Notes

© All Rights Reserved

10 views

Notes

© All Rights Reserved

- dynamica mehanika fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddfff
- Assignment Mastering Physics
- ch02_2
- Quest-Ed - Copy - Google Drive
- Mechanics - Simple maths and physics revision
- Lecture 1
- Kin2014d
- 04-Accel-incline-SV
- Ch 02 Motion in One Dimension
- 06 uniform motion
- Constant Acceleration
- Honors Kinematics Test Review q s
- Motion in One Dimension
- 4. UARM
- JR HSC Maths 3unit Term 2 2007
- PRACTICA LAB DE MATE MATH70.pdf
- Dynamics Report
- Lecture 8 (C)
- Kinema Tics
- Velocidad,Poscicion y Aceleracion Aparente

You are on page 1of 70

2.1 position, Velocity, and Speed

2.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed

2.3 Acceleration

2.4 Freely Falling Objects

2.5 Kinematic Equations Derived from Calculus.

Kinematics

Kinematics describes motion while ignoring

the agents that caused the motion

For now, we will consider motion in one

dimension

Along a straight line

We will use the particle model

A particle is a point-like object, that has mass but

infinitesimal size

Position

of a frame of reference

For one dimension the

motion is generally along

the x- or y-axis

The object’s position is its

location with respect to

the frame of reference

Position-Time Graph

The position-time

graph shows the

motion of the

particle (car)

The smooth curve is

a guess as to what

happened between

the data points

Displacement

position during some time interval

Represented as x

x = xf - xi

SI units are meters (m), x can be positive or

negative

Displacement is different than distance.

Distance is the length of a path followed by a

particle.

Vectors and Scalars

magnitude (size or numerical value) and

direction to completely describe them

We will use + and – signs to indicate vector

directions

Scalar quantities are completely described

by magnitude only

Average Velocity

displacement occurs

x x f xi

vaverage

t t

The dimensions are length / time [L/T]

The SI units are m/s

Is also the slope of the line in the position –

time graph

Average Speed

same units as velocity

total distance / total time

The average speed is not (necessarily)

the magnitude of the average velocity

Instantaneous Velocity

average velocity as the time interval becomes

infinitesimally short, or as the time interval

approaches zero

The instantaneous velocity indicates what is

happening at every point of time

Instantaneous Velocity

velocity is

x dx

v x lim

t 0 t dt

The instantaneous velocity can be

positive, negative, or zero

Instantaneous Velocity

The instantaneous

velocity is the slope

of the line tangent to

the x vs t curve

This would be the

green line

The blue lines show

that as t gets

smaller, they

approach the green

line

Instantaneous Speed

magnitude of the instantaneous velocity

Remember that the average speed is

not the magnitude of the average

velocity

Average Acceleration

velocity

v x v xf v xi

ax

t t

Dimensions are L/T2

SI units are m/s²

Instantaneous Acceleration

the average acceleration as t approaches 0

v x dv x d x 2

a x lim 2

t 0 t dt dt

Instantaneous Acceleration

velocity vs. time

graph is the

acceleration

The green line

represents the

instantaneous

acceleration

The blue line is the

average

acceleration

Acceleration and Velocity

are in the same direction, the object is

speeding up

When an object’s velocity and acceleration

are in the opposite direction, the object is

slowing down

Acceleration and Velocity

velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining the

same size)

Acceleration equals zero

Acceleration and Velocity

Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the

same length)

Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting longer)

This shows positive acceleration and positive velocity

Acceleration and Velocity

Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the

same length)

Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting

shorter)

Positive velocity and negative acceleration

1D motion with constant

acceleration

v f vi

aa

t f ti

tf – ti = t

v f vi at

1D motion with constant acceleration

for average velocity:

x f xi

vavg v

t f ti

and than solve it for xf

x f xi vavg t

Rearranging, and assuming v 1 (v v )

avg 0 f

2

1D motion with constant acceleration

(1)

Using

v f vi at (1)

and than substituting into equation for final

position yields (2)

1 2

x f xi v0t at (2)

2

Equations (1) and (2) are the basic kinematics

equations

1D motion with constant acceleration

yield additional equations.

