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Rumus umum: CnH2n + 2

CH4 metana (natural gas, gas rawa (swamp)

75-85% CH4
CH3–CH3 (C2H6) ethana 5-10% C2H6
1-5% C3H8

CH3–CH2–CH3 (C3H8) propana (LPG)

CH3CH2CH2CH3 (C4H10) butana


Methane (CH4) Hexane (C6H14)

Ethane (C2H6) Heptane (C7H16)

Propane (C3H8) Octane (C8H18)

Butane (C4H10) Nonane (C9H20)

Pentane (C5H12) Decane (C10H22)

4 .

Gugus alkil yang umum (C1 sampai C4) CH3 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH CH2 Methyl Butyl CH3 CH3 CH2 Isobutyl Ethyl (2-Methylpropyl) CH3 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH CH3 C Propyl CH3 CH3 CH3 CH sec-Butyl tert-Butyl CH3 (1-Methylpropyl) (1.1-Dimethylethyl) Isopropyl (1-Methylethyl) 5 .

• Atom-atom karbon di dalam alkana dan senyawa organik yang lain diklasifikasikan berdasarkan jumlah atom karbon lain yang langsung terikat pada atom C tersebut 6 .

RUMUS UMUM SIKLOALKANA CnH2n CH2 = siklopropana H2C CH2 etilsiklobutana 1-isopropil-3-metilsiklopentana 7 .

Nomenklature alkana (IUPAC) Satu substituent  Tentukan rantai terpanjang – rantai induk  Beri nomor dari ujung yang terdekat dengan subtituen  Tentukan substituennya dan berilah nomor  Gabungkan nomor dan nama substituent dengan nama rantai induk. pisahkan dengan tanda garis 8 .

Nomenklature Organik 4 3 2 1 CH3 CH2 CH CH3 CH3 2-metilbutana 9 .

Tentukan rantai karbon terpanjang yang tidak terputus 1 2 3 CH3 CH2 CH CH3 CH2 CH3 4 5 3-metilpentana 10 .

abaikan urutan alfabetnya  Tentukan letak gugus pada rantai dengan nomor  Letakkan gugus secara alfabetis dengan nomor yang sesuai  Susunlah nama utuhnya. gunakan garis untuk memisahkan nomor dari “text” 11 .Dua substituen yang berbeda  Beri nomor cincin dari ujung yang terdekat dengan gugus.

bukan dimetil  Gunakan nomor untuk menetukan letak gugus pada rantai  Gunakan koma untuk memisahkan nomor  awalan: di = 2tri = 3 tetra = 4 penta = 5 12 . dll. gunakan awalan di pada nama gugus tersebut : dimetil.  Dimetil. Dua atau lebih susbtituen yang identik  Untuk dua gugus yang identik. dietil. alfabetisnya adalah metil.

Penomoran dari ujung yang dekat dengan substituen pertama CH3 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH3 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CH2 CH3 3-etil-5-metiloktana 13 .

Jika anda dapat memberi nama senyawa ini.6-trimetilnonana 14 .6. anda dapat mengerjakan semuanya! CH3 CH3 1 2 3 4 5 6 CH3 CH CH2 CH CH2 C CH3 7 CH3 CH CH2 8 9 CH3 CH2 CH3 4-isopropil-2.

• A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties. 15 . Functional Groups • Most organic molecules contain a carbon backbone consisting of C-C and C-H bonds to which functional groups are attached. • Structural features of a functional group include: • Heteroatoms—atoms other than carbon or hydrogen.  Bonds most commonly occur in C-C and C-O double bonds.

Parts of a Functional Group 16 .

or  bonds. a Molecule with No Functional Group • This molecule has only C-C and C-H bonds. • Therefore. Ethane. • It contains no polar bonds. ethane has no reactive sites (functional groups). lone pairs. 17 . ethane and molecules like it (alkanes) are very unreactive. • Consequently.

• They may be aliphatic or aromatic. 18 . Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons are compounds made up of only the elements carbon and hydrogen.

Importance of Functional Groups A functional group determines all of the following properties of a molecule: • bonding and shape • type and strength of intermolecular forces • physical properties • nomenclature • chemical reactivity 19 .

20 . • Functional groups determine the type and strength of these interactions. Intermolecular Forces • Intermolecular forces are interactions that exist between molecules. • Ionic and Covalent compounds have very different intermolecular interactions.

shown below in order of increasing strength:  van der Waals forces  dipole-dipole interactions  hydrogen bonding 21 . • The nature of the forces between molecules depends on the functional group present. Intermolecular Forces in Covalent Molecules • Covalent compounds are composed of discrete molecules. • There are three different types of interactions.

