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Today’s Agenda

Topics (Chapter 10) :

Rotational Kinematics Ch. 10.1-3

Rotational Energy Ch. 10.4

Moments of Inertia Ch. 10.5

Physics 151: Lecture 20, Pg 1

Rotation

** Up until now we have gracefully avoided dealing with the
**

rotation of objects.

We have studied objects that slide, not roll.

We have assumed wheels are massless.

** Rotation is extremely important, however, and we need to
**

understand it !

** Most of the equations we will develop are simply rotational
**

versions of ones we have already learned when studying

linear kinematics and dynamics.

Physics 151: Lecture 20, Pg 2

Pg 3 . Recall Kinematic of Circular Motion: y v x = R cos()= R cos(t) (x.y) y = R sin()= R sin(t) R s = tan-1 (y/x) t x = t For uniform s=vt circular motion: s = R = Rt v = R v2 a R is angular velocity Animation Physics 151: Lecture 20.

1 Example: The angular speed of the minute hand of a clock. 120 Physics 151: Lecture 20. /30 d. e. /60 c. is: a. Pg 4 . 1800 b. in rad/s. See text: 10.

Pg 5 .1 Rotational Variables Rotation about a fixed axis: Consider a disk rotating about an axis through its center: First. See text: 10. recall what we learned about Uniform Circular Motion: d dt dx (Analogous to v dt ) Physics 151: Lecture 20.

. Now suppose can change as a function of time: We define the angular acceleration: d d 2 2 dt dt Consider the case when is constant. Pg 6 . We can integrate this to find and as a function of time: constant 0 t 1 0 0t t 2 2 Physics 151: Lecture 20. See text: 10..1 Rotational Variables.

1 Example: The graphs below show angular velocity as a function of time. See text: 10. In which one is the magnitude of the angular acceleration constantly decreasing ? Physics 151: Lecture 20. Pg 7 .

2 Rotational Variables. constant v 0 t x 1 R 0 0 t t 2 2 Recall also that for a point a distance R away from the axis of rotation: x = R v = R And taking the derivative of this we find a = R Animation Physics 151: Lecture 20... See text: 10. Pg 8 .

See text: 10. Pg 9 .3 Summary (with comparison to 1-D kinematics) Angular Linear constant a constant 0 t v v 0 at 1 1 2 0 0 t t 2 x x0 v 0t at 2 2 And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis: x = Rv = Ra = R Physics 151: Lecture 20.

Starting from rest at t = 0. See text: 10.1 Example: Wheel And Rope A wheel with radius R = 0.4m rotates freely about a fixed axle. Pg 10 . How many revolutions has the wheel made after 10 seconds? (One revolution = 2 radians) a 1 rev R 500 rad x 2 rad 80 rev Physics 151: Lecture 20. There is a rope wound around the wheel. the rope is pulled such that it has a constant acceleration a = 4m/s2.

a.0 rad c. 10 rad d. 12 rad b. The turntable comes to rest 2.1 Example: The turntable of a record player has an angular velocity of 8. See text: 10.0 rad/s when it is turned off. 8. 6. Pg 11 .5 s after being turned off. 16 rad e. Through how many radians does the turntable rotate after being turned off ? Assume constant angular acceleration.8 rad Physics 151: Lecture 20.

CM Physics 151: Lecture 20. systems of particles. The kinetic energy of this system will be the sum of the kinetic energy of each piece: m4 r4 r1 m1 m3 r3 r2 m2 Recall text 9.6. Pg 12 . Rotation & Kinetic Energy Consider the simple rotating system shown below. (Assume the masses are attached to the rotation axis by massless rigid rods).

systems of particles. 1 So: but K mii v i2 vi = r i 2 1 1 2 i i 2 K m r mi ri 2 2 i 2 i which we write as: v1 m4 1 K I 2 v4 m1 2 r4 r1 v2 m3 I mi ri 2 r3 r2 i m2 Define the moment of inertia v3 about the rotation axis I has units of kg m2. Rotation & Kinetic Energy. Recall text 9.. Pg 13 .6.. CM Physics 151: Lecture 20.

Pg 14 . Lecture 20. Act 1 Rotational Kinetic Energy I have two basketballs. I then spin around with it at a rate of 2 revolutions per second. I spin around with it at a rate of 2 revolutions per second.2m long rope. What is the ratio of the kinetic energy of BB#2 to that of BB#1? A) 1/4 B) 1/2 C) 1 D) 2 E) 4 BB#1 BB#2 Physics 151: Lecture 20. BB#1 is attached to a 0. BB#2 is on a 0.1m long rope.

