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1. Demonstrate understanding of the
Mendelian principles of heredity; and
2. Understand basic terminology
related to genetics, including:
dominant, recessive, homozygous,
heterozygous, gene, allele, genotype,
and phenotype.

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What is genetics?

What is heredity?

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LET’S ENGAGE…. What are the different traits and characteristics that you have inherited from your parents. copyright cmassengale 4 ..

Let’s Explore…. After which. ACTIVITY: “Human Traits Genetics” In this activity. you will examine your own body for presence of simple traits and physical characteristics. copyright cmassengale 5 . Compare it on the traits table.

Questions: 1. copyright cmassengale 6 . What are the heritable features that you have inherited from your parents? 2. How about your traits? (Parts of person character).

Chromosomes carry the hereditary information (genes) .Introduction to Genetics GENETICS – branch of biology that deals with heredity and variation of organisms.

Chromosomes (and genes) occur in pairs Homologous Chromosomes New combinations of genes occur in sexual reproduction .Fertilization from two parents .

Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) Responsible for the Laws governing Inheritance of Traits copyright cmassengale 9 .

Austrian Monk. where he studied botany and learned the Scientific Method . .Went to the university of Vienna. studied Theology and was ordained priest Order St.Gregor Johann Mendel .Worked with pure lines of peas for eight years .Son of peasant farmer. born in what is now Czech Republic in 1822 . Augustine.

Known as the father of Genetics . .Lived in a monastery and taught high school ..Experimented with pea plants by cross breeding plants with different characteristics and studying results.

-Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants -Developed the laws of inheritance .Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century copyright cmassengale 12 .

-Between 1856 and 1863.000 pea plants . Mendel cultivated and tested some 28.He found that the plants' offspring retained traits of the parents copyright cmassengale 13 .

Site of Gregor Mendel’s experimental garden in the Czech Republic copyright cmassengale 14 .

Particulate Inheritance -Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as “particles” .Mendel did not know that the “particles” were actually Chromosomes & DNA copyright cmassengale 15 .

Ex. Characteristics or traits are inherited by individual units known as “genes”. Mendel’s Principles 1. . Law of Inheritance . a gene will determine plant height in peas.

this flower carries an allele for white and an allele for purple flowers .states that during the formation of reproductive cells (gametes). Ex. pairs of hereditary factors (genes) for a specific trait separate so that offspring receive one factor from each parent.2. Law of Segregation .

3. . Law of Independent Assortment .states that chance determines which factor for a particular trait is inherited.

4. some forms are dominant and others are recessive.Law of Dominance – states that when 2 or more forms of a gene exist (alleles). .

Dominant/Recessive Hitch Hikers Thumb Normal Thumb .

Dominant/Recessive Free Earlobes Attached Earlobes .

Dominant/Recessive .

Polydactyly is Dominant!! .

Dominant/Recessive Other examples of dominant traits: Dimples Tongue Rolling Freckles Curly hair (may be more than one gene) .

(e. white. Heredity . black) 3. Genetic Terminology 1.g. color. 2.passing of traits from parent to offspring.g. height. happy. Characteristics: is the feature of an organism or external appearance.any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring. friendly. (e. size) copyright cmassengale 25 . Trait .

Gene – the sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.a unit of heredity. – a gene will determine plant height in peas.g.4. 5. E. Genome – the entire set of genes in an organism. . .

Alleles – two genes that occupy the same position on homologous chromosomes and that cover the same trait. this flowers carries an allele for (e.g. Ex.6. Y and y) white and an allele for purple flowers .

Rr Yy) . 8.g. (e. Homozygous – having identical genes (one from each parent) for a particular characteristic.7. Locus – a fixed location on a strand of DNA where a gene or one of its alleles is located.g. Heterozygous – having two different genes for a particular characteristic (e. RR yy) 9.

g. the trait appears in the heterozygous condition. Yy rr ww) . does not appear in the heterozygous condition.10.g. (e. only in homozygous. Dominant – the allele of a gene that masks or suppresses the expression of an alternate allele. YY RR WW) 11. Recessive – an allele that is masked by a dominant allele. (e.

