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Physics 151: Lecture 20

Today’s Agenda

 Topics (Chapter 10) :
 Rotational Kinematics Ch. 10.1-3
 Rotational Energy Ch. 10.4
 Moments of Inertia Ch. 10.5

Physics 151: Lecture 20, Pg 1

Rotation

 Up until now we have gracefully avoided dealing with the
rotation of objects.
 We have studied objects that slide, not roll.
 We have assumed wheels are massless.

 Rotation is extremely important, however, and we need to
understand it !

 Most of the equations we will develop are simply rotational
versions of ones we have already learned when studying
linear kinematics and dynamics.

Physics 151: Lecture 20, Pg 2

Pg 3 . Recall Kinematic of Circular Motion: y v x = R cos()= R cos(t) (x.y) y = R sin()= R sin(t) R s  = tan-1 (y/x) t x  = t For uniform s=vt circular motion: s = R = Rt v = R v2 a R  is angular velocity Animation Physics 151: Lecture 20.

1 Example:  The angular speed of the minute hand of a clock. 120  Physics 151: Lecture 20. /30 d.  e. /60 c. is: a. Pg 4 . 1800 b. in rad/s. See text: 10.

Pg 5 .1 Rotational Variables  Rotation about a fixed axis:  Consider a disk rotating about an axis through its center:   First. See text: 10. recall what we learned about  Uniform Circular Motion: d  dt dx (Analogous to v  dt ) Physics 151: Lecture 20.

.  Now suppose  can change as a function of time:  We define the angular acceleration: d d 2   2 dt dt   Consider the case when   is constant. Pg 6 .  We can integrate this to  find  and  as a function of time:  constant     0  t 1    0   0t  t 2 2 Physics 151: Lecture 20. See text: 10..1 Rotational Variables.

1 Example:  The graphs below show angular velocity as a function of time. See text: 10. In which one is the magnitude of the angular acceleration constantly decreasing ? Physics 151: Lecture 20. Pg 7 .

2 Rotational Variables.  constant  v   0  t x 1 R     0  0 t  t 2 2   Recall also that for a point a distance R away from the axis of rotation:  x = R  v = R And taking the derivative of this we find  a = R  Animation Physics 151: Lecture 20... See text: 10. Pg 8 .

See text: 10. Pg 9 .3 Summary (with comparison to 1-D kinematics) Angular Linear   constant a  constant    0  t v  v 0  at 1 1 2   0   0 t  t 2 x  x0  v 0t  at 2 2  And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis: x = Rv = Ra = R Physics 151: Lecture 20.

Starting from rest at t = 0. See text: 10.1 Example: Wheel And Rope  A wheel with radius R = 0.4m rotates freely about a fixed axle. Pg 10 . How many revolutions has the wheel made after 10 seconds? (One revolution = 2 radians) a 1 rev R  500 rad x 2 rad  80 rev Physics 151: Lecture 20. There is a rope wound around the wheel. the rope is pulled such that it has a constant acceleration a = 4m/s2.

a.0 rad c. 10 rad d. 12 rad b. The turntable comes to rest 2.1 Example:  The turntable of a record player has an angular velocity of 8. See text: 10.0 rad/s when it is turned off. 8. 6. Pg 11 .5 s after being turned off. 16 rad e. Through how many radians does the turntable rotate after being turned off ? Assume constant angular acceleration.8 rad Physics 151: Lecture 20.

CM Physics 151: Lecture 20. systems of particles.  The kinetic energy of this system will be the sum of the kinetic energy of each piece: m4 r4  r1 m1 m3 r3 r2 m2 Recall text 9.6. Pg 12 . Rotation & Kinetic Energy  Consider the simple rotating system shown below. (Assume the masses are attached to the rotation axis by massless rigid rods).

systems of particles. 1  So: but  K  mii v i2 vi = r i 2 1 1 2  i i 2 K m r    mi ri 2 2 i 2 i which we write as: v1 m4 1 K  I 2 v4 m1 2 r4  r1 v2 m3 I   mi ri 2 r3 r2 i m2 Define the moment of inertia v3 about the rotation axis I has units of kg m2. Rotation & Kinetic Energy. Recall text 9.. Pg 13 .6.. CM Physics 151: Lecture 20.

Pg 14 . Lecture 20. Act 1 Rotational Kinetic Energy  I have two basketballs. I then spin around with it at a rate of 2 revolutions per second. I spin around with it at a rate of 2 revolutions per second.2m long rope. What is the ratio of the kinetic energy of BB#2 to that of BB#1? A) 1/4 B) 1/2 C) 1 D) 2 E) 4 BB#1 BB#2 Physics 151: Lecture 20. BB#1 is attached to a 0. BB#2 is on a 0.1m long rope.

