Textile Science : Index

1. Fiber 2. Spinning 3. Weaving 4. Knitting 5. Fabric Pretreatment 6. Dyeing 7. Printing 8. Finishing 9. Washing 10. Fabric Inspection
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Slide # 2 Slide # 81 Slide # 117 Slide # 166 Slide # 216 Slide # 236 Slide # 297 Slide # 404 Slide # 466 Slide # 500
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FIBER
► A unit of matter characterized by Flexibility, Fineness and a high length to width ratio.

Fiber Natural Man Made

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Natural Fiber

Vegetable Fiber

Animal Fiber

Mineral Fiber

Cotton
Jute Linen

Wool
Silk

Asbestos
Glass Metal

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Natural Fiber

Cellulosic Fiber

Protein Fiber

Mineral Fiber

Cotton
Jute Linen

Wool
Silk

Asbestos
Glass Metal

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Man Made Fiber

Regenerated Fiber Viscose

Synthetic Fiber Polyester

Acetate

Nylon

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Fiber

Staple Fiber Cotton

Filament Fiber Silk

Polyester

Nylon

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Primary Properties
► Length; length-width ratio ► Tenacity (strength) ► Flexibility (pliability) ► Acceptable extensibility for processing ► Cohesion ► Uniformity of properties

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Secondary Properties
► Physical shape (cross-section, surface contour, etc. ► Specific gravity (influence weight, cover, etc.) ► Moisture regain and moisture absorption (comfort, static electricity, etc.) ► Elastic character - tensile and compression ►Thermoplasticity (softening point and heat-set character) ► Dyeability ► Resistance to solvents, corrosive chemicals, microorganisms, and environmental conditions ► Flammability ► Luster
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Fiber Cotton Wool Silk Viscose Acetate Polymaid Acrylic Polyseter

Primary Features 4 2 2 1 4 4 2 3 3 0 4 4 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 4 4 2 3 2 4 4 4 4 0 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 0 3 4 4 4 4 4 0 3
Price Water Imbibition Elasticity Elongation Strength Length Fineness

2 2 2 2 0 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 2 2 0 0

4 4 4 4 2 2 0 0

Secondary Features 4 2 2 3 0 4 3 4 0 0 4 2 4 0 2 3 4 3 2 2 4 4 1 4 3 4 3 2 0 0 0 0 4 3 4 0 4 2 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 4 4 0 2 1 2 4 4 4 4 0 2 2 2

2 2 2 4 0 4 2 4

4 4 2 4 4 2 4 4

2 4 4 2 4 2 4 4

59 59 69 56 57 67 59 63
Grand Total

0 - Poor ; 2 – Generally Acceptable ; 4 – Very Good
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Aesthetic Apparance Light Stability Fatigue Resistance Flammability Softening Point Wicking Pilling Crease Recovery Crease Resistance Drape and Handle Bulking Power Laundering Static Dye Affinity Abrasion Resistance

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General Fiber Characteristics
► External Structure ●1. Length ■ (short staple 0.5 – 2.5 inches, long staple > 2 inches) ●2. Diameter ■ (natural 10-20 microns, manufactured 10 – 50 microns) ●3. Cross-sectional shape ●4. Crimp ●5. Color
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General Fiber Characteristics
► Internal Structure ●1. Chemical Composition ■ Sequence and kind of atoms in structure ●2. Crystallinity ■ Polymer chains or sections packed together ●3. Orientation ■ Alignment of chains along fiber axis

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General Fiber Characteristics
► Thermal Properties ●1. Melting Temperature ●2. Glass Transition Temperature ■ Most polymers are thermoplastic – they soften before melting

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General Fiber Characteristics
► Physical Properties ●1. Breaking Strength ■ Force required to break a fiber ●2. Breaking Elongation ■ Amount of stretch before breaking ●3. Modulus ■ Resistance to deformation ●4. Toughness ■ Amount of energy absorbed ●5. Elasticity ■ Ability to recover after being deformed
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General Fiber Characteristics
► Chemical Properties ●1. Density ●2. Moisture Regain ●3. Chemical Resistance ●4. Dyeability

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Cotton

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Cotton

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Cotton: Advantages
► Absorbent. ► Cool. ► Comfortable to wear. ► Durable. ► Economical. ► Does not melt.

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Cotton: Limitations
► Wrinkles unless treated. ► Susceptible to mildew and strong acids. ► May scorch.

