers

The fundamental stress

equation s = F/A0 is based on

the assumption that the stress is

evenly distributed across the

entire cross-section.

Cracks, voids, and other

imperfections serve as stress

raisers that cause highly

localized increases in stress

The traditional stress is better

defined as the nominal stress

and the elevated stress at the

crack tip is the maximum stress

(smax)

Stress Concentration Factor

The stress concentration factor (k) is the ratio of the

maximum to the applied stress

The magnitude of k depends on the geometry of the

imperfection

For an elliptical flaw (like the one shown)

k = (1 + 2a/b)

Stress Intensity Factor (K)

For a thin crack in which a>>b, the stress at the crack

tip approaches infinity and the stress concentration

factor ceases to have meaning

In such cases, a new parameter called the Stress

Intensity Factor (K) is employed

Crack Propagation

A crack propagates when the stress intensity at the

crack tip exceeds a critical stress intensity factor called

the Fracture Toughness (Kc)

The actual stress needed for crack propagation (sc) is

Plane strain fracture toughness

Fracture toughness is a

function of thickness and

cannot be tabulated directly

Above a critical thickness, the

thickness no longer matters.

The fracture toughness above

the critical thickness is called

the Plane Strain Fracture

Toughness (KIC)

Applied Stress Modes

Opening Stresses act perpendicularly to the direction

of the crack

In-plane Shear involves the application of stress

parallel to the crack

Out-of-plane Shear results when stress perpendicular

to the crack pulls the top and bottom half in opposite

directions

Fatigue

Fatigue is the failure of a material when subjected to

repeated stresses below the yield strength.

Fatigue is especially important in metals

Goals

Determine the number of cycles at a given stress level a

material can experience before failing (The Fatigue Life)

Determine the stress level below which there is a 50% chance

that failure will never occur (The Endurance Limit)

Cantilever Beam Test

A cylindrical shaped sample

is mounted in a vice at one

end and a weight or yoke at

the other

A motor rotates the sample

producing alternating tensile

and compressive forces

A counter records the

number of cycles until a

specimen fails

S-N Curves

Multiple samples at different

stress levels are plotted to

form S-N curves (or Wohler

Curves).

The stress level at the

inflection point on the S-N

curve provides the endurance

limit

The fatigue life can be read

from the plot directly

Accelerated Aging Studies

Properties of most materials change with prolonged

exposure to heat, light, and oxygen

Companies cannot wait long enough to fully test the

time effects of these variable directly.

Accelerated aging studies shorten the time horizon by

increasing the intensity of other variables

Test use an equivalent property time (EPT) to simulate

the long term effects of exposure to the variable at

lower levels for longer times

Behavior follows the Arrhenius Equation

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