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History and Overview of SEMI S2

Lauren Crane
Applied Materials
Rev 1
S2 Time Line

1985 – Work begins on a SEMI sponsored safety guideline to help unify


equipment safety criteria in the industry and hopefully prevent
outside agency involvement
1988 – A draft document is circulated which is taken up for informal use
while its contents continue to be developed.

1991 – The first version is published as “S2-93”. With this increased profile,
and subsequent official impact, opportunities for improvement are
quickly identified an revision work begins again.

1993 – The second version is published as “S2-93”, now 20 pages long.


North American standards comprise most of the normative
references.

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S2 Time Line
199? – The SEMATECH (user) organization publishes an S2 “Interpretive”
guide, which is soon revised and re-titled an S2 “application” guide
which addresses many perceived gaps in the SEMI S2 document

1995 – The European Machinery Directive become mandatory

1996 – A related information section is added to S2-93 comparing its criteria


to that of the Machinery Directive’s Annex I Essential Health and
Safety Requirements. This slightly expanded document is published
as S2-93A.
1996/7 – Anticipating the SEMI 5-yr rewrite deadline, a task force forms to
begin work on “S2-98” with some key drivers:
•More international (fewer NA-centric references)
•Less interpretive (consider “gaps” from the SEMATECH guide)
•Specific assessment method
•Expand issues covered
•Reference other S-guidelines
•Leverage lessons learned
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S2 Time Line
2000 – After more than 3 years of work and expanding the task force
structure into ‘working groups’ S2-0200 is published, now some 75
pages long.

2002 – First of several small revisions addressing fire protection criteria,


electrical test references, FECS topic, EMO circuit fault tolerance

2004 – Began use of ‘Delayed Effectivety’ sections to better manage change


• Laser Data Sheet & Changes to laser criteria
• Risk assessment terminology to align with S10

2006 – First round of delayed effectivity sections become mandatory along


with some additional small revisions

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S2 Sections 1 thru 4 – Introduction
The following slides are intended to indicate S2 topics only
and might not accurately express the exact S2 criteria.
Please read S2 for full details
1 – Purpose
Performance based considerations

2 – Scope
Equipment used to manufacturer, measure, assemble, and test semiconductor
products

3 – Limitations
Doesn’t cover all possible EHS design criteria
Not intended to verify compliance with local regulatory requirements

4 – Reference Standards
Both normative and informative standards are referenced

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S2 Section 5 – Terminology

5.2.49 – Operator {Operation}


run the equipment to perform its intended function
PM

5.2.41 – Maintenance {Maintenance Personnel}


tasks that keep working equipment working

5.2.63 – Service {Service Personnel}


tasks intended to fix broken equipment
NFPA 704
Risk Special Code
F OX
H R 0 Lo
Oxidizer
S 1 5.2.26 – HPM – Hazardous
SA
Fire 2 Simple Asphixiant Production Material
Health 3 W A material with a hazard class of 3 or 4
Reactivity 4 Hi Water Reactive per NFPA 704
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S2 Sections 6 thru 9 – Basics
6 – Safety Philosophy
Consider installation, operation, maintenance, service & disposal
Ensure single point, reasonably foreseeable failures do not endanger
personnel, facilities or the community
7 – General Provisions
Provide special hardware and tools needed for safety
The official values of S2 are metric
8 – Evaluation Process
Evaluation report should include only sections 9.6 and 10 thru 27
Non-conformances should be risk ranked per SEMI S10
Note: “Should” criteria are for evaluation
9 – Documents Provided to User
Manuals should conform to SEMI S13
lists of information for user and evaluator
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S2 Section 10 – Hazard Warning
Labels

▪ Hazard warning labels should conform to SEMI S1

Exception – labels dictated by law should conform to law

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S2 Section 11 – Safety Interlock
Systems
▪ Alert the operator on when activated
▪ Bypasses are okay, but should “auto-restore
when leaving the maintenance mode.
▪ Tool-only bypass for interlocks protecting operator tasks
▪ Protect adjustable interlock set points from change
▪ Electromechanical systems are preferred. Can also
be FECS (Fail to Safe Equipment Control System –
e.g., a PLC) or solid state but additional testing is
required.
▪ Ensure ungrounded control contacts

▪ Enclosures of hazards should be


interlocked or
Tool-accessible w/ label (plus internal barriers)

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S2 Section 12 – Emergency Shutdown
VA 240 30 V 60 V
▪ Remove hazardous voltage and 240 VA
power beyond main enclosure
30
Hazardous Exception - not needed for ≤ 2.4 kVA
current

