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Welcome to

IWCF Well control
Level 2

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Tháá ng 10/2011

All members of the Wellsite Operations team (pre-Driller) that directly
contribute to the creation, detection or well control of a well influx or
expected to have completed an accredited (eg: IWCF/IADC) well control
course at Level 2.
Training to have been completed within on year of assuming a position
that requires this level of training.
Pass/fail Examination: repeated every 5 years.
What if this course is not completed? Future tenders /projects may well
expect this level of certification of personnel to demonstrate the
necessary competence and understanding on their contribution to a well
site influx.
The integrity of the drilling operation may become compromised due to a
lack of understanding around basic safety standards.

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Tháng 10/2011

Who should do the course?
Drilling operations personnel at pre-Driller level who are undertaking a
well control course for the first time.
Recommended for oil field personnel with no drilling experience, for
example:
Derrickman, Assistant Derrickman, Barge Engineer, Casing Drew
Supervisor, Cementer, Coil Tubing Engineer/specialist, Completions
Engineer, Drilling Fluids Engineer, Facilities Engineer, Geologist, Marine
Supervisor, Mechanical Service Engineer, OIM (Offshore Installation
Manager), Operations Engineer, Operations Technician, Petroleum
Engineer, Safety Officer, Service Engineer, Subsea Engineer, Subsea
Supervisor, Dynamic Positioning [DP] Operators, Well Maintenance
Supervisor, Well Test Engineer, Wireline Crew Supervisor, Drilling
Contractor Wellsite Rig Engineer, Wellsite ROV Supervisor, Wellsite
Directional Driller, Fishing Engineer, Mud Loggers.

Well control incidence's

• Personnel
• Employment
• Environment

Well control incidence's
Personnel: The uncontrolled
release of pressure in a well can
easily lead to damage to equipment
and injury or even death to nearby
personnel.
Furthermore, the harmful chemicals
found in crude oil such as benzene
can have effects on those who
some into prolonged contact with it
which can cause health issues,
sometimes later in life.

well control incidents are commonly caused by worker negligence and can result in massive monetary losses and layoffs . Well control incidence's • Employment .

Well control can have varying environmental concerns or impacts ranging from the controlled and licensed discharge of BOP Stack control fluids through to the catastrophic and entirely uncontrolled discharge of formation fluids as was most recently experienced in the Gulf of Mexico which had a massive impact an the surrounding environment and marine life. Well control incidence's Environment . .

Arctic/corral . Effects of a well control incident • Capital loss • Over regulation • Moratorium on drilling • Limiting areas of operations e.g.

“Why are we here?" and how do we ???????? • Capability to apply well control skills • Responsibility to colleagues • Reduce the severity of impact of a well control event . Understand the need for well control training and assessment.

Barrier Envelope and barrier element • A "Well Barrier Envelope" is defined as a combination of one or more Well Barrier Elements that together constitute a method of containment of fluids within a well that prevents uncontrolled flow of fluids into another formation. • A "Well Barrier Element" is defined as a component part of a well designed to prevent fluids or gases from flowing unintentionally from a formation. or. into another formation or to escape at surface. to escape at surface. .

0. • Secondary Well Barrier: is the second object that prevents flow from a source. Barrier • Primary Well Barrier: is the first object that prevents flow from a source.etc In the example opposite you can see that the drilling fluid is the primary barrier and shows that the fluid (hydrostatic head pressure) is greater than the formation pressure giving an overbalance (primary barrier).052 = Constant (True Vertical Depth x Fluid Weight x 0. Blue = Primary barrier = mud =drilling fluid RED = Secondary barrier = casing.052 = Hydrostatic Pressure) .

Barrier envelope elements .

Barrier envelopes .

coring or stripping .Well barrier during drilling.

Useful Definitions • Unintentional flow: This is any flow of fluid (liquid or gas) in or out of the well through a failed barrier. • Independent: Each type of mechanical closing barrier in/on a well shall be able to be closed and contain the well bore fluids by its own control system irrespective of any power failure.  The second level of protection is called a secondary barrier.  The primary barrier’s function is to prevent unintentional flow to the environment or other formations. • In a system with two independent tested levels of protection i. barriers in place. it is required to be installed where it is intended and to be tested upon installation .  The secondary barrier is to prevent unintentional flow if the primary barrier fails.e.  The first level of protection is called a primary barrier. To be qualified as a Barrier. there shall be always one barrier that acts as a first level of protection and one as a second level of protection.

Barrier testing criteria • Pressure testing a barrier is by application of a differential pressure across a “seal” and measuring the capability of this seal to resist this differential pressure. Both are pressure testing in the direction of flow. This condition can be achieved by direct application of pressure (pressure testing) and measuring its seal tightness or by decreasing the hydrostatic pressure on the downstream side of the “seal” (Inflow testing) and measuring its effectiveness. .

• Pressure tested not in the direction of flow from well • By verification of location (e. Or. tagging. . ii) by use of inflow testing If this cannot be realistically achieved the following can be utilized subject to acceptable risk assessment. cementing etc. Water) Note: Shearing devices that are required to seal should be capable of being pressure tested after a shearing operation in order to qualify as a barrier .g. Some stable fluids may qualify as a barrier without maintenance ( e. Mechanical barrier & Hydrostatic Barrier Mechanical barrier: Pressure tested in the direction of flow from well to achieve required differential across the barrier element by either i) application of positive pressure.) Hydrostatic Barrier Required to be monitored and maintainable to qualify as a barrier.g.

The mitigation of risk during well control is achieved by reducing the probability of an incident occurring and/ or by reducing the level of severity if an incident were to occur . Risk Management Risk= Probability x Severity Risk Management is an important part of any operation and the management of risks is vital in ensuring that tasks can be comoleted safety and efficiently.

Risk Management A few of the measures we can take to reduce risk:  Training  Equipment Testing  Risk Assessments  Drills  Maintenance  Safety Cases  Understanding of Equipment  Blow Out Preventers  Safety Management System  Understanding of Risk  Subs/ Valves  Well Kill Procedures  Communication  Choke Manifold  Well Monitoring  Experience  Tubulars  Management of Change  Attitude  Fail safes  Lessons Learned  Mentoring  PPE .

Risk Management The main processes of risk management: • Hazard identification and mitigations • Crew meetings and handovers • Use instructions • Toolbox talks. .

or activities prior to implementation to make certain that no unforeseen new hazards are introduced and that the risk of existing hazards to employees. such as procedures. the public. • It also includes steps to help ensure that potentially affected personnel are notified of the change and that pertinent (relevant) documents. process safety knowledge. Management Of Change • The MOC element helps ensure that changes to a process do not inadvertently (accidently) introduce new hazards or unknowingly increase risk of existing hazards • The MOC element includes a review and authorization process for evaluating proposed adjustments to facility design. operations. . and so forth. are kept up–to-date. or the environment is not unknowingly increased. organization.

Well control drills The following guidelines shall be followed for well control drills : • Well control drills shall be initiated by the contractor or the Drilling Supervisor and performed under the supervision of the Drilling Supervisor to ensure that the crews are adequately trained and prepared to implement well control procedures correctly. A kick should be simulated by manipulation of a primary kick indicator such as the tank level indicator or the flowline indicator. • Well control drills shall only be conducted when they do not complicate ongoing operations. .

If not. All drill crew members must be capable and able to react correctly to the drill or real well control situation. the drill shall be repeated. Types of drills • Pit drill • Trip drill • Choke drill • Diverter drill. The designated crew member is a member of the drill crew who is present on the drill floor at the time of a BOP drill or well control situation. . Well control drills • Reaction time in seconds from the moment the kick is simulated until the well is closed in. The time taken should be less than a pre-determined benchmark. • The total time taken for the drill.

and at the discretion of the Drilling Supervisor. RETURN all settings to normal operating mode. PULL kelly above the rotary table until the lower kelly cock is above the drilling floor. OPEN the hydraulic operated valve in the side outlet from the BOP stack to the choke manifold (The inner valve is always open under normal conditions). On initiation the crew leader is to ALERT the crew and STOP the rotary. 4. . CLOSE the annular preventer 6. 5. TAKE readings of the closed-in annulus and drillpipe pressures 8.Pit Drills Procedure Before drilling out to any shoe. STOP the pumps. but not less than once every week per crew while normal drilling operations are in progress. 3. Note : A diagram with all relevant measurement relating to tool joint position should be available to the driller at the BOP control panel. INITIATE kick verbally or by raising a float (normally Drilling Supervisor or Toolpusher). 2. 1. at same time SLOW DOWN the pump. MEASURE the ‘gain’ in the active mud tank. Kick Drill While Drilling . END drill. 9. 7.

but not less than once every two weeks per crew while normal drilling operations are in progress. 5. END drill. Note: A diagram with all relevant measurements relating to tool joint position shall be available to the driller at the BOP control panel. RETURN all settings to normal operating mode . BRING tool joint to rotary level. 2. 3. On initiation the crew leader (Driller/Assistant driller) is to ALERT the crew. MAKE UP correct torque. 1. INSTALL circulating head. 8. 9. Kick Drill While Tripping – Trip Drills Procedure At the discretion of the Drilling Supervisor. 6. INSTALL stabbing valve in open position (hand tight). 10. CLOSE stabbing valve. 7. OPEN hydraulic operated valve in the side outlet from the BOP stack to the choke manifold. OPEN stabbing valve and TAKE readings of the closed-in annulus and drillpipe pressure. 4. CLOSE the annular preventer. INITIATE kick verbally or by raising a float in the trip tank. READ gain in trip tank.

slow the pump down and change the pump rate . BOP is ready for work • Get more practices when attempting to bring the pump up to kill speed. The advantages from the choke drill are as follows: • Get more familiar to practice controlling the pressure via a choke on the rig • Get more understanding about lag time • Practice the procedure to obtain the shut-in drill pipe pressure • Ensure the surface well control equipment as pressure gauges. Choke drill Choke drill is one of well control drills that will improve crew competency in well control’s method. choke.

Bring the pump to kill rate by holding casing pressure constant – personnel need to adjust the choke 8. 10. Choke drill procedures 1. Measure lag time for the drill pipe gage after the adjustment of choke is made. Shut the pump down by holding casing pressure constant. Bleed off pressure and line up for drilling operation . Line up the pump 6. Fill the pipe and circulate seawater or mud around for few minutes 3.) 5. Change circulation rate by holding casing pressure constant. Pump slowly to bump the float and obtain shut in drill pipe pressure 7. Close annular preventer or upper rams preventer 4. Trip in hole above top of cement 2. Pressure up annulus to 200 psi (the pressure may be different depending on the company policy. 11. 9. Crew needs to adjust choke to achieve this.

Open the diverter line valve(s). Raise the kelly until a tool joint is above the rotary table. 2. Close the diverter unit (or annular preventer). RETURN all settings to normal operating mode . Diverter drill procedures 1. Notify company personnel. 7. Increase the pump rate to maximum output 3. 4. 5. Open diverter 8. END drill. Ensure diverter closed 6.