We can eliminate t to obtain

v v 2a ( x f xi )

2

f

2

i

to produce an equation in which acceleration

does not appear:

1

x f x 0 ( v 0 v f )t

2

Kinematics with constant acceleration

- Summary

v f v i at

vi vf

v

2

Δx v i t 2 at

1 2

v f v 2ax

2 2

i

Kinematic Equations - summary

Kinematic Equations

solve any problem involving one-dimensional

motion with a constant acceleration

You may need to use two of the equations to

solve one problem

Many times there is more than one way to

solve a problem

Kinematics - Example 1

it decelerates at 2.0m/s2 from an initial velocity of

60 km/h?

Kinematics - Example 1

it decelerates at 2.0m/s2 from an initial velocity of

60 km/h?

Using v v at we rearrange to solve for t:

f i

vf vi

t

a

Vf = 0.0 km/h, vi=60 km/h and a= -2.0 m/s2.

0 (60x 1000 / 3600)

t 8.3 s

2.0

A car is approaching a hill at 30.0 m/s when its engine

suddenly fails just at the bottom of the hill. The car moves

with a constant acceleration of –2.00 m/s2 while coasting up

the hill. (a) Write equations for the position along the slope

and for the velocity as functions of time, taking x = 0 at the

bottom of the hill, where vi = 30.0 m/s. (b) Determine the

maximum distance the car rolls up the hill.

(a) Take ti 0 at the bottom of the hill where xi=0,

vi=30m/s, a=-2m/s2. Use these values in the general

equation

1 2

xf xi vit at

2

1

xf 0 30.0t m s 2.00 m s2 t2

2

xf 30.0t t2 m

(a) Take ti 0 at the bottom of the hill where xi=0,

vi=30m/s, a=-2m/s2. Use these values in the general

equation

vf vi at 30.0 m s 2.00 m s t 2

vf 30.0 2.00t m s

The distance of travel, xf, becomes a maximum, xm ax

when vf 0 (turning point in the motion).

Use the expressions found in part (a) for

xm ax 30.0t t2 m 30.015.0 15.0 225 m

2

Graphical Look at Motion:

displacement-time curve

curve is the velocity

The curved line

indicates the

velocity is changing

Therefore, there is

an acceleration

Graphical Look at Motion:

velocity-time curve

acceleration

The straight line

indicates a constant

acceleration

Graphical Look at Motion:

acceleration-time curve

indicates a constant

acceleration

Freely Falling Objects

moving freely under the influence of

gravity alone.

It does not depend upon the initial

motion of the object

Dropped – released from rest

Thrown downward

Thrown upward

Acceleration of Freely Falling Object

directed downward, regardless of the initial

motion

The magnitude of free fall acceleration is

g = 9.80 m/s2

g decreases with increasing altitude

g varies with latitude

9.80 m/s2 is the average at the Earth’s surface

Acceleration of Free Fall

Free fall motion is constantly accelerated

motion in one dimension

Let upward be positive

Use the kinematic equations with

ay = g = -9.80 m/s2

Free Fall Example

and acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2)

At B, the velocity is 0 and the

acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2)

At C, the velocity has the same

magnitude as at A, but is in the

opposite direction

A student throws a set of keys vertically upward to her

sorority sister, who is in a window 4.00 m above. The keys

are caught 1.50 s later by the sister's outstretched hand.

(a) With what initial velocity were the keys thrown? (b)

What was the velocity of the keys just before they were

caught?

A student throws a set of keys vertically upward to her

sorority sister, who is in a window 4.00 m above. The keys

are caught 1.50 s later by the sister's outstretched hand.

(a) With what initial velocity were the keys thrown? (b)

What was the velocity of the keys just before they were

caught?