AC & DC
20 with accessible main disconnect if there
are only electrical hazards
OK
10 Exception - EMO, safety device, data
logging equipment circuits under
8 16 24 32 60 68
certain conditions
voltage Hazardous AC
▪ No intended bypass
▪ Provide instructions for connecting to any
EMO interface ports
▪ Electromechanical systems are preferred –
can be FECS or solid state with extra testing
▪ Actuators no more than 10 ft of travel from
operation and maintenance positions
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S2 Section 13 – Electrical Design
▪ Limit the need for work w/ live hazardous potentials

▪ Conform to an appropriate SEMI S22 UL 508A


electrical design standard NFPA 79 UL 61010

▪ Provide barriers against accidental contact, dropped tools,


liquid leaks x
▪ Prevent access and top
D entry per Appendix 1
Dmax ~
x
▪ Use ATL certified parts if they are safety critical Accredited
Testing
▪ Use a color code for conductor insulation Laboratory
▪ Multiple feeds okay if labeled
▪ Opening main disconnect kills all power (even UPS)
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S2 Section 14 – Fire Protection
▪ Provide fire systems (detection or suppression) per a SEMI
S14 fire risk assessment [or provide locations for end users
to install their own devices
▪ Provide a summary report to the user
▪ Fire system activation should cause an audible and
visual alarm at the tool and shut down chemical feeds
▪ Manual activation capability is required for
suppression, optional for detection

▪ If suppressant release is hazardous (e.g., asphyxiation,


noise), time to escape may be needed.

▪ If fire system faults, ▪ Design fire systems to be


notify the operator always on (incl. 24 hr battery)
shut down tool after ▪ Document safe work practices,
current wafer is done and inspection methods
signal the facility
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S2 Section 15 – Heated Chemical
Baths

▪ Use SEMI S3 to assess “heated chemical baths”

S3 title is now “Safety Guideline for Process Liquid Heating Systems”

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S2 Section 16 – Ergonomics and
Human Factors
▪ Conform to SEMI S8
Summary of SEMI S8 Supplier Ergonomic Success Criteria (SESC)
1 Manual Material Handling Assess any parts > 10 lbs or > 5lbs & lifted 1x/5min
2 Product Loading in a JDEC trays, magazines, reticle cassettes…not wafers.
Standing Posture
3 Wafer Cassette Loading Load port dimensions
4 Work in Process Storage Wafer cassette shelves
5 Manual Wafer Cassette Section 3 limits hand rotations to 10°
Rotation Device Design
6 Handle Design Specs & force limits for various handle types
7 Maintainability and Lighting & dimensions for various working postures
Serviceability
8 Display Location Video display parameters
9 Hand Control Location Operation & maintenance (not service) Height and reach
based on frequency of use
10 Workstation Design Seated & standing body fit, control locations

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S2 Section 17 - Hazardous Energy
Isolation
▪ Sub-assembly isolation may be provided for sub-assembly work (instead
of total tool isolation)

▪ Manuals should identify hazardous


energies and how to
Shut down
Isolate
Affix Lock
Verify
Restore

▪ Isolation devices should be readily accessible


and only lockable only in the de-energized
(“off”) position

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S2 Section 18 – Mechanical Design
▪ Stable during shipping, installation and operating. 10° Tilt test
for unanchored equipment

▪ Consider fatigue, aging, ▪ Provide guards for


corrosion and abrasion hazardous moving parts
▪ Ensure possible rupture
fragments will be contained
▪ Pipes & tubing designed with
‘appropriate’ safety factor

▪ Excessive temperatures “Cold” = -10° C “Hot” varies with material.


Accessible Parts Max Temp °C
Polymer Ceramic Metal

Parts that might be touched. 95 80 65


Parts held for < 5s in normal use. 85 70 60
Parts held continuously in normal use. 60 56 51
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S2 Section 19 – Seismic Protection
▪ Control risks resulting from seismic events
(it may not be feasible to eliminate them)
▪ Make safety critical parts accessible for assessing damage

▪ Design equipment and anchorage Equip w/ HPMs Equip w/o HPMs


points to withstand… Horizontal loading of Horizontal loading of
94% of weight 63% of weight
85% of weight is available to resist
overturning

▪ Clearly identify ▪ Provide in user documents


the location of dimensions and weight of each module
anchorage drawing of equipment
points location and type of feet
weight distribution on each foot
location of CG in each module
acceptable anchorage points

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S2 Section 20 – Automated Material
Handlers
▪ Scope: ►Substrate Handlers ►Industrial Robots
►Unmanned Transport Vehicles (UTVs)

▪ For general devices and substrate handlers, provide personnel


safeguarding based on a hazard assessment

▪ Asses Industrial Robots to


an appropriate standard
(e.g., ANSI/RIA 15.06)