Phenotype .gene combination for a trait (e.12. Genotype . (e. RR. rr) 13.g. white) copyright cmassengale 30 .g.the physical feature resulting from a genotype. Rr. red.

Characteristics 7.Heterozygous 5.Homozygous Recessive 2.Characteristics 8. TT .Characteristics 10.Allele 6. Dwarf . 1. Gg . Dark . Shape .Traits 3. Traits. Allele. Brown eyes . and Characteristics. Y . Heterozygous. Homozygous Recessive. Feature . Color .Traits . bb .Identify each of the following as: Homozygous Dominant.Traits 9.Homozygous Dominant 4.

END copyright cmassengale 32 .

g.cross involving two traits e. Dihybrid cross . flower color & plant height copyright cmassengale 33 . 2.cross involving a single trait. Types of Genetic Crosses 1. e. Monohybrid cross .g. flower color.

P = Parental generation F1 = First filial generation. F2 = Second filial generation of a genetic cross . offspring from a genetic cross.Monohybrid cross: a genetic cross involving a single pair of genes (one trait). parents differ by a single trait.

Punnett Square Used to help solve genetics problems copyright cmassengale 35 .

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so 2 alleles affect a characteristic Possible combinations are: Genotypes RR Rr rr Phenotypes RED RED YELLOW copyright cmassengale 37 .Genotype & Phenotype in Flowers Genotype of alleles: R = red flower r = yellow flower All genes occur in pairs.

Rr). RR or rr).g.gene combination of one dominant & one recessive allele (e. Genotypes  Homozygous genotype . also called pure  Heterozygous genotype .g.gene combination involving 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes (e. also called hybrid copyright cmassengale 38 .

Genes and Environment Determine Characteristics copyright cmassengale 39 .

Mendel’s Pea Plant Experiments copyright cmassengale 40 .

Why peas. Pisum sativum? Can be grown in a small area Produce lots of offspring Produce pure plants when allowed to self-pollinate several generations Can be artificially cross-pollinated copyright cmassengale 41 .

How Mendel Began
strains by
allowing the
plants to
for several
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Eight Pea Plant Traits
Seed shape --- Round (R) or Wrinkled (r)
Seed Color ---- Yellow (Y) or Green (y)
Pod Shape --- Smooth (S) or wrinkled (s)
Pod Color --- Green (G) or Yellow (g)
Seed Coat Color ---Gray (G) or White (g)
Flower position---Axial (A) or Terminal (a)
Plant Height --- Tall (T) or Short (t)
Flower color --- Purple (P) or white (p)

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Mendel’s Experimental Results copyright cmassengale 48 .

Did the observed ratio match the theoretical ratio? The theoretical or expected ratio of plants producing round or wrinkled seeds is 3 round :1 wrinkled Mendel’s observed ratio was 2.96:1 The discrepancy is due to statistical error The larger the sample the more nearly the results approximate to the theoretical ratio copyright cmassengale 49 .

(1st filial generation) From breeding individuals from the P1 generation F2 generation = the second-generation offspring in a breeding experiment. F1 generation = the first-generation offspring in a breeding experiment. (2nd filial generation) From breeding individuals from the F1 generation copyright cmassengale 50 . Generation “Gap” Parental P1 Generation = the parental generation in a breeding experiment.

tt copyright cmassengale 51 . Following the Generations Cross 2 Results Cross 2 Hybrids Pure in all get Plants Hybrids 3 Tall & 1 Short TT x tt Tt TT. Tt.

Monohybrid Crosses copyright cmassengale 52 .

P1 Monohybrid Cross Trait: Seed Shape Alleles: R – Round r – Wrinkled Cross: Round seeds x Wrinkled seeds RR x rr Genotype: Rr r r Phenotype: Round R Rr Rr Genotypic Ratio: All alike R Rr Rr Phenotypic Ratio: All alike copyright cmassengale 53 .

P1 Monohybrid Cross Review  Homozygous dominant x Homozygous recessive  Offspring all Heterozygous (hybrids)  Offspring called F1 generation  Genotypic & Phenotypic ratio is ALL ALIKE copyright cmassengale 54 .

