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Musculoskeletal System

Cartilages
• Hyaline:
(1) articular cartilages
(2) costal cartilages
(3) respiratory cartilages
(4) nasal cartilages
• Elastic: external ear, epiglottis
• Fibrocartilage: menisci, intervertebral discs

Functions of Bones • Support • Protection • Movement • Mineral and growth factor storage • Blood cell formation .

Bones • Long bones • Short bones Sesamoid bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones .

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Joints • Structural classification: – Fibrous joints – Cartilaginous joints – Synovial joints • Functional classification: – Synarthroses – Amphiarthroses – Diarthroses .

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General structure of synovial joints • Articular cartilage • Joint (synovial) cavity • Articular capsule: fibrous capsule (external layer) synovial membrane (internal layer) • Synovial fluid • Reinforcing ligaments: capsular/intrinsic ligaments extracapsular ligaments intracapsular ligaments .

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Bursae and Tendon Sheaths .

Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints • Range of motion: – Nonaxial – Uniaxial – Biaxial – Multiaxial • Types of movements: – Gliding – Angular – Rotation .

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Types of Synovial Joints • Plane joints • Hinge joints • Pivot joints • Condyloid joints.or ellipsoidal joints • Saddle joints • Ball-and-socket joints .

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Types of Muscle Tissue • Skeletal muscle tissue skeletal. striated. and involuntary • Smooth muscle tissue visceral. nonstriated. and involuntary . striated. and voluntary • Cardiac muscle tissue cardiac.

Functional Characteristics of Muscle Tissue • Excitability • Contractility • Extensibility • Elasticity .

Muscle Functions • Producing movement • Maintaining posture • Stabilizing joints • Generating heat .

Gross Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle .

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Isotonic vs Isometric Contractions .

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the powerful quadriceps muscles of the anterior thigh lengthen (are stretched). or deep knee bends. Concentric vs Eccentric Contractions Squats. but at the same time they also contract (eccentrically) to counteract the force of gravity and control the descent of the torso (“muscle braking”) and prevent joint injury. eccentric contractions put the body in position to contract concentrically. As the knees flex. provide a simple example of how concentric and eccentric contractions work together in our everyday activities. . Raising the body back to its starting position requires that the same muscles contract concentrically as they shorten to extend the knees again. As you can see.

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Interactions of Skeletal Muscles in the Body Muscles can be classified into four functional groups: • Prime mover or agonist • Antagonists • Synergists • Fixators .

Naming Skeletal Muscles
• Location of the muscle
• Shape of the muscle
• Relative size of the muscle
• Direction of muscle fibers
• Number of origins
• Location of the attachments
• Action

Arrangement of Fascicles
• Circular
• Convergent
• Parallel
• Fusiform
• Pennate:
Unipennate
Bipennate
Bultipennate

the more the muscle can shorten • Muscle power depends more on the total number of muscle cells in the muscle. the greater the number.• Skeletal muscle fibers shorten to about 70% of their resting length when they contract • The longer and the more nearly parallel the muscle fibers are to a muscle’s long axis. the greater the power .

along with overlying tissues and anything else you are trying to move with that lever . Lever Systems: Bone-Muscle Relationships • Lever: bones • Fulcrum: joints • Effort: muscle contraction • Load: the bone itself.

• Effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage  power lever • Effort nearer than load to fulcrum = mechanical disadvantage  speed lever .

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with the fulcrum somewhere between • Some first-class levers in the body operate at a mechanical advantage. such as the action of the triceps muscle in extending the forearm against resistance. First-Class Levers • The effort is applied at one end of the lever and the load is at the other. but others. operate at a mechanical disadvantage .

but speed and range of motion are sacrificed for that strength . with the load between them • All second-class levers in the body work at a mechanical advantage because the muscle insertion is always farther from the fulcrum than is the load to be moved • Second-class levers are levers of strength. Second-Class Levers • The effort is applied at one end of the lever and the fulcrum is located at the other.

which allows rapid. extensive movements with relatively little shortening of the muscle • Muscles involved in third-class levers tend to be thicker and more powerful . Third-Class Levers • The effort is applied between the load and the fulcrum • These levers operate with great speed and always at a mechanical disadvantage • Third-class lever systems permit a muscle to be inserted very close to the joint across which movement occurs.

force is lost but speed and range of movement are gained • Systems that operate at a mechanical advantage (power levers) are slower. and used where strength is a priority .• In conclusion. more stable. differences in the positioning of the three elements modify muscle activity with respect to: (1) speed of contraction (2) range of movement (3) the weight of the load that can be lifted • In lever systems that operate at a mechanical disadvantage (speed levers).

Major Skeletal Muscles of the Body .