48 galls/cu/ft lbs/cu/ft lbs/cu/ft 1’ 1’ 144 sq.in 1’ 1’ 1’ 7.052 psi Divide 7.48 gallons of fluid.48 7.48 by 144 to get a 144 mathematical constant 12” 12” .48 = 0. Pressure Gradient One cubic foot holds If the fluid has a On the bottom of a 7.ins 12” 1’ 1’ 12” To calculate the pressure exerted by this fluid on one sq.48 7.in 1’ 7. density of 1ppg cubic foot is 144 sq.

052 psi/ft Or: HP = Fluid gradient x TVD Fluid gradient = psi/ft .052 P = psi d = ppg TVD = feet Conversion factor = 0. Hydrostatic Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of fluid with pumps off and is calculated by multiplying the gradient of the fluid by the True Vertical Depth at the depth of interest P = d x TVD x 0.

0 ppg Fluid Density? PRESSURE GRADIENT= 9 ppg x 0.052= 7436 ÷13 ÷0.000 ft .052= 8.465 ÷ 0.000 ft.052=14 ppg Example: Hydrostatic pressure= 7436 psi.468 (psi/ft) Example: Calculate Fluid Density off 0.465 psi/ft Pressure Gradient? Mud Density= 0. Calculating examples Example: Calculate Pressure Gradient off 9.052= 8736 ÷12000÷0. Fluid Density =13 ppg.052= 11.052= 0. TVD=12. Calculate TVD? TVD = Hydrostatic pressure ÷ Fluid Density ÷ 0. Calculate Fluid Density? Fluid Density= Hydrostatic pressure ÷TVD ÷ 0.94 ppg Example: Hydrostatic pressure= 8736 psi.

125 ft = 3.052 x (10. a 15 ppg fluid from TD to 7.086 psi Total HP = 2.633 psi HP of 8.052 x 3.719 psi . What is the HP at the bottom of the well? HP of 15 ppg fluid = 15 ppg x 0.125 ft.33 ppg fluid = 8.125) ft = 15 ppg x 0.086 psi = 5.375 ft = 2. Calculating examples Example: A 10. and an 8.7.33 ppg x 0.33 ppg fluid to surface.052 x 7.500 ft TVD well has two fluids in the well.633 psi + 3.500 .

Seismic survey .

Sample 2-D marine seismic line. The line is merged from individual shots (along the X-axis). and the Y-axis displays the time in thousands of a second it takes the seismic wave to travel from the surface to a reflector and back again .

Source rock (shale or coal) .

465 psi/ft at IWCF test Average normal pore pressure Gulf of Mexico .Normal Formation Pressure Normal formation pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure of the water occupying the pore spaces from the surface to the subsurface formation. Native fluid is mainly dependent on its salinity and is often considered to be: Normal pore pressure gradient 0.

465 PSI/FT SUBNORMAL ABNORMAL PRESSURE PRESSURE DEPTH . Normal/ abnormal pore pressure PRESSURE NORMAL PRESSURE IS NORMALY WITHIN THE PORES DOWN TO 3000 FT EQUAL 0.

Formation pressure 0.4 65 psi Abnormal P f /ft Normal P f Depth Subnormal P f Formation Pressure .

The principal causes of abnormal pressures are: • Under-compaction in Shale’s • Faulting • Salt domes • Aquifers. . Abnormal Pressure A pressure that is higher than the definition given for normal pressure is abnormal.

Different oil traps .

The most common reason for abnormal pressure is UNDERCOMPACTED SHALES UNCONSOLIDATED SHALE-DENSITY INCREASES WITH DEPTH .WATER ESCAPES SAND WITH COMMUNICATION TO SURFACE SHALE-DENSITY DECREASES WITH DEPTH-WATER ENCLOSED Abnormal pressure ENCLOSED SAND LENS WITH FORMATION FLUID .

clay traps oil and prevents it from leaving the trap. FAULTING These types of traps are formed when reservoir rock is split along a fault line. Between the walls of the split reservoir. . Other times there exists a pressure differential across the two sides of the fault that prevents the fluids from migrating.

salt domes can rise thousands of feet above the layer of salt from which they began growing. Salt domes can form in a sedimentary basin where a thick layer of salt is overlain by younger sediments of significant thickness. Where conditions allow. Salt dome A salt dome is a mound or column of salt that has intruded upwards into overlying sediments. .

or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer. rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel. pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer . AQUIFER An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock. sand.

Mud weight window A narrow mud-weight window determined by the formation pore pressure and fracturing pressure gradients .

fluids must be pumped into it • The pore fluid flow rate is limited • Once the pore fluid flow (if any) rate is exceeded the formation rock becomes stressed and may deform. then fracture . • Porous permeable formations allow formation.  Just overcoming formation pressure is normally not enough to create a fracture. Fracture Pressure  Formation Fracture pressure is the amount of pressure necessary to permanently split or break the rock structure of a formation. or pore fluid to flow • As such.

Fracture Pressure .

0 psi/ft = 10. OVERBURDEN GRADIENT (Onshore) • If the average overburden gradient is = 1.000 psi What dose this mean? It means if we want to lift the formation at this depth the nesessary force will be 10000 lbs pr sqare inch .000 ft x 1.0 psi/ft • Calculate the overburden stress at 10000 ft. OB F=pxA A 10.

465 psi/ft = 930 psi OB 8.OVERBURDEN GRADIENT (Offshore) Salt Water Gradient 0.000 ft.000 ft x 1.000 ft is ? 2. When the water depth is 2000 ft.465 psi/ft Overburden Gradient 1.000 ft x 0.0 psi/ft = 8. 1 psi/ft Overburden stress at 10.465 psi/ft Determe the overburden pressure at 10.0 psi/ft 0.000 psi Pressure at 10000 ft TVD = 8.930 psi F .

000x1= 8.000 ft Formation gradient: 0.000 psi Seawater gradient: 0.930 psi Overburden Stress [psi] .Overburden stress Onshore Formation gradient: 1.465 = 930 psi 8.000x1 = 10.000x0.465 psi/ft Overburden Stress: 2.0 psi/ft Overburden Stress: 10.000 psi = 8.465 Offshore Depth = 10.

Effects of water depth on formation fracture pressure. • Onshore: Convert 10.000/ (10.000’ TVD in to ppg = 10.2 ppg • Offshore: Convert 10.052) = 17.000’ TVD in to ppg = 8930/ (10.052) = 19.000 x 0.000 x 0.000 psi at 10. .000 psi at 10.1 ppg Water depth will reduce the formation fracture pressure and offshore wells will have smaller margin between mud weight and fracture pressure than land wells because of water depth effect.

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3. Drilling fluid density must be consistent and continuous measured (monitored). Well control Primary Acitive The function of Well Control can be subdivided into 3 main categories: 1. Tertiary well control is to drill a relief well . size and rating of the BOPs used depend on the depth of the hole and the maximum anticipated formation pressures. 2. The number. This is done by activating Passive (closing) the blow-out preventers (BOPs). Secondary (passive) well control is activated when primary well control has failed to prevent formation fluids Secondary from entering the wellbore. Primary (active) well control is a overbalanced drilling fluid which prevent an influx of formation fluid into the well bore.

• Vessel movement and weather (emergency disconnect) • BOP on the sea bed • Water depth • Riser above the BOP • Choke and kill lines. . The differences between surface and subsea drilling operations.

Vessel movement and weather (emergency disconnect) .

the LMRP can be unlatched. If the weather offshore is reaching the rigs limit. This could be due to several reasons such as a Blowout or the Dynamically Positioned Rig/ vessel driving off the locatio inadvertenly or the weather reaching the vessels limits. the LMRP can also be disconnected then reconnected without having to return the LMRP to the surface.EQUIPMENT Lower Marine Riser Package (Subsea BOP) When this annular is used and has a failure or is worn out. . the LMRP can be released and retrieved to the surface for servicing while the Lower Blowout Preventer Stack maintains pressure competency on the wellhead. In an emergency.

Mud Tanks ( where the mud is stored) 2. Shaleshakers mounted on top of mud tanks . Standpipe manifold 4. Circulating System The Rig Circulating System consists of: 1. Flowline 8. Swivel and Kelly or Topdrive 6. Mud Pumps ( which are supercharged with mud from the tanks to their suction lines) 3. Drillstring 7. Rotary Hose 5.

Circulating system .

Drilling fluids functions • Maintaining primary control • Carry and suspend drill cuttings • Filter cake. .

Drilling set-up .

Drilling of a well .

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Mud Circulation System .

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DYNAMIC & STATIC PRESSURES Dynamic Pressure = Pumps on Static Pressure = Pumps off What happens with BHP when pums are turned off ? .

Circulating Pressure .

Static Bottom Hole Pressure Drilling fluid density in the well is 10 ppg and the pumps are off Static Bottom Hole Pressure SBHP = d (ppg) x 0. Calculate static BHP. 10 ppg x 0.000 ft = 5200 psi. 5200 psi .052 x TVD and the wells drilling fluid density is 10 ppg and depth of the well 10.052 x10.000 ft TVD is 10000 ft TVD.052 x TVD (ft) Example : Ps = ppg x 0.

000ft + 300 psi = 5500 psi.052 x10. Calculate circulating Bottom Hole Pressure Dynamic BHP = 10 ppg x 0. 5500 psi .000 ft = 5200 psi.052 x10. Dynamic bottom hole pressure ECD or Annular Pressure Loss • Pump pressure with 30 SPM = 2600 psi • Pressure drop in surface lines = 100 psi • Pressure loss in drill string = 500 psi • Pressure loss in BHA = 400 psi • Bit pressure drop = 1300 psi • APL = 300 psi Static BHP = 10 ppg x 0.

Equivalent Circulating Density The ECP will increase circulating BHP with an amount equal annulus friction pressure and is calculated by Example: • APL = 300 psi • Mud weight = 10 ppg • Depth = 10.000) + 10 = 10.000 ft ECD = 300/ (0.5 ppg .052 x 10.

PUMP STROKE CHANGE 2600 psi It is a good practice to calculate change in circulating pressure before changing pump speed. What will the new pump pressure become? . 4063 psi Calculate change in pumping pressure: 2 100  P2  psi   2600     4063 psi  80  If we increase pump stroke from 80 spm to100 spm.

. Formula used to calculate change in bottom hole pressure is Calculate new pump pressure if MW is increased from 10 ppg to 11 ppg.Drilling fluid density change Pump pressure = 2600 psi It is a good drilling practice to calculate new circulating pressure before changing the mud weight. The new pump 11 pressure would be P2  2600   2860psi 10 approximately 2860 psi.

There is nothing wrong with the answers but what about well control? .Roughneck/ Shaker Hand Shale Shakers Question: (given to a Roughneck /Shaker Hand) Why are you in the shale shaker room‘? Answers: • To keep the area clean. • To take the Mud Weight every 15 to 30 minutes • To Make sure the mud flows over all shakers by adjusting the gates at the header box. • To watch that the cuttings don’t block the screens • To Change out screens as required.