 The kinetic energy of a rotating system looks similar to that of a point particle: Point Particle Rotating System 1 K  mv 2 K 1 I 2 2 2 v is “linear” velocity  is angular velocity m is the mass. I   mi ri 2 i Physics 151: Lecture 20.. Rotation & Kinetic Energy. Pg 15 .. I is the moment of inertia about the rotation axis.

 For a given object. the moment of inertia I appears in the same way that mass m does when we study linear dynamics ! Physics 151: Lecture 20. Pg 16 .  The further the mass is from the rotation axis. the bigger the moment of inertia. See text: 10.  We will see that in rotational dynamics.4 Moment of Inertia 1  So K  I 2 where I   m r i i 2 2 i  Notice that the moment of inertia I depends on the distribution of mass in the system. the moment of inertia will depend on where we choose the rotation axis (unlike the center of mass).

Example: Calculate the moment of inertia of four point masses (m) on the corners of a square whose sides have length L. about a perpendicular axis through the center of the square: m m L m m See example 10.4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20. See text: 10.5 Calculating Moment of Inertia  We have shown that for N discrete point masses distributed about a fixed axis. Pg 17 . the moment of inertia is: N I  mi ri 2 where r is the distance from the mass i 1 to the axis of rotation.

Pg 18 .5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.. See text: 10.  The squared distance from each point mass to the axis is: L/2 m m r L m m I = 2mL2 See example 10..4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20.

parallel to the plane (as shown): N 2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 I   mi ri  m  m  m  m  4 m i 1 4 4 4 4 4 r m m I = mL2 L m m See example 10..5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.  Now calculate I for the same object about an axis through the center.. Pg 19 .4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20. See text: 10.

.5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20.. Pg 20 . See text: 10.  Finally. calculate I for the same object about an axis along one side (as shown): N 2 I   mi ri  mL2  mL2  m0 2  m0 2 i 1 r m m I = 2mL2 L m m See example 10.

.. Pg 21 .  For a single object. I clearly depends on the rotation axis !! I = 2mL2 I = mL2 I = 2mL2 m m L m m See example 10. See text: 10.4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20.5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.

Lecture 20.  Which of the following is correct: a (a) I a > Ib > Ic (b) I a > Ic > Ib b (c) Ib > Ia > Ic c Physics 151: Lecture 20. and Ic respectively. Pg 22 . b. massless rods as shown. Ib. and c axes is Ia. Act 2 Moment of Inertia  A triangular shape is made from identical balls and identical rigid. The moment of inertia about the a.

Act 2 Moment of Inertia  Label masses and lengths:  Calculate moments of inerta: I a  m  2 L  m  2 L  8 mL2 2 2 I b  mL2  mL2  mL2  3 mL2 Ic  m  2 L  4 mL2 2 m a L b So (b) is correct: Ia > Ic > Ib L c m m Physics 151: Lecture 20. Lecture 20. Pg 23 .

Pg 24 .. See text: 8-5 Calculating Moment of Inertia..  For a discrete collection of point masses we found: N I  mi ri 2 i 1  For a continuous solid object we have to add up the mr2 contribution for every infinitesimal mass element dm. dm  We have to do an integral to find I : I   r 2 dm r Physics 151: Lecture 20.

see Example 10. Pg 25 . perpendicular to the plane of the hoop. See text: 10. R I  MR 2 I  r 2 dm I   R dm  R  dm  MR 2 2 2 1 R  I  MR 2 2 Thin hoop of mass M and radius R.5 Moments of Inertia  Some examples of I for solid objects: Thin hoop (or cylinder) of mass M and radius R.  about an axis through a diameter. about an axis through its center.5 in the text Physics 151: Lecture 20.

about a perpendicular axis dr through its center. Pg 26 . Moments of Inertia  Some examples of I for solid objects: Solid disk or cylinder of mass M and radius R. r L R I  r 2 dm 1 I MR 2 2   Physics 151: Lecture 20.

2.5 Moments of Inertia. See text: 10. Moments of Inertia Physics 151: Lecture 20.  Some examples of I for solid objects: 2 I  MR 2 5 Solid sphere of mass M and radius R. Pg 27 . 2 I MR 2 3 R Thin spherical shell of mass M and radius R.. about an axis through its center. R about an axis through its center.  See Table 10..

 Center of Mass  Elastic Collisions  Impulse Physics 151: Lecture 20. Pg 28 . Recap of today’s lecture  Chapter 9.