• They are weak interactions caused by momentary changes in electron density in a molecule. • They are the only attractive forces present in nonpolar compounds. 22 . van der Waals Forces • van der Waals forces are also known as London forces.

van der Waals Forces and Surface Area • All compounds exhibit van der Waals forces. Figure 3. and the stronger the intermolecular forces.1 23 . the larger the attractive force between two molecules. • The larger the surface area of a molecule.

like iodine. are more polarizable than smaller atoms like fluorine. which have more tightly held electrons. 24 . van der Waals Forces and Polarizability • Polarizability is a measure of how the electron cloud around an atom responds to changes in its electronic environment. Larger atoms. which have more loosely held valence electrons.

acetone below) align so that the partial positive and partial negative charges are in close proximity. 25 . • The dipoles in adjacent molecules (e..g. • These attractive forces caused by permanent dipoles are much stronger than weak van der Waals forces. Dipole-Dipole Interactions • Dipole-dipole interactions are the attractive forces between the permanent dipoles of two polar molecules.

is electrostatically attracted to a lone pair of electrons on an O. • Hydrogen bonding is the strongest of the three types of intermolecular forces. or F. Hydrogen Bonding • Hydrogen bonding typically occurs when a hydrogen atom bonded to O. N. or F atom in another molecule. 26 . N.

Boiling Point and Intermolecular Forces • The relative strength of the intermolecular forces increases from pentane to butanal to 1-butanol. • The boiling points of these compounds increase in the same order. 27 .

• For two compounds with similar functional groups. • The stronger the intermolecular forces. the more symmetrical the compound. the higher the melting point. 28qccccc QQ . energy is needed to overcome the attractive forces in the more ordered crystalline solid. Melting Point • The melting point is the temperature at which a solid is converted to its liquid phase. the higher the melting point. • In melting.

29 . the higher the melting points (the same is true for boiling points). • The stronger the intermolecular attraction. the melting point depends upon the identity of the functional group. Melting Point Trends • For covalent molecules of approximately the same molecular weight.

Effect of Symmetry on Melting Points • For compounds having the same functional group and similar molecular weights. which has a CH3 group dangling from a four-carbon chain. 30 . • Neopentane has a much higher melting point than isopentane. does not. the higher the melting point. • A compact symmetrical molecule like neopentane packs well into a crystalline lattice whereas isopentane. the more compact and symmetrical the shape.

dissolves in a liquid. 31 . called a solute. called a solvent. • The energy needed to break up the interactions between the molecules or ions of the solute comes from new interactions between the solute and the solvent. Solubility • Solubility is the extent to which a compound.

” • Compounds dissolve in solvents having similar kinds of intermolecular forces. 32 .. • Nonpolar or weakly polar compounds dissolve in: • nonpolar solvents (e.g. Solubility Trends • “Like dissolves like..g. diethyl ether [CH3CH2OCH2CH3]). carbon tetrachloride [CCl4] and hexane [CH3(CH2)4CH3]). • weakly polar solvents (e. • Polar compounds dissolve in polar solvents like water or alcohols capable of hydrogen bonding with the solute.

• For example. 33 . compare the solubility of butane and acetone in H2O and CCl4. Solubility of Organic Molecules • An organic compound is water soluble only if it contains one polar functional group capable of hydrogen bonding with the solvent for every five C atoms it contains.

34 . Pembakaran (Combustion) C8H18 +  Heats (enthalpies) of combustion:  Hcomb ~ ~ ~ ~ 1307. are more stable.6 kcal 1303. Sifat kimia dari alkana (reaksi alkana) Alkana  kurang reaktif = parafin (parum afin = afinitas kecil) A.5 kcal 1306.0 kcal ~ ~ ~ ~ CO2 + H2O More branched isomers have lower Hcomb.3 kcal 1304.

B. Reaksi halogenasi 250oC – 400oC sinar CH4 + X2 CH3X + HX Reaktivitas X2 : Cl2> Br2 (iodinasi tak terjadi) H : 3o > 2o > 1 o 250oC – 400oC sinar CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl 35 .

Reaksi oksidasi dan reduksi dalam senyawa organik H3C CH3 H2C CH2 HC CH oxidation fewer C-H bonds reduction more C-H bonds H2C=CH2 + H2O2  HO–CH2–CH2–OH H2C=CH2 + H2O  CH3–CH2–OH H2C=CH2 + H2  CH3–CH3 36 .B.

heating oil • Origin: petroleum refining 37 . kerosene.Manfaat utama Alkana • C1-C2: gas (gas alam) • C3-C4: liquified petroleum (LPG) • C5-C8: gasoline • C9-C16: diesel. jet fuel • C17-up: lubricating oils.

Pengantar Kimia. Fessenden.J. EGC. Teori VSEPR Kepolaran dan gaya Antarmolekul.D. Jilid I. Erlangga..J.J. Daftar Pustaka • Effendy.. Bayumedia Publishing.G. Kimia Organik. 2006.S. Edisi 2. 1997. Jakarta • Smith. Jakarta . 2006. • Sumardjo. Edisi 3. Malang • Fessenden..R.