 The Driller must be Informed of any changes/anomalies witnessed in the Shaker Room.Roughneck/ Shaker Hand (cont) A Roughneck/ Shaker Hand should also be aware of the following when working in the Shaker Room. inform the Driller (the well could be flowing) .  The need to know and understand how to carry out a flow check when required  If mud is coming over the shale shakers and you know the mud pumps are not pumping.

Roughneck/ Shaker Hand (cont)  If you see an in increase in fluid flow coming over the shale shakers (the well control be starting to flow)  If there are any changes the weight of the fluid being returned (there are several reasons this could be happening such as the fluid could be gas cut and be lighter or water flow was encountered down hole) .

.Roughneck/ Shaker Hand (cont) • Changes in cuttings coming over the shakers such as the shape and size of cuttings. This could be the first indication of a problem. Long splinter type slivers will often indicate the mud weight being too low.. The splinters will often come from the wall of the hole blown off by the formation pressure.

 Understand and know the time it takes for the mud/ fluid flow to stop at the shale shaker once the mud pumps have been switched off (if it takes longer than expected the well could be flowing). He may be thinking that he is losing mud down hole).Roughneck/ Shaker Hand (cont)  Losing Mud over the shale shakers (inform the Driller.  Change out shaker screens as required. .  Make sure the Degasser in working correctly and always ready for operation.

. There are usually three or more Shale Shakers run in parallel and screen mesh sizes are changed regularly to meet the changing conditions as drilling the well bore progresses. A typical Shale Shaker is composed of two or three vibrating screens over which the mud passes.Shale Shaker The solids removal equipment includes mechanical devices for separating drilled cuttings from the mud as it returns from the well bore. The mud falls on to the lower screens which have finer mesh size to catch the smaller cuttings but again allows the mud to pass through. The Shale Shaker is the first stage and removes most of the coarse rock cuttings and cavings. The upper scren has a large mesh size that allows the mud to pass through the scren out separates the coarse drilled cuttings. The screens vibrate or ‘shake’ to remove the ‘Shale’ hence the name.

the mud being fed tangentially into the upper (larger diameter) part. Hydrocyclones are classified by the size of the cone as either desanders (typically 12" in diameter) or desilters (4-6" in diameter) and will separate particles in the medium and fine size ranges. while the cleaned liquid exits at the top. . The resulting spinning effect forces solids to the wall of the device and they exit from the bottom (apex) of the cone. Desilter and Desander An item of solids-control equipment.consisting of an inverted cone. high-speed shakers. The efficiency of hydrocyclones is poor in viscous weighted muds and many units are being replaced by more efficient.

if this not managed correctly it could lead to the Hydrostatic Pressure being reduced down hole. causing a Kick. . Drilling fluid is fed into one end and the separated solids are moved up the bowl by a rotating scroll to exit at the other end. caution must be taken not to reduce the mud density too much. When Running a Centrifuge using mud from the active mud system. Centrifuges generally have limited processing capacity (50-250 gpm) but are useful for processing weighted drilling fluids and can remove finer solids than a Hydrocylone or Shale Shaker screens. CENTRIFUGE The centrifuge removes fine and ultra fine solids. It consists of a conical drum that rotates at around 2000-4000 rpm.

Heavier particles settle at the low side of the wellbore and lighter fluids are at the high side • Solid removal equipment: Solids are added to increase drilling fluid density to control pressure . the complex setting mechanism called “Boycott settling” can cause quick settling. for example: • Barite sag: In vertical wells. Barite sag Potential problems with the loss of barite. Whereas. in deviated wells. barite sag happens when circulation is stopped.

SLOW CIRCULATION RATE Well Control Operations are conducted at reduced circulating rates in order to • Minimise excess of annulus pressure • Allows for more controlled choke adjustments • Allows for the weighting up and degassing of the mud and disposal of the influx • Reduce the risk of choke erosion • Reduce risk of over pressuring system if plugging occurs .

SCR on 2 pumps and 2 rates • If practical. at the beginning of every tour at lease once a tour • Any time the mud properties are changed • When a bit nozzle is changed • When the BHA is changed • After repairs have been made to the mud pumps • After long open hole section .

SCR • A minimum of 2 (two) circulating rates should be obtained for minimum 2 (two) pumps • The pressure must be recorded using the gauges that will be used during well kill operations .

Pump down string and up Marine Riser.Different ways to determineChoke Line Friction (CLF) 1. CLF = 200 psi . 500 psi 2. pump down string and up Choke Line. With the BOP closed. 700 psi Subtract the two recorded pressures and CLF is obtained.

Keep the Kill Line open. The pressure read on the kill Gauge is CLF. .2 With the BOP closed. pump down String and up Choke Line.

3 Pump down Kill Line between two closed Rams and up Choke Line . . The Pressure recorded divided by 2 is CLF.

4 Pump down Choke and up Marine Riser. Recorded pressure is CLF . .

Pressure losses Well Control – Subsea BOP Considerations • BOP pressure monitor present? • Mud gel strength may influence pressure readings – Example: kill line used as pressure monitor • Riser pressure losses may become significant in case of ultra deep-water .

Leak Off Test .

Formation Strength Test or LOT By pressuring up the formation we can determine at what pressure at surface the formation will start to leak. The test is called a leak off test (LOT) and determines the pressure at which the formation begins to take fluid. . covering various pressure ranges and preferably mounted on a special manifold.  Is conducted after drilling out 10 to 30ft below the casing shoe.  The LOT give us information about the strength of the formation and the integrity of the cement job.  Pull the bit back into the casing shoe  Line up calibrated pressure gauges.  Circulate and condition mud.

. the initial static pressure and the final static pressure after the waiting period.0.  Record the cumulative volume pumped. but to determine “formation leak pressure”.  The objective of a LOT is not to fracture the formation.25 .5 bbl/min. When formation starts to leak we will stop pumping to avoid fracturing the formation. LOT  When performing a LOT we use a high pressure. low volume pump (0.) such as the cement pump or a test pump whish can deliver smooth pumping.  Rig pumps are not suitable to perform leak off tests.  This “leak pressure” is observed when the strait line starts to bend.

Leak of test PRESSURE 1100 1000 900 800 MAASP =720 psi * * * 700 * * * 600 * 500 * 400 * * 300 * 200 * 100 * * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 VOLUME .

. Formation Integrity Test Formation Integrity Test is the method to test strength of formation and shoe by increasing Bottom Hole Pressure (BHP) to designed pressure.

Gradually pump small amount of drilling fluid into well with constant pump stroke. 4. Record total pump strokes. 3. Drill out new formation few feet. Hold pressure for few minutes to confirm pressure. line up a pump. Stop the pump and close a choke valve. 2. Close annular preventer or pipe rams. normally a cement pump. Formation Integrity Test 1. . Bleed off pressure and open up the well. 5. Then proceed drilling operation. and circulate through an open choke line to ensure that surface line is fully filled with drilling fluid. drill pipe pressure and casing pressure. circulate bottom up and collect sample to confirm that new formation is drilled to and then pull string into the casing. Pump until casing pressure reaches the pressure required for formation integrity test.

 The weakest point is normally considered to be under the shoe.A.Maximum Allowable Annular Surface pressure M.P MAASP must never be exceeded.  MAASP is defined as the surface pressure that when added to the HH exerted by the drilling fluid density column.052 x Shoe TVD .S.  This value of the MAASP is based on the Leak Off Test data. MAASP= ( MAMW.A.Drilling MW) x 0. if exceeded. could result in formation breakdown at the weakest point in the well.

6 ppg MAASP= 720 psi 3. LOT 720 psi 720 psi MW 9.000’ + 1498 psi FR =2218 psi Calculate bottom hole leaking pressure FP = MAASP + Hydrostatic Pressure .

052 .052 MAMD= 2218 = 14.6 = 14.2 ppg 3000 X 0.2 ppg 3000 x 0. Rounded down one decimal 0 psi Calculate static MAASP = 720 psi 3.6 ppg 2218 psi 720 MAMD = + 9.000’ MW = 9.Maximum Allowable Mud Density Is the highest drilling fluid density which the well can take without leaking into the formation with the pumps off.

KICK The well can go underbalanced if  we encounter an unexpected increase in pore pressure  or if the level in the well drops Other reason for a kick can be: • Loss of hydrostatic pressure • Gas cutting • Lost circulation INFLUX • Swab and surge effects • Tripping .

• Tripping . Failing to keep the hole full • If a week formation is drilled into we may start to lose mud into that formation. the mud hydrostatic will fall. • If the mud level is allow to fall. potentially causing the well to become underbalance and a kick taken • When lose are encountered it is of paramount important that the well is kept full.

Wet And Dry Tripping Calculations .

The drop in volume will be equal to the volume of open end drill pipe steel volume displacement pulled. The volume in the well will drop and the HH and BHP will drop Tripping dry means we have open end displacement and no float in the BHA. Tripping dry (POOH) Open-End-Displacement If the drill pipe is pulled out of hole without starting the trip tank pump and lining up to the trip tank. .

19. PRESSURE DROP PER FOOT TRIPPING DRY PIPE (psi/ft) = 0.0751 (psi/ft) . Over-balance = 200 psi. capacity = 0.Metal Displacement (bbl/ft) WELL DATA: Depth = 10000ft TVD Bit size = 8 1/2" Shoe depth = 8500ft TVD Mud weight = 12. 19.0476 bbl/ft Casing capacity = 0.0075 bbl/ft Casing/pipe annular capacity = 0.6 ppg Collars .0178 bbl/ft Metal displacement = 0.0077 bbl/ft Drill-pipe 5" capacity = 0. PRESSURE DROP PER FOOT TRIPPING DRY PIPE (psi/ft) Drilling mud density x 0.0729 bbl/ft One stand of drill-pipe = 94ft.600ft.052 x Metal Displacement (bbl/ft)] Riser/ Casing capacity (bbl/ft ) .

LENGTH OF TUBULARS TO PULL DRY BEFORE OVERBALANCE IS LOST (ft) Overbalance ( psi ) × [Riser or Casing Capacity ( bbl/ft ) . 23.0075 bbl/ft Casing/pipe annular capacity = 0.0729 bbl/ft One stand of drill-pipe = 94ft.6 ppg Collars . Over-balance = 200 psi. capacity = 0.600ft.0178 bbl/ft Metal displacement = 0.7/ 94 = 28 stands .Metal Displacement (bbl/ft)] Mud Gradient ( psi/ft ) × Metal Displacement (bbl/ft) WELL DATA: Depth = 10000ft TVD Bit size = 8 1/2" Shoe depth = 8500ft TVD Mud weight = 12.0077 bbl/ft Drill-pipe 5" capacity = 0. LENGTH OF TUBULARS TO PULL DRY BEFORE OVERBALANCE IS LOST (ft) = 2661. 23.0476 bbl/ft Casing capacity = 0.7 ft Number of drillpipe stands = 2661.

We will start loosing the HH and reduce the BHP. . Tripping wet Closed End Displacement • When tripping out of the well we need to keep the well full at all time. CED is equal to the volume of closed end DP pulled. If we POOH without starting the trip tank pump and monitoring the trip tank. • Tripping wet means we are pulling pipe with closed end displacement.