▪ For UTVs (both floor and space traveling) provide


Collision avoidance
Interlocks to ensure a secure load
Unsafe conditions detection

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S2 Section 21 – Environmental
Considerations
▪ To the extent practicable do not use Ozone Depleting Substances
or Perflourocarbons
▪ Facilitate decommissioning and disposal (See SEMI S12)

▪ Consider conservation Minimize service,


Re-use or recycle (H2O & chemicals) maintenance and
Reduce flows (e.g., when idle) packaging materials
▪ Prevent unintended releases;
110% secondary containment & leak sensors
Access to inspect and remove spills Ref
Means to check fill levels Appendix 3
Accept shut off signal from remote monitor

▪ For effluents, wastes and emissions…


Prevent hazardous mixtures
Make point of use collection accessible
Consider point of use abatement
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S2 Section 22 – Exhaust Ventilation

Supplemental control
Primary Control

Secondary Control
▪ Exhaust systems
should be assessed
per Appendix 2 and
SEMI S6.

▪ Provide exhaust
interlocks for equipment
handling HPM’s
▪ Design exhaust interlock alarms
to be capable of interfacing with
the user facility.
▪ Per Appendix 2 exhaust for a gas box
must dilute flammables below 25% of LEL
▪ Optimize exhaust flow. Target pressure: -0.1 in. H2O
(-1.0 in H2O for pump exhaust)
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S2 Section 23 – Chemicals
▪ Create an inventory of chemicals and identify them
as HPM or ODOROUS or IRRITANT
▪ Perform a hazard analysis which addresses potential
Mixing of incompatibles
Routine emissions
Maintenance emissions Ref
Failure points (e.g., fittings, pumps) Appendix 3

▪ Label hazardous gas


enclosure doors

▪ Exposure Limit Criteria


Scenario Criteria ▪ Appendix 2 also addresses
Normal Operation 1% of OEL some chemical leak limits.
Maintenance 25% of OEL
Equipment Failure 25% of OEL
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S2 Section 24 – Ionizing x - ray
γ - ray
Radiation
▪ Limits 2 μS/hr normal operation As Low As
10 μS/hr maintenance & service Reasonably
Achievable

▪ Prevent access to radioactive materials.


▪ Minimize need to remove shielding.

▪ Conduct a tool radiation survey per Appendix 4,


at tool surface or closest approach to source.

▪ Provide a phone number and address for radiation safety


support personnel

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S2 Section 25 – Non-ionizing Radiation
& Fields
▪ Appendix 5, contains test methods and limits for operation and
service/maintenance scenarios for various frequency regimes

3 kHz - Pacemaker Warning


100 MHz 0 Hz
levels 0 Hz - 3 kHz
Electric & Magnetic Fields
▪ Direct values and 20%
1 Hz - of the IEEE C95.1-1991
▪ Direct values
300 MHz
for induced & values for ‘controlled’ &
50/60 Hz
contact current ‘uncontrolled’ access

▪ 20% of the
Power Density ▪ 20% of the IEEE
1nm IR 0.3 – 300 GHz C95.1-1991 values
-700nm - ACGIH values for
400nm Irradiance and
Radiance (1996) 400nm
UV
▪ Direct values
180nm for Irradiance
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S2 Section 26 – Lasers
▪ Design the equipment to be no greater than laser class 2
(higher class lasers may be incorporated)

▪ Label product w/ laser class


(usually not required for class 1)

▪ Provide the end user Energy/Power Description of laser hazards


certain laser data Temporal Mode Administrative controls for safety
including… Pulse Rep Rate during maintenance & service
Pulse Duration Necessary PPE
Pulse Waveform
Physical Location

▪ Have proof of laser certification, and justification if


engineering controls are not used to protect personnel

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S2 Section 27 – Sound Pressure Level

360°
1m 3.5 m
▪ Limits: 80 dBA continuous
120 dB impulse

1.5 m 1.2 m
Ambient

▪ Correction to determine object noise when


object + ambient noise is measured.
Object
If (A + O) – A = X
Then O = (A+O) – Y
For X = 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 dBA
3.0 2.5 1.7 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 dBA
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S2 Section 28 and RI’s
28 – Related Documents
Reference material with no impact on assessment
Related Information
1 Equipment/Product Safety Program
2 Additional Standards That May Be Helpful
3 Hazard Labels
12 Light Tower Color and
4 EMO Reach Considerations Audible Alert Codes
5 Seismic Protection 13 Surface Temperature
6 Continuous Hazardous Gas Detection Documentation
7 Documentation of Ionizing Radiation 14 Recommendations for
8 Documentation of Non-ionizing Radiation FECS Design
9 Laser Checklist
10 Laser Certification Requirements by Region of Use
11 Other Requirements by Region of Use
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