Ratio: 3:1 copyright cmassengale 55 .Ratio: 1:2:1 r Rr rr P. rr R r Phenotype: Round & RR Rr wrinkled R G. F1 Monohybrid Cross Trait: Seed Shape Alleles: R – Round r – Wrinkled Cross: Round seeds x Round seeds Rr x Rr Genotype: RR. Rr.

F1 Monohybrid Cross Review  Heterozygous x heterozygous  Offspring: 25% Homozygous dominant RR 50% Heterozygous Rr 25% Homozygous Recessive rr  Offspring called F2 generation  Genotypic ratio is 1:2:1  Phenotypic Ratio is 3:1 copyright cmassengale 56 .

What Do the Peas Look Like? copyright cmassengale 57 .

Rr R r Phenotype: Round R RR Rr Genotypic Ratio: 1:1 R RR Rr Phenotypic Ratio: All alike copyright cmassengale 59 . F2 Monohybrid Cross (1 ) st Trait: Seed Shape Alleles: R – Round r – Wrinkled Cross: Round seeds x Round seeds RR x Rr Genotype: RR.

Ratio: 1:1 r Rr rr P. rr Phenotype: Round & r Rr rr Wrinkled G. F2 Monohybrid Cross (2nd) Trait: Seed Shape Alleles: R – Round r – Wrinkled Cross: Homozygous Wrinkled seeds x Heterozygous Round seeds rr x Rr R r Genotype: Rr.Ratio: 1:1 copyright cmassengale 60 .

F2 Monohybrid Cross Review  Homozygous x heterozygous(hybrid)  Offspring: 50% Homozygous RR or rr 50% Heterozygous Rr  Phenotypic Ratio is 1:1  Called Test Cross because the offspring have SAME genotype as parents copyright cmassengale 61 .

and both F2 Crosses for each of the other Seven Pea Plant Traits copyright cmassengale 62 .Practice Your Crosses Work the P1. F1.

Mendel’s Laws copyright cmassengale 63 .

one from the mother and the other from the father True-breeding individuals are homozygous ( both alleles) are the same copyright cmassengale 64 . Results of Monohybrid Crosses Inheritable factors or genes are responsible for all heritable characteristics Phenotype is based on Genotype Each trait is based on two genes.

only one form of the trait will appear in the next generation. Law of Dominance In a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits. All the offspring will be heterozygous and express only the dominant trait. RR x rr yields all Rr (round seeds) copyright cmassengale 65 .

Law of Dominance copyright cmassengale 66 .

producing the genotype for the traits of the offspring. copyright cmassengale 67 . Law of Segregation During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm). Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization. the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other.

Applying the Law of Segregation copyright cmassengale 68 .

Law of Independent Assortment Alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another. This law can be illustrated using dihybrid crosses. copyright cmassengale 69 .

Mendel’s “Law of Independent Assortment” a. Formula: 2n (n = # of heterozygotes) copyright cmassengale 70 . Each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation b. Dihybrid Cross A breeding experiment that tracks the inheritance of two traits.

AaBbCCDd 3. RrYy 2. MmNnOoPPQQRrssTtQq copyright cmassengale 71 . Question: How many gametes will be produced for the following allele arrangements? Remember: 2n (n = # of heterozygotes) 1.

RrYy: 2n = 22 = 4 gametes RY Ry rY ry 2. AaBbCCDd: 2n = 23 = 8 gametes ABCD ABCd AbCD AbCd aBCD aBCd abCD abCD 3. Answer: 1. MmNnOoPPQQRrssTtQq: 2n = 26 = 64 gametes copyright cmassengale 72 .

Dihybrid Cross Traits: Seed shape & Seed color Alleles: R round r wrinkled Y yellow y green RrYy x RrYy RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry All possible gamete combinations copyright cmassengale 73 .

Dihybrid Cross RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry copyright cmassengale 74 .

Dihybrid Cross RY Ry rY ry RY RRYY Round/Yellow: 9 RRYy RrYY RrYy Ry RRYy Round/green: 3 RRyy RrYy Rryy wrinkled/Yellow: 3 rY RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy wrinkled/green: 1 ry RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio copyright cmassengale 75 .