052 x Closed End Displacement (bbl/ft)] Riser/ Casing capacity (bbl/ft ) .0476 bbl/ft Casing capacity = 0.Closed End Displacement (bbl/ft) WELL DATA: Depth = 10000ft TVD Bit size = 8 1/2" Shoe depth = 8500ft TVD Mud weight = 12. PRESSURE DROP PER FOOT TRIPPING WET PIPE (psi/ft) = 0. 20.6 ppg Collars .0178 bbl/ft Metal displacement = 0.600ft.3482 (psi/ft) .0075 bbl/ft Casing/pipe annular capacity = 0. capacity = 0.0077 bbl/ft Drill-pipe 5" capacity = 0. PRESSURE DROP PER FOOT TRIPPING WET PIPE (psi/ft) Drilling mud density x 0. 20.0729 bbl/ft One stand of drill-pipe = 94ft. Over-balance = 200 psi.

0077 bbl/ft Drill-pipe 5" capacity = 0. 24. capacity = 0.600ft.0075 bbl/ft Casing/pipe annular capacity = 0. Over-balance = 200 psi.0729 bbl/ft One stand of drill-pipe = 94ft.6 ppg Collars .0178 bbl/ft Metal displacement = 0.3 ft Number of drillpipe stands = 574. LENGTH OF TUBULARS TO PULL WET BEFORE OVERBALANCE IS LOST (ft) Overbalance ( psi ) × [Riser or Casing Capacity (bbl/ft) – Closed End Displacement (bbl/ft)] Mud Gradient ( psi/ft ) × Closed End Displacement (bbl/ft) WELL DATA: Depth = 10000ft TVD Bit size = 8 1/2" Shoe depth = 8500ft TVD Mud weight = 12. LENGTH OF TUBULARS TO PULL WET BEFORE OVERBALANCE IS LOST (ft) = 574.0476 bbl/ft Casing capacity = 0.3/ 94 = 6 stands . 24.

 Gear box torque may rise and become unstable at elevated mud gradients. Factors that affect fluid density • Adding water to the mud system causes decrease in the mud density and viscosity. • Use of centrifuges:  The cut point is proportional to the mud viscosity.  The feed flow rate capacity reduces significantly as mud gradient is increased. .

. When gas-cut into your drilling mud. it will reduce mud weight causing hydrostatic pressure decrease. Gas cut mud Gas can enter the mud for one or more of the following reasons: • Drilling a formation that contains gas even with a suitable overbalance. • Temporary reduction in hydrostatic pressure caused by swabbing as pipe is moved in the hole. • Pore pressure in a formation being greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column. the bottom hole pressure reduced most when the gas is near the surface.

Also frictional pressure losses swill be effected by high temperature in the well leading to less viscosity and less hole cleaning. • Temperature effects on well bore fluids: The downhole temperatures while drilling will affects the viscosity and drilling fluid density. This period of time is called the transient time. . • Settling of weighting material • Swabbing. We also can set up the cement to set up in different stages for better cement sealing properties. • Cement setting: when cement is setting up cement will change from fluid to solid. Operations can reduce hydrostatic head. To avaid gas break through we add gas block and try to design the transient time as short as possible.

Classified of gas cutting: • Background gas • Connection gas • Trip gas. Actions to take if you are Driller: . . it expands and may reduce the overall hydrostatic pressure sufficient enough to allow a kick to occur.Alert the supervisor to trend changes .Use the vacuum degasser. Gas cutting • Gas cut mud does not in itself indicate that the well is flowing (gas may be entrained in the cuttings) • The mud density reduction is usually caused by fluids from the core volume being cut and released into the mud system. As the gas is circulated to the surface.

It is the average gas level excluding peaks. Background gas • The gas that enters the bore hole during drilling or circulating (correspond to dynamic well bore conditions). . Remember: always check changes in background gas value because it is able to help recognize underbalance situation while drilling. especially drilling into high pressure zone.

e. Action to take: Increase the mud weight few point 60 50 40 30 20 10 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 . This is due to pump shut down (i. Connection gas • Connection gases are caused by the temporary reduction in effective total pressure of the mud column during a connection. loss of ECD) and the swabbing action of the pipe.

A positive indicator might come soon.… . • Significant trip gas may indicate that a close to balance situation exists in the hole. • Trip gas will be detected in the mud when circulating bottoms up after a round trip. Trip gas • Trip gas is any gas that enters the mud while tripping the pipe with the hole appearing static. Flow check / Inform supervisor / confirm drilling fluid density with mud engineer / Check the trip-sheet. Be prepared.

Lost Circulation Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid to the formation Reason for Lost circulation is usually caused by • Formation breakdown • Fractures and Fissures • Bad cement How losses are recognized: • The pit levels • The rate of returns. .

Lost Circulation Actions to take when losses are identified: • Stop drilling or tripping • Start the flow check • Alert the supervisor • Establish the rate and source of losses • Prepare to fill the hole. .

b) Stop all pumping and wait for orders. d) Immediately begin filling the annulus with water and record the amount needed to stabilise and stop the fluid losses. c) Close the well in and check for pressure. and when you did a flow check you could see no mud in the annulus. what would be the best action to take? a) Pump at a reduced rate while mixing lost circulation material.If your flow sensor suddenly showed a loss of returns. .

Measured depth (including horizontal) . Swab and Surge Effects Swabbing: is a condition when the string is pulled out of the well and it creates temporary bottom hole pressure reduction.Running and pulling speeds .Hole conditions and formation properties . .Well and pipe/BHA geometry . the well will eventually flow.Bit/stabiliser balling. If the hydrostatic pressure reduction is large enough to create underbalance condition. Surge Pressure: When pipe moves downward with mud circulation through drill string. The causes of swabbing and surging: . additional bottom hole pressure called “Surge Pressure” is created.Fluid characteristics .

Identify gains and losses .Consider circulating during pipe movement. Swab and Surge Effects Actions to take to minimise swabbing and surging: .Use appropriate running and pulling speeds .Optimise the hole conditions .BHA optimization .Optimise fluid properties . .

Rig heave movements cause the bottom hole pressure (BHP) to increase and decrease. The risks of swabbing and surging due to vessel motion. Excessive surge and swab pressures can lead to mud loss resulting from high pressure fracturing the formation. as a consequence of low pressure. or a kick-sequence (uncontrolled influx from the reservoir) that can potentially grow into a blowout. . known as surge and swab respectively.

for example: .Prepare the hole . Tripping Process for Driller: .Optimise fluid properties .Pump a slug (POOH) .Direct supervisory oversight . Risks: Swabbing/ Surging . Assess the appropriate trip management procedure.Swabbing behavior .Monitor displacement using trip sheet and trip tank (POOH and RIH). .Pull out of hole/run in hole.Check tripping .Flow check .Wet/Dry Trip.

it shall be standard practice to use the trip tank at all times while tripping both into and out of the hole. . Well control procedure's while tripping • To detect a kick while tripping as early as possible. • The Driller is responsible for monitoring the trip tank volume at regular intervals to ensure that the hole is either taking or giving the correct fluid volume.

With this capability. • The trip tank system has the ability to continuously fill the well and take return back to the tank.Trip tank • Trip tank is a small tank which has a capacity of 20 – 50 bbl and its shape is tall and shallow because it can effectively detect volume changes. . it will keep the hole full all the time and the volume changes either increasing or decreasing can tell the condition of the well.

Trip sheet Monitoring the well while tripping is one of the most critical in well control because it will tell you about the well condition very quickly. .

If flow check is negative: run back to bottom to condition the mud and investigate the cause of the problem.Run (or strip) back to bottom .Shut in the well .Circulate the influx out through the chokes. Tripping Actions to take when in correct volume from trip tank: • Stop tripping • Communicate to the supervisor • Flow check. . If flow check is positive: .

Pumping slug Reason for pumping a slug before POOH is to pull DP dry and avoid drill fluid on the drill floor and emptying the well. The BHP will increase when the slug exit the pipe/bit and enters the annulus. We pump in a drilling fluid with a higher density into the DP and calculate the desired length of DP we wish to pull dry. The BHP will not be effected as long as the slug is in the drill pipe. .

Kick warning signs while drilling and/or circulating • Rate of penetration changes • Cuttings size and shape • Drilling fluid temperature increase Communicate to the Driller • Changes in gas trends at the shakers • Increase in torque and drag .

Increase in rate of penetration ROP Formation pressure 10 ppg .

Kick warnings (Cuttings size and shape) Density shape and Size Normally drilled shale cuttings tend to have a specific shape depending on the bit. the cuttings start to become long and splintery with angular edges • As the well approaches balance. cuttings start to explode off the sides of the hole by themselves-know as caving's . round or flat cuttings with rounded edges and a PDC tends to produce cutting which look like “shavings” • As the formation pressure increases and overbalance decreases. • A rock bit tends to produce small.

This is due to heat flow from the Earths core. because water conducts heat less effectively than rock. • Thus an abnormally pressured formation may show a higher geothermal gradient- showed by an increase in mud temperature . Kick warnings: Drilling fluid temperature increase • Formation temperature normally increases as we drill deeper. • The trapped fluid in an abnormally pressured formation causes a disturbance in this geothermal gradient.

• Connection gas may also occur as the well approaches balance. Warning signs Gas level changes • If the formation porosity is increasing and the pore spaces contain gas. background gas may increase. • Trip gas also must be considered while tripping .

This indicates that the well is very close to balance. Background gas . caused by the drop in bottom hole pressure when the pumps are turned off. Warning signs: Gas level changes • Connection gas is a slight increase in gas levels a lag time after a connection.

Warning signs: Increase in background gas .

Kick warning sign: Increase in torque and drag .

Increase in torque and drag. Presence of connection gas. 50 40 E. Decreased cutting size. Decrease in torque and drag. 60 D. B. Increased cutting size. 30 20 10 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 . Warning signs Which of the following are often noted as warning signs that the formation fluid pressure may be increasing? (Select THREE answers) A. C.

Increase WOB to gain faster ROP. . Flow check for a minimum of 15 minutes at each connection. Control the ROP to keep only one connection gas in the hole. Raise mud weight a small amount. B. Add filter loss chemical to reduce gas levels. Connection gas If connection gas is noticed. C. D. F. E. Keep connection time to a minimum when pumps are switched off. which THREE of the following are good kick prevention practices? A.

Kick warning signs when tripping • Swabbing • Increased drag. Swabbing .

Actions to take after recognising a kick warning sign. Communicate to the Driller .

react. . Kick indications while drilling Driller  Increase in flow must  Increase in tank volume.

. Shut in practice Justify the importance of detecting a kick early: .Minimise the kick volume .Minimise pressures on the well . Positive well control (wellbore influx) indications mean indications showing almost 100% kick (wellbore influx) into wellbore. Possible well control (kick) indicators mean that there is possibility to get influx into wellbore.Minimise the chances of losses.

HARD SHUT IN 1 Pick off bottom and position string 2 Stop pumps 3 Close BOP (Ram or Annular) 5 4 Open hydraulic side outlet valve 5 1 Observe pressure 2 3 4 143 .