The kinetic energy of a rotating system looks similar to that of a point particle: Point Particle Rotating System 1 K mv 2 K 1 I 2 2 2 v is “linear” velocity is angular velocity m is the mass. I mi ri 2 i Physics 151: Lecture 20.. Rotation & Kinetic Energy. Pg 15 .. I is the moment of inertia about the rotation axis.

For a given object. the moment of inertia I appears in the same way that mass m does when we study linear dynamics ! Physics 151: Lecture 20. Pg 16 . The further the mass is from the rotation axis. the bigger the moment of inertia. See text: 10. We will see that in rotational dynamics.4 Moment of Inertia 1 So K I 2 where I m r i i 2 2 i Notice that the moment of inertia I depends on the distribution of mass in the system. the moment of inertia will depend on where we choose the rotation axis (unlike the center of mass).

Example: Calculate the moment of inertia of four point masses (m) on the corners of a square whose sides have length L. about a perpendicular axis through the center of the square: m m L m m See example 10.4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20. See text: 10.5 Calculating Moment of Inertia We have shown that for N discrete point masses distributed about a fixed axis. Pg 17 . the moment of inertia is: N I mi ri 2 where r is the distance from the mass i 1 to the axis of rotation.

Pg 18 .5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.. See text: 10. The squared distance from each point mass to the axis is: L/2 m m r L m m I = 2mL2 See example 10..4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20.

parallel to the plane (as shown): N 2 L2 L2 L2 L2 L2 I mi ri m m m m 4 m i 1 4 4 4 4 4 r m m I = mL2 L m m See example 10..5 Calculating Moment of Inertia. Now calculate I for the same object about an axis through the center.. Pg 19 .4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20. See text: 10.

.5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20.. Pg 20 . See text: 10. Finally. calculate I for the same object about an axis along one side (as shown): N 2 I mi ri mL2 mL2 m0 2 m0 2 i 1 r m m I = 2mL2 L m m See example 10.

.. Pg 21 . For a single object. I clearly depends on the rotation axis !! I = 2mL2 I = mL2 I = 2mL2 m m L m m See example 10. See text: 10.4 (similar) Physics 151: Lecture 20.5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.

Lecture 20. Which of the following is correct: a (a) I a > Ib > Ic (b) I a > Ic > Ib b (c) Ib > Ia > Ic c Physics 151: Lecture 20. and Ic respectively. Pg 22 . b. massless rods as shown. Ib. and c axes is Ia. Act 2 Moment of Inertia A triangular shape is made from identical balls and identical rigid. The moment of inertia about the a.

Act 2 Moment of Inertia Label masses and lengths: Calculate moments of inerta: I a m 2 L m 2 L 8 mL2 2 2 I b mL2 mL2 mL2 3 mL2 Ic m 2 L 4 mL2 2 m a L b So (b) is correct: Ia > Ic > Ib L c m m Physics 151: Lecture 20. Lecture 20. Pg 23 .

Pg 24 .. See text: 8-5 Calculating Moment of Inertia.. For a discrete collection of point masses we found: N I mi ri 2 i 1 For a continuous solid object we have to add up the mr2 contribution for every infinitesimal mass element dm. dm We have to do an integral to find I : I r 2 dm r Physics 151: Lecture 20.

see Example 10. Pg 25 . perpendicular to the plane of the hoop. See text: 10. R I MR 2 I r 2 dm I R dm R dm MR 2 2 2 1 R I MR 2 2 Thin hoop of mass M and radius R.5 Moments of Inertia Some examples of I for solid objects: Thin hoop (or cylinder) of mass M and radius R. about an axis through a diameter. about an axis through its center.5 in the text Physics 151: Lecture 20.

about a perpendicular axis dr through its center. Pg 26 . Moments of Inertia Some examples of I for solid objects: Solid disk or cylinder of mass M and radius R. r L R I r 2 dm 1 I MR 2 2 Physics 151: Lecture 20.

2.5 Moments of Inertia. See text: 10. Moments of Inertia Physics 151: Lecture 20. Some examples of I for solid objects: 2 I MR 2 5 Solid sphere of mass M and radius R. Pg 27 . 2 I MR 2 3 R Thin spherical shell of mass M and radius R.. about an axis through its center. R about an axis through its center. See Table 10..

Center of Mass Elastic Collisions Impulse Physics 151: Lecture 20. Pg 28 . Recap of today’s lecture Chapter 9.

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