(a) 1 2

yf yi vit at 4.00 1.50 vi 4.90 1.50

2

2

vi 10.0 m s upw ard

A student throws a set of keys vertically upward to her

sorority sister, who is in a window 4.00 m above. The keys

are caught 1.50 s later by the sister's outstretched hand.

(a) With what initial velocity were the keys thrown? (b)

What was the velocity of the keys just before they were

caught?

(b) vf vi at 10.0 9.80 1.50 4.68 m s

vf 4.68 m s dow nw ard

A ball is dropped from rest from a height h above the

ground. Another ball is thrown vertically upwards from the

ground at the instant the first ball is released. Determine the

speed of the second ball if the two balls are to meet at a

height h/2 above the ground.

A ball is dropped from rest from a height h above the

ground. Another ball is thrown vertically upwards from the

ground at the instant the first ball is released. Determine the

speed of the second ball if the two balls are to meet at a

height h/2 above the ground.

1-st ball:

1 2 h h 1 2

y1 h gt y1 h gt t

h

2 2 2 2 g

1 2 h h 1 h

2-nd ball: y2 vit gt vi g

2 2 g 2 g vi gh

A freely falling object requires 1.50 s to travel the last 30.0 m

before it hits the ground. From what height above the ground

did it fall?

A freely falling object requires 1.50 s to travel the last 30.0 m

before it hits the ground. From what height above the ground

did it fall?

Consider the last 30 m of fall. We find its speed 30 m above

the ground: 1 2

y f yi vyit ayt

2

1

0 30 m vyi 1.5 s 9.8 m s 1.5 s

2

2 2

30 m 11.0 m

vyi 12.6 m s.

1.5 s

A freely falling object requires 1.50 s to travel the last 30.0 m

before it hits the ground. From what height above the ground

did it fall?

Now consider the portion of its fall above the 30 m point. We

assume it starts from rest v2 v2 2a y y

yf yi y f i

12.6 m s 0 2 9.8 m

2

s y

2

2

160 m s2

y 2

8.16 m .

19.6 m s

Its original height was then:

30 m 8.16 m 38.2 m

Motion Equations from Calculus

Displacement

equals the area

under the velocity –

time curve

v

tf

lim xn tn v x (t )dt

tn 0 ti

n

is a definite integral

Kinematic Equations – General

Calculus Form

dv x

ax

dt

t

v xf v xi a x dt

0

dx

vx

dt

t

x f xi v x dt

0

Kinematic Equations – Calculus Form

with Constant Acceleration

v xf v xi a x t

The integration form of xf – xi gives

1

x f xi v xi t a x t 2

2

The height of a helicopter above the ground is given by

h = 3.00t3, where h is in meters and t is in seconds. After

2.00 s, the helicopter releases a small mailbag. How long

after its release does the mailbag reach the ground?

The height of a helicopter above the ground is given by

h = 3.00t3, where h is in meters and t is in seconds. After

2.00 s, the helicopter releases a small mailbag. How long

after its release does the mailbag reach the ground?

3

y 3.00t t 2.00 s y 3.00 2.00 24.0 m

3

dy

vy 9.00t2 36.0 m s

dt

The height of a helicopter above the ground is given by

h = 3.00t3, where h is in meters and t is in seconds. After

2.00 s, the helicopter releases a small mailbag. How long

after its release does the mailbag reach the ground?