The influence on pit volume readings and trend on a floating rig One pit volume sensor Pit totalisers have several pit volume sensors and averages the volume Pit Sensor Influence on pit volume readings and trend on a floating rig Crane operations Pitch and roll Rig heave .

• It is necessary to begin dynamic kill (tertiary well control) operations as quickly as possible. Generally it is not possible to close-in and contain a gas influx from a shallow zone because weak formation integrity may lead to breakdown and broaching to surface / mudline. Shallow Gas • Shallow gas is defined as any hydrocarbon-bearing zone which may be encountered at a depth close to the surface or mudline. .

. The consequences of shallow gas • Gas around the rig leading to explosion risk and possible H2S • Equipment failure due to rapid abrasive flow • Possible broaching of gas to the surface outside the well • High noise levels making it difficult to communicate • The situation can develop very rapidly.

Prevention of shallow gas kicks The critical factors when drilling top hole with the risk of shallow gas: • Keeping the hole full • Controlled penetration rate • Drilling fluid density • Trip speed • Pump out of hole • Pump rate: increase to maximum • Hole diameter • Prepare kill mud .

while preventing further influx downhole (maintaining barrier envelopes). . Secondary well control • Secondary control: required when primary control has failed • The aim of secondary control: to stop the flow of fluids into the wellbore and eventually allow the influx to be circulated to surface and safely discharged.

HARD SHUT IN 1 Pick off bottom and position string 2 Stop pumps 7 Flow check 3 Inform supervisor 1 4 If the well is flowing Close annulus or pipe 5 ram 2 6 Open HCR valve 5 6 Record: Pressure. time and pit gain 8 Monitor the well 149 . 7 depth.

4. . and subsurface leaks. Close the upwind vent line if required 3. Keep the hole full. Gas reaching the rotary table Action to prevent gas reaching the rotary table (Reference API RP 64) 1. Monitor for vent line erosion. activate the diverter 2. With vent lines open.

Confirm the well is shut-in by: • Feedback from the BOP closure panels • Monitor for unplanned flow • Monitor for unplanned pressure • Verify correct functions operated • Monitor on trip tank. . • Use of flow meters. Action to take if the well has not been successfully shut-in: • Activate a second well barrier.

Land off the tool joint on the ram 4. Check ram seal (by bleeding pressure between closed preventers). Hang off procedures (subsea) 1. Close an appropriate ram (reference API RP 59) 3. . Space-out the tool joint(s) in the BOP 2. Confirm weight on the ram 5.

.Surface Pressure After Shut-in At what point would you note the SIDPP and SICP Initial build up Use the drill pipe pressure of 210 psi because the increase in the following periods is caused by gas migration.

varying fluid densities) • Position of the bit and or pipe (drilling/ tripping) • Influx in the drill string • Blockage in the annulus • Inaccuracy of the gauges • Well deviation (horizontal well). . Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure (SIDPP) and Shut-in Casing Pressure (SICP) gauge readings • Influx density (influx gradient) • Influx height • Annulus fluid composition (cuttings loading.

Shut-in Drill Pipe Pressure (SIDPP) and Shut-in Casing Pressure (SICP) gauge readings The limitations of pressure gauges: • Scale • Accuracy • Gauge calibration Pressure reading (SIDPP & SICP) .

• Well supercharging • Unexpected pressure caused by injection • Incorrect shut-in procedure. Trapped pressure "Trapped pressure" is any pressure recorded on the drillpipe or annulus greater than the amount needed to balance the bottomhole pressure. • Using pressure readings containing trapped pressure results in erroneous kill calculations . Pressure can be trapped in the system in several ways.

Continue to alternate the bleeding and observing the pressure as long as the drillpipe pressure continues to decrease. continue to bleed and check pressures on casing side as long as the casing pressure decrease . If the DP should decrease to zero during this procedure. Bleed small amounts (1/4 to ½) of mud at a time 4. Actions to take if trapped pressure 1. stop bleeding record the true SIDPP and SICP 6. When it cease to fall. Bleed from the casing side only when checking for trapped pressure 2. Use drillpipe pressure at a guide 3. Close the choke after bleeding and observe the pressure on the drillpipe 5.

Start raising the mud density by 0. Use the annulus pressure to calculate the kill mud density. What would be the correct course of action to determine the kill mud density? 1. 2. This pressure on the drill pipe is the Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure. . Remove Kelly and drop float opening tool. SIDPP with a float valve in the drill string A well has kicked. 3. Pump very slowly into the drill string with the well shut in.1 ppg increments until the well is dead. When the casing pressure rises the float valve has opened. 4. There is a float in the drill string (SIDPP = 0 psi). and is shut in.

Useful Equations when killing a well SIDPP DP CSG SICP + + HH HH drilling fluid drilling fluid + = HH Influx (kick) P f≥ BHP BHP = SIDPP + HH drilling fluid = SICP + HH drilling fluid + HH kick HH shoe = HH shoe + SICP = BHP – HH up to shoe from TVD MAASP = HH maximum p at shoe – HH at shoe .

01741 BBL/FEET HEAVY WALL DRILL PIPE 600 FEET CAPACITY 0.1019 BBL/STRK SCRP@ 30 SPM 650 PSI . WELL DATA Example HOLE SIZE well 8-1/2 INCH HOLE DEPTH TVD/MD 11536 FEET CASING 9-5/8” TVD/MD 9875 FEET DRILL PIPE CAP.03221 BBL/FEET CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/DRILL PIPE-HWDP 0.0 BBL PUMP DISPLACEMENT 0.0 PPG CAPACITY OPEN HOLE/COLLARS 0.9 PPG SIDPP 530 PSI SICP 700 PSI PIT GAIN 10.00874 BBL/FEET DRILL COLLARS 6-1/4” 880 FEET CAPACITY 0. 0.00492 BBL/FEET DRILLING FLUID DENSITY 14.04891 BBL/FEET FRACTURE FLUID DENSITY 16.04470 BBL/FEET CAPACITY CASING/DRILL PIPE 0.

3 bbls Influx Height (ft) = Kick Size (bbls) .28.0447 bbl/ft Height Of Influx 700 psi 700 psi Determine if the influx is below or above the collars DC/OH Volume = Ann Cap x Length = .Well Data: DC-OH Cap = . = 150 ft .0447 880 + 150 = 1030 ft 150 ft 1030 ft 28.7 .3 = 6.03221 bbl/ft DC Length = 880 ft HWDP-OH Cap = . = 310 ft 35 .03221 x 880 = 28.7 bbls . Ann Cap (bbl/ft) Example One Example Two 10 .03221 6.3 bbls = 880 ft 310 ft 10 bbl Kick 40 bbl Kick .

052) .052) .SIDPP.548 14 ppg = .728 . Ht of Influx = (14 x .Well Data: SIDPP = 530 psi SICP = 700 psi Current Mud Weight = 14 ppg Gradient Of Influx Influx Height = 310 ft The formula for Gradient of Influx (psi/ft) 530 psi 700 psi = (Mud Wt x .700 .530.18 psi/ft 310 ft .SICP .. 310 = .

• CSG pressure stabilized at 700 psi. turned the pumps off and stopped rotation. 0 The well is closed and p in the gas bubble is 8928 psi Gas gradient 0. • Pit gain 10 bbl. 530 Time 14:00 700 • DP pressure stabilized at 530 psi.(HCR) and monitored shut in pressures.18 PSI/FT Gas height around DC: 310 FT Gas height around DP: 204 FT What happens with pressures in the well if the gas bubble is not allowed to expand when it migrate to surface ? . 0 All pressures will increase. He closed the upper pipe rams and opened the Hyd.A kick was taken at 11536 ft and the driller spaced out. Side Outlet Valve.

MAASP 1489 ISICP 700 1341 1489 Time 14:30 0 0 We have excided the MAASP. What should the supervisor done ? He should have bleed down SIDPP back to SIDPP= 530 psi to control BHP before reaching MAASP .

SICP 700 psi SIDPP 530 psi 1591 1739 Time 14:45 0 0 .

8779 Time 24:45 8928 0 0 .

kick sizes will increase. it will eventually unload the well. causing more unloading. This cycle of influx and unloading has caused the loss of many wells. Gas Expansion Uncontrolled (Well Open) • If a gas bubble is allowed to expand without control. With the well unloaded. .

Different influx behaviour
• Water kick:
– Water is virtually incompressible and so, does not expand
significantly as the pressure on it reduces.
– While circulating a water kick there should be no change in pit level,
provided no further influx is allowed to enter.
– Casing pressure only change due to different size of annulus.
• Oil kick: Oil has gas in solution, the effect will be similar to that
produced by a gas kick although again some what reduced in scale.

Different influx behaviour
•• Gas kick: Gas is compressible. The volume occupied by quantity of
gas is related to both pressure and temperature. The volume of gas
must be allowed to expand in order to drop the pressure as it come to
the surface, the pit volume will increase.
• BOYLE'S GAS LAW
PV = CONSTANT or P1 V1 = P2 V2
V is the volume of gas (bbl), P the pressure (psi), and disregarding
temperature.
Example: Gas kick volume: V1 = 10bbls; Formation pressure P1 = 8928
psi; Surface pressure P2 = 14.7 psi. Calculate the volume of gas you
will have downstream of the choke?
V2 = = = 6073 bbl

Porosity and permeability
The porosity provides the storage space for fluids and gases and is the ratio of the pore
spaces in the rock to the bulk volume of the rock.

Reservoir rocks commonly have porosity’s ranging from 5% to 30%.

Formation permeability is a measure of how easy the fluid will flow through the rock.
Permeability is expressed in Darcy's, from a few milli Darcys to several Darcys

These properties will determine how much and how quick a kick will enter into the well.
Kicks will enter a wellbore faster from rocks having high permeability

KILL SHEET

Complete kill sheet on example well data as
above

The essential steps of killing a well

• Removing the influx
• Regaining primary control
• Controlling the BHP to avoid another influx or break down of the
formation
• The method for rounding kill mud weights.

The kill methods are : • Driller’s method • Wait and Weight method • Volumetric . We need to keep a pressure above the formation pressure and below the fracture pressure which in this case is assume to be below the casing shoe. The selection of kill method which results in the lowest casing shoe pressure. Well control method Once the well is shut in we need to control the pressures in the well.

Slowly shut down the pump maintaining pressure on the choke (casing) gauge equivalent to the original SIDPP. kick/influx is circulated out of the well. 3. Driller’s method procedures First Circulation – Removing Kick 1. 2. adjusting pressure with choke as required. Pump pressure should be equivalent to calculated ICP. bringing the pump up to the desired kill rate while using the choke to maintain its casing pressure at the value. Notes: Avoid trapping pressure or allowing additional influx if shutting back in. investigate and recalculate if necessary. 4. . If not equivalent. Maintaining pump pressure equal to ICP.

. start up pump procedures are again used. maintain FCP until kill fluid completely fills the well. open BOP. Circulate the kill fluid to the bit/end of string following step down chart in the kicksheet. Shut down pump and check for flow. open choke (bleeding any trapped pressure/ or gas trap in the subsea BOPs). 9. Line up to kill mud weight 6. If no pressure is noted. 8. Once kill fluid is at the bit/end of string. Close choke and check pressures. Driller’s method procedures Second circulation – Killing The Well: 5. 10. 7. 11.

