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Wind loading and structural response

Lecture 20 Dr. J.D. Holmes

Large roofs and sports stadiums

Large roofs and sports stadiums

• Entertainment centres, exhibition centres, sports arenas etc

• Quasi-steady approach is not applicable

• Resonant effects can be significant

• Bending moments in arches and domes are sensitive to distribution of wind
load

Large roofs and sports stadiums • General flow characteristics : Separation Shear layer positions: “bubble” High turbulence Low turbulence Fluctuating re- Stagnation attachment Point point • Mainly attached flow on large roofs .

separation occurs downstream of apex . Large roofs and sports stadiums • General flow characteristics : Separation point • On arched roof.

Large roofs and sports stadiums • Mean pressure distributions : C p  1.0 U.O.W. Wind-tunnel tests • Fluctuations in pressure will generate downwards pressures for short times .

0 0.0 -1.4 0.1 -0.0 -0.7 -0.3 -1.6 -0.1 0.4 gap at rear reduces net pressures .8 -1. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Mean net pressure distributions (cantilevered stadium roof): blocked at rear C/L 0.1 -1.2 -1.2 -0.2 0.1 -0.

Large roofs and sports stadiums • Arched roof : he R S L wind loads depend strongly on R/S (rise/span) less strongly on L/S and he/S .

4 0 +0.45 L/S = 1.5 +0.0  = 0o increasing L/S  pressures on roof become more negative .5 -0.4 -0.25 R/S = 0.3 -0.5 -0.3 +0.3 -0.4 +0.8 -0.6 -0.2 -0. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Arched roof (Cp) : -0.2 he/R = 0.

7 -0.5 higher negative values -0.7 +0.2 -0.4 -0.1 -0.45 -0.7 +0.6 -0.5 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 +0.4 -0. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Arched roof (Cp) : +0.3 0 +0.5 0 +0.2 -0.5 -0.3 -1.0 -0.2 +0.4 -0.7 .6 -0.4 -0.2 0 -0.

3 -0.3 -0.4 lower negative values -0.5 +0.15 +0.2 positive R/S = 0.15 -0.45 L/S = 1. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Arched roof (Cp) : -0.0  = 0o .2 -0.25 -0.9 -0.5 -0.2 +0.5 -0.7 -0.7 0 -0.5 -0.5 he/R = 0.4 -0.

Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads . Shapes may vary greatly from the mean pressure distribution Need to identify those distributions which produce maximum load effects . vortex generation etc.effective static load distributions Instantaneous pressure distributions vary greatly from time to time due to turbulence.

axial forces etc.m. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads . Chapter 5) Correlations for separated parts of a large roof are low: hence potential for significant reduction in peak effective loads and peak load effects (b.) . Later weighted with structural influence coefficients to obtain time histories of load effects. 2) Correlations between pressure fluctuations at different parts of the roof are measured and used to determine effective static load distributions (Lecture 13.’s. Instantaneous pressure distributions are identified and averaged.effective static load distributions Wind-tunnel methods for design wind loads : 1) Direct approach : simultaneous time histories from the whole roof are recorded and stored.

1992) : .effective static load distributions Arch roof (Kasperski. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .

effective static load distributions Sydney Olympics. 2000 Superdome Stadium Australia . Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .

2000 .1/500 wind-tunnel model Stadium Superdome Australia .effective static load distributions Sydney Olympics. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .

Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .effective static load distributions Stadium Australia (Sydney Olympics. 2000) N 21 6 9 24 3 18 2 5 20 23 8 17 11 15 1 19 22 4 7 10 12 14 13 16 Panel layout for wind-tunnel testing .

8 -0. 2000) WSW wind pressure coefficient for minimum load in Member 23 Area 8 -1.2 -0.4 180 160 140 120 100 80 20 60 40 40 20 . Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .effective static load distributions Stadium Australia (Sydney Olympics.

effective static load distributions Stadium Australia (Sydney Olympics.4 20 20 40 60 40 80 100 120 140 160 180 . Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .2 0. 2000) ESE wind pressure coefficient for max load in Member 1454 Main arch 0 0.

2000) 7 8 9 6 10 19 20 21 5 18 27 22 11 26 28 4 25 23 12 17 16 15 24 3 13 2 1 14 .effective static load distributions Superdome (Sydney Olympics. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .

1 Panel Number -0. 2000) 0.2 0.4 WSW -0.6 Effective static load distributions for axial loads in a particular roof member .2 -0.3 -0.effective static load distributions Superdome (Sydney Olympics.5 Extreme pressure limits Correlation approach Direct approach -0.3 SSE 0. Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .1 Pressure /kPa 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 -0.

contributions to load effects depend on similarity of mode shapes with influence lines .contribution from resonant modes Usually not significant for roofs supported all round or on two sides May be significant for cantilevered roofs : Vertical upwards 0 Time Very large roofs may have several modes below 1 Hertz . Large roofs and sports stadiums • Structural loads .

End of Lecture 20 John Holmes 225-405-3789 JHolmes@lsu.edu .