1 2 1

yb ybi vit gt 24.0 36.0t 9.80 t2 yb 0

2 2

2

0 24.0 36.0t 4.90t t 7.96 s

Automotive engineers refer to the time rate of change of

acceleration as the "jerk." If an object moves in one

dimension such that its jerk J is constant, (a) determine

expressions for its acceleration ax(t), velocity vx(t), and

position x(t), given that its initial acceleration, speed, and

position are axi , vxi, and xi , respectively. (b) Show that

ax2 axi

2

2 j (vx vxi )

Automotive engineers refer to the time rate of change of acceleration

as the "jerk." If an object moves in one dimension such that its jerk J

is constant, (a) determine expressions for its acceleration ax(t), velocity

vx(t), and position x(t), given that its initial acceleration, speed, and

position are axi , vxi, and xi , respectively. (b) Show that

ax2 axi

2

2 j (vx vxi )

(a) da da Jdt

J constant

dt

a J dt Jt c1 a ai when t 0 c a

1 i

a Jt ai

Automotive engineers refer to the time rate of change of acceleration as the "jerk." If an

object moves in one dimension such that its jerk J is constant, (a) determine

expressions for its acceleration ax(t), velocity vx(t), and position x(t), given that its initial

acceleration, speed, and position are axi , vxi, and xi , respectively. (b) Show that

2

ax axi

2

2 j (vx vxi )

(a) dv

a

dt

dv adt

1 2

v adt Jt ai dt Jt at

i c2

2

v vi when t 0 c2 vi v 1 Jt2 at v

i i

2

Automotive engineers refer to the time rate of change of acceleration as the "jerk." If

an object moves in one dimension such that its jerk J is constant, (a) determine

expressions for its acceleration ax(t), velocity vx(t), and position x(t), given that its

initial acceleration, speed, and position are axi , vxi, and xi , respectively. (b) Show that

2

ax axi

2

2 j (vx vxi )

dx

(a)v

dt

dx vdt

1 2

x vdt

2 Jt ait vi dt

1 3 1

x Jt ait2 vit c3

6 2

1 3 1 2

x xi when t 0 c x

3 i x Jt at

i vit xi

6 2

a Jt ai J2t2 ai

(b) 2 2 2

2Jat

i

a2 ai

2

J2t2 2Jat

i

2 2 1 2

a ai 2J Jt at

i

2

Recall the expression for v : v 1 Jt2 ati vi

2

1 2

v vi 2 Jt at

i

2

a 2

ai 2J v vi

The acceleration of a marble in a certain fluid is

proportional to the speed of the marble squared, and is

given (in SI units) by a = –3.00 v2 for v > 0. If the marble

enters this fluid with a speed of 1.50 m/s, how long will it

take before the marble's speed is reduced to half of its

initial value?

The acceleration of a marble in a certain fluid is proportional to the speed

of the marble squared, and is given (in SI units) by a = –3.00 v2 for v > 0.

If the marble enters this fluid with a speed of 1.50 m/s, how long will it

take before the marble's speed is reduced to half of its initial value?

dv vi 1.50 m s

a 3.00v2

dt v t

v2dv 3.00 dt

dv

3.00v2 v vi t 0

dt

1 1 1 1

3.00t or 3.00t .

v vi v vi

The acceleration of a marble in a certain fluid is proportional to the

speed of the marble squared, and is given (in SI units) by a = –3.00 v2

for v > 0. If the marble enters this fluid with a speed of 1.50 m/s, how

long will it take before the marble's speed is reduced to half of its initial

value?

dv

a 3.00v2 vi 1.50 m s

dt

vi 1

v t 0.222 s

2 3.00vi

A test rocket is fired vertically upward from a well. A

catapult gives it initial velocity 80.0 m/s at ground level. Its

engines then fire and it accelerates upward at 4.00 m/s2

until it reaches an altitude of 1 000 m. At that point its

engines fail and the rocket goes into free fall, with an

acceleration of –9.80 m/s2. (a) How long is the rocket in

motion above the ground? (b) What is its maximum

altitude? (c) What is its velocity just before it collides with

the Earth?