.

The gain in HP should necessitate slowly reducing choke pressure. 9. If no pressure is noted. If not. Shut down pump and check for flow. Wait and Weight Method Can called Engineer’s method. 5. Pits are weighted up as other calculations are performed. 4. Once the kill fluid reaches surface the choke should have been fullyopened. bringing up the pump up to the kill rate while using the choke to maintain constant casing pressure at its value. open choke (bleeding any trapped pressure). Once kill fluid is at the bit/end of string. 6. only 1 circulation 1. Follow pressure chart/graph as kill fluid is pumped down the string to bit/end of string. open BOP. Close choke and check pressures. Circulating pressure should be equivalent to (ICP) Initial Circulating Pressure. 7. 8. 10. . maintain constant FCP circulating pressure until the kill fluid completely fills the well. investigate and recalculate ICP if necessary. When ready. 3. 2.

WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD .

Use clean mud and ensure that junk does not fall into the casing. • Ensure a cross-over from casing to drill pipe is available to allow the string to be hung off if needed. Running and Pulling Casing and Liner The precautions to be used when running casing. • Record the annular volume between the casing and open hole and Outer casing. . • A record of the tank level is necessary and should be compared with the calculated volume increment due to the metal displacement of the casing. • Change the rams to the casing size (on surface stack) and testing • Prepare a circulating head. • Calculate the running speed to allow an acceptable fluid velocity and a limited surge into the open hole. • Take care while filling up the casing.

Shut-in Procedures When Running Casing • Shutting in a well while running casing is similar to shutting in a well when tripping drill pipe. which depends on the type of casing being run. Further annular closing pressure may need to be reduced to prevent collapsing the casing. The main differences involve the device used to stop potential flow up the casing and whether to close a BOP or a diverter. • Observed the pressure . • Ram BOPs will need to be properly sized to close around the casing.

This may reduce the effective hydrostatic. • Different events can lead to a reduction of the hydrostatic pressure below the formation pressure • Cement will dehydrate as it sets up. Cementing Casing and Liner • Kicks that occur while cementing are the result of reducing the mud column pressure during the operation. . Often the cement is designed to set in stages to minimize this effect. allowing well to flow. Several wells have been lost because of improperly designed cementing programs. • Meaning the first stage will set up later then the second stage above the shoe.

. Cementing Casing and Liner The factors that affect the quality and effectiveness of cement placement to achieve a reliable primary barrier: • Verification of cement location • Expected pressure profile to maintain BHP greater than pore pressure and less than • fracture pressure • Expected returns • Correct weight and quantity • Expected setting time • Plugs bump at expected volume • No back flow • Verification of cement seal.

installed as soon as the BOPS have closed. . Shut-in Procedures While Cementing Casing and Liner • Before casing is run:  BOPs should be equipped with casing rams and pressure tested before running casing. Annular Pressure regulator may have to be reduced to prevent casing collapse.  There should be a crossover from the casing to the string on floating rigs to allow the string to be hung off if necessary.  A circulating swage with a high pressure/low torque valve must be made up on cement head and positioned near the rotary table.

In these cases. . the smaller diameter is often the annulus. • Close BOP (casing ram or annular according to procedure). Note: The inner diameter of the string is usually shut off first because it is the smallest and most vulnerable. Shut-in Procedures When Cementing Casing and Liner • When shutting in using casing rams ensure TJ is not across ram face. When casing is run. • Install cement head. and in some slim hole and workover applications. the annulus smallest diameter should be shut in first.

Shut-In with Wireline
• Wireline operations usually have a lubricator in case there
is pressure at the surface during the operation. The
lubricator contains a:
 Stuffing box or pack off head.
 Grease injectors.
 Lubricator joints or tube bodies.
 Blowout preventers.
 A bleed or pump-in valve.

Shut-In with Wireline
• Equipment may be nippled differently:
 Flanged up to an annular preventer.
 Secured inside annular preventer or rams.
 Made up to a gauge flange on a Christmas tree.
• The shut in sequence is as follows:
 Tell wireline operator to cease operations.
 Driller should close the bleed or pump in valve.
 The driller tells the designated wireline supervisor to close the
wireline BOPs.
 Inform supervisor that the well has been shut in.
Just in case, there should be a planned way to cut the wireline
allowing it to be dropped and a blind ram or crown valve to be
closed .

Shut-In with Wireline

WHAT IS A BOP
A Blow Out Preventer (BOP) is a large piece of
equipment used for sealing, controlling and monitoring an
Oil or Gas well. It comprises of a collection of hydraulic
valves connected to the well head which can be stacked
in different orders (creating BOP stacks) to provide
options for different BOP operations and requirements,
as well as redundancy in case a piece of equipment fails.
They come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles but all
are designed to hold the pressure from the wellbore
beneath them.
The BOP can close in an open wellbore by closing the
Blind Rams or Blind Shear Rams. The Blind shear
Rams are fitted with hardened steel shearing surfaces
that out through Pipe Tubulars and seal the wellbore.
Pipe Rams are designed to close and seal around pipes
and the Annular Preventer can seal around a variety of
shapes and sizes.

WHAT IS A BOP (cont)
The diagram opposite shows the break down of a BOP. The
BOP components are typically described upward from the
bottom of the BOP stack starting from the BOP connector.
The picture here is a representation of a 18 ¾ “ 15k, Class 7-
A2-R5. BOP. This means the following:
18 ¾ “ - is the inside diameter of the BOP
15 K - is the rated working pressure 15000 psi (103.42 MPa)
Class 7- is the amount of rams and annular preventers in the
BOP stack.
A2 - is the amount of Annulars in the BOP Stack. Please
note that the Annulars may have a different pressure rating,
usually a lesser rating.
R5 - is the amount Rams or Ram cavities installed in the
BOP stack regardless of their use.

BOP .

This sequence ensures there is not a Drill Pipe tool joint at the shearing point of the shear rams and also stops the Drill Pipe from falling into the wellbore. . WHAT IS A BOP (cont) The BOP stacks are assembled in certain sequences. most commonly with the Shear Rams fitted in the top ram cavity. allowing the Shear Ram to shear the Drill String whilst the Drill String tool joint is hung off on the Pipe rams below.

Annular Preventer Types • Shaffer • Hydril GK • Hydril GX • Cameron ‘D’ Operating pressures • Range between 500 and 1500 psi for normal operations 192 .

• They are normally used on top of several ram type BOPs. • The annular BOP is usually the first to be closed when a kick occurs. • They are extremely versatile in use and can close on most items. Annular Preventers • Annular preventers are BOPs which use circular rubber or rubber-like elements. 193 .

This is achieved by adjusting a regulator on the Accumulator Unit. The Annular can also be closed from the Accumulator Unit itself by moving the valve handle to the closed position. EQUIPMENT Annular BOP Operating Pressure The Annular Closing pressure should be set at 1500 psi and when the annular is closed the pressure can be reduced to betweem 500 and 1000 psi. the fluid and pressure from the Accumulator unit will close the Annular Preventer. . When the button is pressed to close the annular from the Drillers or Toolpushere BOP panel. If you close in a flowing well at a reduced pressure you may allow wash out of the element if the closing pressure is not as per OEM recommendations.

drill collars.P. • Allow reciprocation of the drillstring during well control operations. Annular Preventers are designed to • Seal around smooth objects in the wellbore e.g. drill pipe. casing. • Seal off an open hole although not necessarily at full R.W. • It can be secondary barrier 195 . square kelly and wireline. tubing. • Allow stripping of drill pipe under pressure while maintaining a seal. (this will shorten the working life).

Packing Element Materials Three types of materials are used: • Natural rubber – WBM from -20o F to 170o F – Good wear resistance • Nitrile synthetic compound – OBM from 40o F to 170o F • Neoprene synthetic compound – OBM from -30o F to 170o F 196 .

General Operations • Closing on tool joints – Can cause severe damage • Closing on casing – Consider initial closing pressure • Stripping Operations – Provide for tool joints • Operating pressures • Closing with no pipe in the hole • Closing on wireline 197 .

• If annular deterioration/failure: activate secondary barrier . • The elements should be stored and or shipped in an upright position. Annular elements • All annular elements should be delivered wrapped in black plastic material to protect them from sunlight and atmospheric deterioration. • All elements and seals should be stored in a cool. never on their side. dark storage area until used. dry.

RAM BOP • Ram preventers are designed to seal the annulus by forcing two front packing elements which make contact with each other and seal around the object in the well bore. • Shear ram: It shear the pipe in the well and seal the wellbore simultaneously. • Pipe ram: It seals around the well bore and the fixed size of pipe • Blind ram: It seals the well if no pipe in the well bore • Variable bore ram: It seals around several pipe sizes depending on the range of variable bore ram. 199 .

Top and bottom plates provide Elastomer with self feeding (extrusion) in the wear direction. Standard pipe rams are designed to centralise and seal around one specific size of pipe (or casing). Hang off drill string 2. 200 . 4. Ram design Rams for Ram-type BOP designed to: 1. Tested and hold pressure from bottom 3.

Pipe Rams Standard pipe rams are designed to centralise and seal around one specific size of pipe (or casing). Hang off capability Feed able rubber 201 .

Cameron U type ram preventer 202 .

Complete assemblies type “U” blowout preventer Ram Intermediate Flange Assembly Piston Cylinder Body Bonnet Connecting rod Seal Ring Locking Screw 203 .

5 inch 3 1/2 inch .7 inch Limited hang off capability 204 . Variable Pipe Rams Designed to close and seal on a range of pipe diameters 2 7/8 inch .

Note: Increase pressure to maximum closing pressure if you need to cut the DP = 3000 psi 205 . Blind-Shear Rams • The Intermediate Flange is Thicker in the shear Rams.

Shear ram operational procedures. • Space out string • Centralise the pipe by closing the pipe ram below the shear ram • Hang off and reduce tension (subsea) • Open bypass valve to deliver full accumulator pressure • Operate the shear rams • Verify that the string is sheared • Ensure and verify well closure. .

Ram preventer A ram BOP should never be attempted opened unless the pressure above and below the rams are equalized. If rams are attempted opened while containing pressure a major equipment destruction can occur. 207 .

Closing Ram Wellbore assisted Opening ram .

Ram preventer RAM SHAFT OPENING CHAMBER PISTON CLOSING CHAMBER RAM 209 .

Locking System
Ram type preventers should be equipped with extension hand wheels or
hydraulically operated locks
Surface BOP
Manual locking systems
Subsea BOP
Automatic locking systems
1. Cameron: Wedgelock or ST locking system
2. Hydril: MPL
3. NOV Shaffer
Poslock (locks in one position only)
Multilock (locks in 2 positions for Multiram)
Ultralock (locks in all positions)

210

Manual locking system

Manual Lock Piston in Closed Position
Manual Lock Piston in Open Position

Manual Lock Piston in Closed and Locked Position

211

Wedge lock

212

Pipe Ram Closing Time
Response time between activation and complete operation of a function
is based on BOP or valve closure and seal off.