Dihybrid Cross Round/Yellow: 9 Round/green: 3 wrinkled/Yellow: 3 wrinkled/green: 1 9:3:3:1 copyright cmassengale 76 .

Test Cross A mating between an individual of unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual. Example: bbC__ x bbcc BB = brown eyes Bb = brown eyes bb = blue eyes bC b___ bc CC = curly hair Cc = curly hair cc = straight hair copyright cmassengale 77 .

Test Cross Possible results: bC b___ C bC b___ c bc bbCc bbCc or bc bbCc bbcc copyright cmassengale 78 .

Summary of Mendel’s laws PARENT LAW OFFSPRING CROSS DOMINANCE TT x tt 100% Tt tall x short tall Tt x Tt 75% tall SEGREGATION tall x tall 25% short 9/16 round seeds & green RrGg x RrGg pods INDEPENDENT 3/16 round seeds & yellow round & green pods ASSORTMENT x 3/16 wrinkled seeds & green pods round & green 1/16 wrinkled seeds & yellow pods copyright cmassengale 79 .

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance copyright cmassengale 80 .

Incomplete Dominance F1 hybrids have an appearance somewhat in between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties. Example: snapdragons (flower) red (RR) x white (rr) r r RR = red flower R rr = white flower R copyright cmassengale 81 .

Incomplete Dominance r r produces the R Rr Rr F1 generation R Rr Rr All Rr = pink (heterozygous pink) copyright cmassengale 82 .

Incomplete Dominance copyright cmassengale 83 .

type O = ii copyright cmassengale 84 . type AB = IAIB 4. type B = IBIB or IBi 3. Example: blood type 1. Codominance Two alleles are expressed (multiple alleles) in heterozygous individuals. type A = IAIA or IAi 2.

Codominance Problem Example: homozygous male Type B (IBIB) x heterozygous female Type A (IAi) IA i IB IAIB IBi 1/2 = IAIB 1/2 = IBi IB IAIB IBi copyright cmassengale 85 .

Another Codominance Problem • Example: male Type O (ii) x female type AB (IAIB) IA IB i IAi IBi 1/2 = IAi 1/2 = IBi i IAi IBi copyright cmassengale 86 .

type AB (IAIB) copyright cmassengale 87 . what are the genotypes and phenotypes of their parents? boy .type O (ii) X girl . Codominance Question: If a boy has a blood type O and his sister has blood type AB.

Codominance Answer: IA i IB IAIB Parents: genotypes = IAi and IBi phenotypes = A and B i ii copyright cmassengale 88 .

Sex-linked Traits Traits (genes) located on the sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes are X and Y XX genotype for females XY genotype for males Many sex-linked traits carried on X chromosome copyright cmassengale 89 .

Sex-linked Traits Example: Eye color in fruit flies Sex Chromosomes fruit fly eye color XX chromosome .male copyright cmassengale 90 .female Xy chromosome .

Sex-linked Trait Problem
Example: Eye color in fruit flies
(red-eyed male) x (white-eyed female)
XRY x XrXr
Remember: the Y chromosome in males
does not carry traits.
Xr Xr
RR = red eyed
Rr = red eyed
rr = white eyed
XY = male
XX = female Y

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Sex-linked Trait Solution:

Xr Xr
50% red eyed
50% white eyed
Y Xr Y Xr Y male

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Female Carriers

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Genetic Practice Problems copyright cmassengale 94 .

Breed the P1 generation tall (TT) x dwarf (tt) pea plants t t T T copyright cmassengale 95 .

dwarf (tt) pea plants t t Tt Tt produces the T F1 generation T Tt Tt All Tt = tall (heterozygous tall) copyright cmassengale 96 . Solution: tall (TT) vs.

Breed the F1 generation tall (Tt) vs. tall (Tt) pea plants T t T t copyright cmassengale 97 .

Solution: tall (Tt) x tall (Tt) pea plants T t produces the TT Tt F2 generation T 1/4 (25%) = TT Tt tt 1/2 (50%) = Tt t 1/4 (25%) = tt 1:2:1 genotype 3:1 phenotype copyright cmassengale 98 .

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