A test rocket is fired vertically

upward from a well. A catapult

gives it initial velocity 80.0 m/s

Let point 0 be at ground level and point 1

at ground level. Its engines

then fire and it accelerates be at the end of the engine burn. Let

upward at 4.00 m/s2 until it point 2 be the highest point the rocket

reaches an altitude of 1 000 m. reaches and point 3 be just before

At that point its engines fail and impact. The data in the table are found

the rocket goes into free fall, for each phase of the rocket’s motion.

with an acceleration of –9.80

80.0 2 4.00 1000

2

m/s2. (a) How long is the rocket

in motion above the ground? (b)

(0 to 1): v2f

What is its maximum altitude? so vf 120 m s

(c) What is its velocity just

before it collides with the Earth?

120 80.0 4.00 t t 10.0 s

A test rocket is fired vertically

upward from a well. A catapult

gives it initial velocity 80.0 m/s

0 120 2 9.80 xf xi

2

at ground level. Its engines (1 to 2):

then fire and it accelerates

upward at 4.00 m/s2 until it xf xi 735 m

reaches an altitude of 1 000 m.

At that point its engines fail and

the rocket goes into free fall, 0 120 9.80t t 12.2 s

with an acceleration of –9.80

m/s2. (a) How long is the rocket

in motion above the ground? (b) This is the time of maximum height of the

What is its maximum altitude? rocket.

(c) What is its velocity just

before it collides with the Earth?

v 0 2 9.80 1735

A test rocket is fired vertically 2

upward from a well. A catapult (2 to 3):

f

gives it initial velocity 80.0 m/s

at ground level. Its engines v f 184m / s

then fire and it accelerates

upward at 4.00 m/s2 until it

reaches an altitude of 1 000 f

m. At that point its engines fail

and the rocket goes into free

total 10 12. 2 18.8

fall, with an acceleration of – (a): t 41.0 s

9.80 m/s . (a) How long is the

2

ground? (b) What is its

maximum altitude? (c) What is

its velocity just before it collides

(b):

x x f i 1.73 km

total

with the Earth?

(c):

vfinal 184 m s

t x v a

Upwards

An inquisitive physics student and mountain climber

climbs a 50.0-m cliff that overhangs a calm pool of water.

He throws two stones vertically downward, 1.00 s apart,

and observes that they cause a single splash. The first

stone has an initial speed of 2.00 m/s. (a) How long after

release of the first stone do the two stones hit the water?

(b) What initial velocity must the second stone have if

they are to hit simultaneously? (c) What is the speed of

each stone at the instant the two hit the water?

(a)

An inquisitive physics student

and mountain climber climbs 1 2 1

a 50.0-m cliff that yf vi1t at 50.0 2.00t 9.80 t2

overhangs a calm pool of

2 2

water. He throws two stones 2

vertically downward, 1.00 s 4.90t 2.00t 50.0 0

apart, and observes that they

cause a single splash. The 2.00 2.002 4 4.90 50.0

first stone has an initial speed t

of 2.00 m/s. (a) How long 2 4.90

after release of the first stone

do the two stones hit the Only the positive root is physically

water? (b) What initial meaningful:

velocity must the second

stone have if they are to hit t 3.00 s

simultaneously? (c) What is

the speed of each stone at after the first stone is thrown.

the instant the two hit the

water?

(b)

1 2

yf vi2t at

2

t 3.00 1.00 2.00 s

1

50.0 vi2 2.00 9.80 2.00

2

2

vi2 15.3 m s downward

(c)