Closing time should not exceed

30 seconds for all surface ram BOP installations
45 seconds for all subsea ram BOP installations

Measurement of closing response time begins at pushing the button or
turning the
control valve handle to operate the function and ends when the BOP or
valve is closed effecting a seal.

A BOP is considered closed when the regulated operating pressure has
recovered to its nominal setting.
213

Side Outlet valves
Side Outlets for choke/kill lines are available on all models, no smaller
than 2 inches inside diameter

Normal Operations
The BOP is open, the automatic choke
line failsafe (HCR) valve is closed and
the manual choke line valve open. The
Remote Auto Choke is in the closed
position

swivel and surface equipment from high well pressure. Upper Kelly Cock The upper kelly cock is a standard part of the upper kelly assembly. 215 . Basic purpose of the upper kelly cock is to protect the kelly hose.

The valve is operated at every connection so it is kept free and in operating condition. Lower Kelly Cock The lower kelly cock is Drillpipe safety valve or full-opening safety valve which back up the upper kelly cock. It allows removal of kelly when pressure on the string is grater than surface equipment rating. It is common practice to use the lower kelly cock as fluid or mud saver valve. 216 .

so the upper valve is remote operated. Top Drive Safety Valve The upper and lower safety valves on top drive systems are connected together. 217 . They are ball valves Both are very likely to be inaccessible should a kick occur during drilling operations.

DPSVs or FOSV Drillpipe Safety Valve or Full Opening Safety Valve or TIW (Texas Iron Works) Or Drill Pipe Safety Valve 218 .

Drill Pipe Safety Valve and Inside BOPs Drill Pipe Safety Valve (kelly cock) Always available during tripping and casing running operations Correct connections or crossover to allow stabbing in In open position Key readily available OD suitable for running downhole 219 .

Equipment for closing off tubing or drill pipe includes DPVS. It is essential that the driller and Toolpusher make sure the crew understands the rules for operating and maintaining this essential equipment and can connect to the pipe at all time (x-overs) 220 . The equipment is handled by the floor crew. floats and ISBOP inside blowout preventers. Non-return valve A method of closing off the string is a basic part of well control equipment.

Inside BOPs Inside BOPs Gray valve Stab-in non-return valve Allows (kill) fluid to be pumped Stripping Operations Drop-in check valve Pumped down Float valve Prevents back flow 221 .

• Frequency of testing: .During well operations . DPSVs and IBOPs testing • Pressure test: At least equal to 70% of the rated internal pressure at minimum yield for new pipe of the size and grade used in the upper part of the drill string.Before installation .On installation . but limited to the rated working pressure of the BOPs up to a maximum of 10.000 psi.

the inner diameter of the drill string is restricted and do not allow WL through passage or reverse circulation. It is a simple and reliable tool. 223 . Its primary use to stripp back into a closed in well The inside BOP allows the well to be circulated and prevents pressure or flow up back into the drill string. Inside Blowout Preventer The inside IBOP (sometimes called Grey valve) is a backpressure or check valve. but since it is not full-open.

It is different from an ordinary float valve in that it does not work as an check valve assembly until the Check Valve is set in the drop-in sub. by means of dropping (or pumping) a check valve down to its recess in the drop-in sub. 224 . Drop-in check valves Drop-in check valves are used as a means for closing the drill string from well flow.

FLAPPER TYPE BPV LOADED FLOAT VALVE 225 . Float. backpressure and check valves all act similarly to prevent flow and pressure flowing up the drill string. The standard float valve are installed just behind the drilling bit and stops back flow and inside blowout up the drilling string. inside BOPs. The two most common types or floats are spring operated piston (plunger) and flapper SPRING types.Backpressure Valve (BPR) Floats.

Float valves Float valve Flapper type • Solid or with a bored hole • Will need to pump valve open Float valves are used to: to monitor SIDPP • Prevent sudden influx entry • Will not allowed WL through it into the drill string. • Will increase surge pressure • Prevent back flow of annular • Will require pipe fill while cuttings from plugging bit running drill string down the nozzles well • Will not allow reverse circulate 226 .

Control backpressure when circulating out a kick MANUAL OPERATED CHOKE HYDRAULIC OPERATED CHOKE 227 .

friction or backpressure is placed on the system. Manual adjustable chokes are used for some well control applications but most pressure operations use remote adjustable chokes. Well control chokes are of different design than gas and oil production chokes. By restricting flow through an orifice. allowing a control of flow rate and well bore pressure. 228 . In general. the production choke is not suitable for well control. Choke Control A choke controls the flow rate of fluids.

Conventional annular . Diverter • Annular preventer coupled with a large diameter piping systems underneath. Two main types of diverter: .Insert type diverter . • The gas/sand mixture to approach critical velocity. • Diameter pipe used for diverting the gas overboard. • Are used to protect personnel and equipment from shallow gas flows. • Typically installed on conductor casing or as part of the marine riser. with diverter lines running to a safe downwind area. resulting in extreme wear and short life expectancy of the surface piping.

Diverter Conventional Annular Insert type diverter .

Wind direction 3 1 2 . Diverter On manually operated systems the proper sequence for diverting is as follows: Open overboard line valve down wind of the rig. close shaker line valve and then close diverter.

Inspection and clean-out ports should be provided at all low points in the system. Fluid should be pumped through the Diverter and each Diverter line at appropriate times during operation to ascertain the line(s) is not plugged. 232 . Diverter system The Diverter and all valves should be function tested when installed and at appropriate times during operations to determine that the system will function properly.

233 . What is a Mud Gas Separator? A Mud Gas Separator are designed to separate mud and gas while circulated out a kick from the well by leading gas up the vent line and mud back to down to the active pit.

Where necessary. mud Seal Shaker 234 . MUD GAS SEPARATOR U-TUBE Vent line Siphon P Inlet Hot fill Mud Mud gas separator should be Tangential Inlet operated taking into account the risk of hydrate formation. a hydrate suppressant such as glycol Degassed should be employed.

Mud Gas Separator PRESSURE BUILD UP LENGTH OF VENT LINE ID OF VENT LINE PRESSURE LIMITATION HEIGHT OF U-TUPE/DIP TUBE GRADIENT OF FLUID 235 .

052 x 20ft = 12 psi This pressure acts on the liquid seal.Mud-gas separator Poor boy (Gas poster) Length and Diameter of vent line creates pressure build- up in vessel as gas is vented Mud wt x 0. Action to take: Reduce pump rate 236 . If the pressure in the vessel exceeds the mud seal hydrostatic a blow-through to the shakers would occur. Calculate the maximum pressure we can see on the pressure gauge 12ppg x 0.052 x length of liquid seal = Blow-through pressure If the mud weight is 12 ppg and the mud leg is 20 ft.

237 . Degasser • Separates small entrained gas bubbles from fluid • Installed downstream of the mud/gas separator • The vacuum makes the gas less soluble • It should be used to remove gas from the mud when drilling. circulating or killing a well. • It has capacity limitations.

Testing The criteria for a successful pressure test: • Direction of pressure applied • Volume to be pumped • Instrumentation • Test fluids • Test duration • Test records • Safe pressure bleed off and monitored flow returns. .

Function test • Every week. if on location. • Function tests should be alternated from the Driller’s panel and from mini-remote panels. personnel must perform function test BOP alternating between remote panels. • Actuation time of each equipment should be within the limits specified by API RP 53 • Record final accumulator pressure after all functions should not be less than 1200 psi or 200 psi above the pre-charged pressure of accumulator which ever is maximum .

.

The preparation. is not thoroughly enough. The wrong set-up. a BOP test consumes a lot of rig time and often more than necessary. This leads to downtime 241 . The reasons are related to: Little understanding of the wellhead and test-tools. The main reasons why these tests take longer than required are not related to equipment problems. before the actual testing commences. Pressure testing BOP TEST PROCEDURES: In general.

Full Open Safety Valve 242 .Pressure testing of Well Control Equipment Initial pressure test When subject to well pressure: Pressure test to RWP of BOP or wellhead (whichever is lowest) Drill pipe safety valves (FOSV/IBOP) pressure test to RWP of BOP PT Annular to 70% of RWP Pressure test with water or water with additives Subsequent pressure test to maximum anticipated wellhead pressure for the hole section Rated Working Pressure-Inside BOP-Pressure Test .

A stable high pressure test should be maintained for at least 5 minutes. choke manifold and choke/kill lines should be to rated working pressure on the ram BOP’s or to the rated working pressure of the wellhead that the stack is installed on. Pressure test All Blow-out prevention components that may be exposed to well pressure should be tested first to a low pressure of 200 to 300 psi and then to high pressure. whichever is the lowest. A stable low pressure test should be maintained for at least 5 minutes. but not to exceed the working pressure of the ram BOP’s. 243 . Initial high pressure test on BOP stack. Subsequent high pressure tests on well control components should be to a pressure greater than the maximum anticipated surface pressure.

• Within 21 days TEST FLUIDS Well control equipment should be pressure tested with water. Control systems and hydraulic chambers should be tested using clean control system fluids with lubricant and corrosion additives for the intended service and operation temperatures. 244 . Air should be removed from the system before test pressure is applied. Pressure test frequency Pressure tests on well control equipment should be conducted at least: • Prior to spud or upon installation • After disconnection or repair of any pressure containment seal in the BOP stack etc.

Pressure testing BOP Well head Cup tester Tensile force on DP is equal F = p x A Test Plug The pressure test is done on 5 ” DP in 7 ” casing. The tension on the DP is eqaual 94. Calculate the tension on the DP.247 lbs A Circle l 245 .Test pressure = 5000 psi.

Pressure testing BOP The preparation of a BOP-test starts with a proper understanding of the wellhead. 246 . A manual should be onboard/onsite and should be consulted. the way the test-tools are situated in there and the BOP's itself. Most(All) manuals have proper drawings of the test tools and the way they fit. Two test-tools are available: Plug-type tester Cup-type tester.

Normally. Often not more then a few gallon. Calculate the volume required to get to test pressure. open to atmosphere in case the tester leaks past the seals. Open outlet 247 . Pressure testing BOP A Plug-type tester sits in the top of the wellhead and does not enter the casing. below the Plug. with a PLUG-type tester: Always have a outlet on the wellhead. Apply test pressure To safeguard the casing against a too high a pressure. the wellhead is rated higher than the casing and therefor the test-pressure with a plug tester can be higher.

248 . • Pressure test BOP valves with • DP inside BOP • Close pipe ram or annular • Pressure test from below. • W/O DP pressure test blind/shear ram from below. Plug Type Tester (test plug) • Installed TP inside wellhead • Open side outlet valve below test plug to protect casing when pressure test take place and see if the TP holds pressure.

closed (The casing might be drilled out and the test pressure will go onto the formation) Well head Cup-tester in casing 249 . Pressure testing BOP A Cup tester enters the casing. A standard F tester can be put anywhere in the casing. out With a CUP-type tester: Always have the drillpipe open let valves to atmosphere in case the Cup leaks into the casing. The Test-pressure should not exceed 80% of the casing burst pressure. Therefore Shell-Cameron designed a Cup-tester which is Casing wellhead supported and there is no strain on the drillpipe. where the test pressure exceeded the rating of the Cup-tester and the drillpipe parted or the cup failed. There have been occasions. (In smaller size casings with a high burst-pressure).

Pressure test with cup type tester Run DP with cup tester inside the casing open ended. Pressure test: • Annular / pipe rams and lower wellhead valves 250 .

Connect pressure source to the kill line and open kill line valve 1 and 2.HCR and Pipe rams test 1. Monitor and record the test pressure. Pump into the well through kill line. 4. connect test plug on the bottom of 5-1/2″ DP. 7. Pick up top drive. 3. run test plug and seat in wellhead. 5. 3-7 5 6 p 2 4 1 251 . Bleed off pressure at choke line(close J1. Conduct low-pressure test and high-pressure test 6.then open J1 to bleed off). Close pipe rams. valve 3. Open pipe rams. 2. and keep HCR (valve 4) close.open 4.

150% of pressure rating.e. 252 . Closing Ratio Ratio of well head pressure to pressure required to close the BOP.Body Test at manufacturer Plant 1 ½ times BOP rating I.

Pressure test the diverter bag. Function test all equipment (open and close) at least once every 24 hours. . This test will require a test plug. diverter valves. Function test all equipment and circulate through the overboard lines. Make a written notation of the test in the tour/morning report. The required tests are described below: Upon initial Nipple-Up: a. and vent lines (if possible) to 200 psi. diverter valves. Pressure Testing the Diverter System Diverter systems are required to be pressure tested and function tested on a regular basis. While drilling ahead: c. b. Make a record of the test in the tour/morning report. spool. The diverter bag. d. Record the test on a test chart and make a written notation of the test in the tour/morning report. and vent lines (if possible) should be pressure tested weekly.

• An inflow test is performed by reducing the hydrostatic head above the item to be tested by circulating to a lighter fluid. float shoes and float collars. . cement plugs and bridge plugs. a liner lap or past a cement plug (bridge plug). testing liner-laps. immediate measures shall be taken in order to prevent escalation of the situation by activating the secondary well barrier. The situation shall then be normalized by restoring the primary well barrier or establishing an alternative well barrier before activities/operations can be resumed. Inflow Testing Procedures • Inflow tests are generally carried out to verify if there is communication with the formation through the casing. • In the event of a failure or loss of a well barrier. • Most of the applications are in connection with testing or squeezed off perforations and casing leaks.

CIRCULATE the drillpipe to a lighter fluid until the required drawdown is accomplished. OBTAIN prior approval from the Head of Onshore/Offshore Operations for inflow testing during the hours of darkness. the retrievable packer should be set at some 50 ft above the interval to be tested (or 50 ft above TOL) in order to minimise any possible influx. RUN retrievable packer with circulating valve. UNSEAT retrievable packer. to depth to be advised by Operations Engineer. After having circulated the well to achieve the required drawdown. 2. REVERSE well to completion fluid.) 1. 3. POOH and L/D retrievable packer. PERFORM the inflow test on the well for 15minutes as detailed in the Drilling Programme. . Procedure for Circulating to Lighter Fluids (Diesel etc. 4. 7. SET retrievable packer at advised depth and test annulus with 1000 psi in order to check that packer is properly sealing and that the tool assembly is functioning properly before RIH any further. CIRCULATE and OBSERVE well dead. 8. 6. safety joint and short tail on drillpipe. Generally. (An air cushion may be used) 5.

EQUIPMENT BOP Control System The BOP control system is set of controls that operate all of the functions of the BOP. but modern systems have introduced electro-hydraulics and multiplexed electro hydraulic control. Basic control systems are entirely built as hydraulic systems. Remote control stations allow tho user to operate the BOP Stack from a remote location. .

EQUIPMENT
Accumulator Unit
A Blowout Preventer (BOP) Control System is a
high-pressure hydraulic power unit fitted with
directional control valves to safely control kicks end
prevent blow-outs during drilling operations.
The primary function of the accumulator unit is to
provide the atmospheric fluid supply for the pumps
and to store the high-pressure operating fluid for
control of the BOP Stack.
It includes:
 The accumulators and piping.
 Reservoir.
 Air operated pumps.
 Electric motor driving triplex pumps.
 Master control panel.
 Interface module for remote control oi the BOP
functions.

EQUIPMENT
Accumulator Bottles

The storage reservoir should haves a
capacity twice the volume of the usable
fluid.
Accumulator bottles are used to store
hydraulic power fluid under pressure to
provide fast closure of the BOP and
provide a back-up source of hydraulic
power to close the BOP in-the event of
rig power failure.
Each bottle consists of two
compartments separated either a rubber
bladder or a piston device. One
compartment is filled with inert Nitrogen
gas and the other with hydraulic power
fluid.

EXAMPLE
Accumulator Bottles Example
Here we have an 11 gallon accumulator bottle with a
bladder installed.
The volume occupied by the bladder is usually taken
to be 1 gallon.
The Nitrogen gas is pre-charged to a pressure of
1000 psi (A)
The power fluid is then pumped under pressure into
the second compartment, compressing the Nitrogen
until system working pressure is reached.
To achieve a pressure of 3000 psi, 6.67 gallons of
hydraulic fluid is required. (B)
Hydraulic fluid volume at 1200 psi equals 1.67
gallons.(C) This is the minimum required pressure to
safely operate a BOP annular.
Therefore usable fluid operating under pressure is
6.67-1.67 = 5 gallons.

EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT
BOP Accumulator Pressure

The Accumulator pressure gauge reads the
amount of pressure in the Accumulator
Bottles
On a normal 3000 psi system, the
Accumulator Pressure would be kept at
3000 psi

EQUIPMENT BOP Accumulator Manifold Pressure The Manifold Pressure gauge reads the the amount of pressure required to function the Rams and fail safes valves This pressure in e normal system is set to 1500 psi .

. When the signal is received at the Accumulator unit from the Drillers or Toolpushers BOP control Panel. it operates the required function by moving the valve to the correct position.EQUIPMENT BOP Accumulator Air Pressure Air pressure is required to operate the function valves on the BOP Accumulator Control Unit.

EQUIPMENT .

they can be used to troubleshoot any leaks .EQUIPMENT Surface BOP Selector Valves These selector valves are installed as control valves for the function of the surface BOPs on the HPU Accumulator panel on jack up rigs and land rigs when the selector valve is put in “block” it will isolete the output pressure in the lines and hoses to the BOP. it still means the entire system remains pressured. Selector Valves should not be left in the blocked position. however. However.

There are many different panels available. they are situated just outside the dog house. The Driller can control all functions of the BOP from their panel. Certain operation controls such as the Shear rams and BOP connectors have safety flaps installed over them to make you think twice before operating. . However. they all carry out the same operational functions of the BOP from the remote location. However. on some older land rigs.EQUIPMENT Driller’s Control Panel The Drillers control panels is usually found in the Drillers dog house.

.EQUIPMENT Driller’s Control Panel There are many different control panel available from small basic ones on older land rigs to the sophisticated ones on the new generation rigs.

A red light will indicate that a function has been operatd. rams are in the open position and the fail-safe valves are in the closed position. i.e. This indicates that all functions are in the required position for Drilling. a ram has been closed. . A green light on the panel indicates that the panel is in a Drilling Mode. To operate a function on this panel you must first push and hold this button (Master Control) while selecting the required operation.e.EQUIPMENT BOP Control Panel The BOP control panel shown -opposite has two coloured main lights for the functions. or a fail- safe valve has been opened. i.

this panel controls the functions on the BOP from the remote location. . This panel would be used in an emergency if the Drillers control panel was unable to be used.EQUIPMENT The Toolpushers BOP Panel There are many different types of mini panels available. One of these is situated in the Toolpushers office. To operate this panel you have to first hold in the energising button (Master Button) then push the required function.

EQUIPMENT Subsea BOP Control Panel Most subsea Driller's BOP control panels have 3 different coloured lights: Red. rams are in the open position and the fail-safe valves are in the closed position. An amber light shows that a function is in the Blocked position. leaving the rams. or a fail-safe valve has been opened. i. To operate a function on this panel you must first push and hold this button. . A red light will indicate that a function has been operated. in their last operated position.e. The Blocked position vents the open and closed function. Green and Amber. a ram has been closed.e. This shows that all functions are in the required position for operations. etc. The green light on the function panel indicates that the panel is in Drilling mode. i.

Selector ancl Bypass valves.EQUIPMENT Accumulator Control Valves These valves are four-way/three-position valves. The Bypass Valve is a valve defined as a two position three way valve. used as a two position. This would give full Operating Accumulator Pressure to the Ram Operators. four way valve. used to permit bypassing the Pressure Reducing Valve/Regulator. the Manipulator type valves are defined as a valve that. they have insert plates used for different applications in three different types: Manipulator. Selector Valve A Selector Valve is defined as a valve that selects to direct fluid between two possible functions. . when placed in blocked position. closes the pilot pressure port and vents all other ports back to the Accumulator tank. Manipulator valve A Manipulator valve is a four-way/three-position valves.

EQUIPMENT Accumulator Equipment List .

EQUIPMENT .

EQUIPMENT What Are The Main Elements? The elements of the subsea BOP control system normally include:  Storage (reservoir) equipment for supplying ample control fluid.  Remote control panels for operating the control manifold from remote locations.  Umbilical control hose bundle (s) and reel(s).  Hydraulic control fluid.  Accumulator bottles for storing pressurised control fluid.  Control pod(s) located on the BOP. .  Hydraulic control manifold for regulating the control fluid pressure and directing the power fluid flow to operate the system functions (BOP and Choke and Kill valves).  Pumps for pressurising the control fluid.

pressurised and delivered from the hydraulic unit at the surface and then delivered at pressure (3000 psi) to the control pod’s pilot valve manifold through a hose bundle. Once opened. small diameter pilot lines ( ¼ “ or 5/16 “ hydraulic lines) as well as a larger diameter (minimum 1") hydraulic line containing the power fluid. When commanded to do so from the surface. the pressurised fluid can flow to the BOPs via regulators that regulate the pressure to 1500 psi. such as the pipe ram or annular preventer. The 1/4" pilot lines attach to individual pilot valves. fluid flows into the pilot lines until enough pressure is available to operate the pilot valve. EQUIPMENT BOPs operating in water require a complex hydraulic system including subsea control pods attached to the BOP frame. which are 3 way hydraulic valves. Control pods contain a number at "pilot valves" and pressure regulators. The hydraulic fluid is mixed. and are doubled up in parallel for redundancy. which includes individual. each of which control the power fluid to a specific BOP component. . Pilot lines are signal carriers from the surface to seabed.

.EQUIPMENT Jumper Hoses Jumper Hoses are the hoses from the BOP Accumulator Unit to the Blue and Yellow Hose Reels. (Item 2 in diagram). The pilot signals are routed to the hose reels through the appropriate length of surface umbilical jumper hose bundle from the hydraulic connections located on the control manifold.