- dynamica mehanika fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddfffUploaded byLeonard Reina
- Assignment Mastering PhysicsUploaded byreikashinomori
- ch02_2Uploaded bySiow Shung Churn
- Quest-Ed - Copy - Google DriveUploaded byShukla Manish
- Mechanics - Simple maths and physics revisionUploaded byEsther Rachel
- Lecture 1Uploaded byIbrahim Shaarany
- Kin2014dUploaded byZeynep Akı
- 04-Accel-incline-SVUploaded byAbdullah S Al-qahtani
- Ch 02 Motion in One DimensionUploaded bysamisam101
- 06 uniform motionUploaded byapi-27085921
- Constant AccelerationUploaded bywolfretonmaths
- Honors Kinematics Test Review q sUploaded bykingduke84
- Motion in One DimensionUploaded byArief B. Prayitno
- 4. UARMUploaded byArianeManlangit
- JR HSC Maths 3unit Term 2 2007Uploaded byAirfun123
- PRACTICA LAB DE MATE MATH70.pdfUploaded byMario Calderon
- Dynamics ReportUploaded byTan Jun Zhe
- Lecture 8 (C)Uploaded byKrisha Ann M. Mendoza
- Kinema TicsUploaded bysheden0320
- Velocidad,Poscicion y Aceleracion AparenteUploaded byAntonio
- LoadcasesUploaded bySruti Smriti
- Phy210 Problem C2 25Uploaded byezam
- kinematics reviewUploaded byapi-237070241
- Stem-gen. Physics1 - q1Uploaded byMeldren Torrevillas
- Review Exercise 2Uploaded byzahirul007
- Chp2PPKinematicsWSANSUploaded byFrancis Ho Ho
- Request 2Uploaded byaustintan
- Dynamics AVISOUploaded byCha Castillo
- 1512298864.pdfUploaded bysourav
- Velocity ReviewUploaded byPrhomput Thammarutjinda

- Mark Scheme Spec AUploaded bygsharkz
- Aerobic PlateUploaded bygsharkz
- Tekno9.pptUploaded bygsharkz
- Introduction OilnfatsUploaded bygsharkz
- Colligative 2013 - Copy (2)Uploaded bygsharkz
- Cyclohexane Latest Diagram (Plant Design)Uploaded bygsharkz
- MethodologyUploaded bygsharkz
- Chemical BondingUploaded bygsharkz
- Chap 6 Flow MeasurementUploaded byee0785
- AQA Mechanics 1 Revision NotesUploaded byajakuk

- 715.pdfUploaded by11113432
- IB Chemistry Lab Report Design ExampleUploaded byjohnxeno95
- Gas LawsUploaded byDheeDazPequina
- Pvc Specific HeatUploaded byila_368684492
- Atomic StructureUploaded byAyush Singh
- Comb_Foot-Slab-MCNUploaded byolomu
- mathcad - crane calculationsUploaded byapi-232034744
- On the Influence of Air Resistance and Wind During Long JumpUploaded byAlexander Egoyan
- Swing Motion Power Geneartion ReportUploaded byTanvi Khurana
- Dytran Reference ManualUploaded byDon
- Principles of Quantitative MR Imaging With Illustrated Review of Applicable Modular Pulse DiagramsUploaded byJacobo Villarreal
- The Open Dentistry JournalUploaded byWeng Ace
- Centennial of General Relativity (1915-2015); The Schwarzschild Solution and Black HolesUploaded byEdson Augusto
- Lesson 08-Euler SystemUploaded byTiffany Rus
- 2013, Babu et al [6]Uploaded bytangtszloong
- Introduction to RadioactivityUploaded byFaizal Pepejal
- New Microsoft Word Document (2)Uploaded bysoumyajit1986
- Class III Stress Strain ProblemsUploaded byMadhan kumar
- SteroidUploaded byLarissa Risky Amalia
- Speed LogsUploaded byPrashant Baldia
- PRU03Uploaded byPaul Mathew
- Ch 12 EquilibriumUploaded byuser308100
- Hypothesis + DefinitionUploaded byilvbaby
- Marcel Locquin and Maurice Langeron (1983) - Handbook of Microscopy.pdfUploaded byWilliamsOliveira
- Matter and Interaction Chapter 05 SolutionsUploaded bylangemar
- geotechnical engineering_Chapter 2 - Critical State Soil MechanicsUploaded byMuhammadFarhanGul
- AIPMT 1998Uploaded bypravinkhartad
- s06-All Examples 2upUploaded byAvinash Meena
- RLG Presentation TG-9Uploaded byEsa Juhani Ruoho
- Finance and Physics Article 1Uploaded byGrecia Carolina Reyes Fernandez