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Cotton
► Cotton is hypoallergenic since it doesn‟t irritate sensitive skin or cause allergies ► Cotton‟s softness makes it a preferred fabric for underwear and other garments worn next to the skin ► Cotton‟s adaptability allows it to blend easily with most other fibres including synthetics such as polyester and lycra ► Cotton is one of the easiest fabrics to dye, making it very popular with fashion and homeware designers

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Cotton
► Cotton can be given a coating or a finish. For example, cotton used in fire fighting uniforms is coated and finished with Proban®, a flame-retardant chemical treatment ► Durable press is a finishing treatment used in cotton garments to eliminate creasing and reduce the need to iron. It retains specific contours such as creases and pleats to be resistant to normal usage, washing or dry cleaning ► Cotton has a high absorbency rate and holds up to 27 times its own weight in water

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Cotton
► Cotton also becomes stronger when wet ► Cotton‟s strength and absorbency levels make it an ideal fabric for medical and personal hygiene products such as bandages and swabs ► Terry cloth is a cotton fabric used to make common items such as towels. It can be safely washed in very hot water and with strong bleach and/or detergent ► Cotton keeps the body cool in summer and warm in winter because it is a good conductor of heat

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Cotton
► Cotton is often used in the manufacture of curtains, tents and tarpaulins as it is not easily damaged by sunlight ► Cotton breathes easily as a result of its unique fibre structure. This attribute makes cotton more comfortable to wear than artificial fibres unable to provide similar ventilation ► Unlike synthetic fibres, cotton is a natural product and contains no chemicals

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Cotton Products
► Almost all parts of the cotton plant are used in some way, including the cottonseed, lint (raw cotton fibre), stalk and hull (shell) ► Popular uses for cotton fibre include clothing apparel, home furnishings and industrial/medical products such as tents, bandages and cotton swabs ► Well known cotton fibre products include denim jeans, socks, towels, t-shirts, bed sheets and underwear ► Cotton fibre can be woven or knitted into fabrics such as velvet, corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel
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Cotton Products
► Linters are the very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning. Once removed and processed, linters are used to produce goods such as bandages, cotton buds, and x-rays ► The fibre from one 227 kg cotton bale can produce 215 pairs of jeans, 250 single bed sheets, 750 shirts, 1,200 tshirts, 2,100 pairs of boxer shorts, 3,000 nappies, 4,300 pairs of socks or 680,000 cotton balls

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Flex / Linen

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Linen: Advantages
► Best wicking of natural fibers; therefore, cool to wear. ► Dries quickly. ► Natural, soft sheen. ► Strong and durable. ► Does not melt.

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Linen: Limitations
► Wrinkles badly unless treated. ► Susceptible to mildew and strong acids. ► Color frosts on creases. ► May be weakened with repeated creasing in the same place. ► May scorch.

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Silk

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Silk

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Silk

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Silk: Advantages
► Luxurious. ► Lightweight. ► Dyes in beautiful, rich colors. ► Absorbent. ► Strong. ► Moderately wrinkle resistant. ► Resists mildew and moths. ► Does not melt.

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Silk : Limitations
► Weakened by sunlight, perspiration and chlorine bleach. ► Absorbs body oils and grease stains. ► Water spots. ► Yellows and fades with age. ► Subject to attack by carpet beetles unless treated. ► Affected by high temperatures. ► Loses strength when wet. ► Should be pressed with a press cloth. ► Color damaged by hair spray. ► Damaged by perfumes.
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Wool

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Wool

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Wool: Advantages
► Warm and comfortable to wear. ► Absorbent. ► Wrinkle resistant. ► Mold and shape easily when pressed. ► Water repellent. ► Flame resistant. ► Does not melt.

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Wool: Limitations
► Subject to attack by moths and carpet beetles unless treated. ► May shrink and felt when laundered unless blended or especially treated. ► Damaged by chlorine bleach. ► Damaged by dry heat. ► Loses strength when wet. ► Sensitive to alkaline agents. ► Should be pressed with a press cloth.

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Man Made Fiber
nylon modacrylic Polyester Spandex polyolefin aramid novoloid Vectran PBI Fluorocarbon (WL Gore) Carbon 1938 1949 1953 1959 1961 1974 1974 1985 1986 1970? 1970's?

*Market share of man made fibers vs. natural fibers 1945 13% today 75+%

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Melt Spinnig
► Typical Melt Spun Fibers ●Nylon ●Polyester ●Polypropylene ►Disadvantages ● Separate drawing step (unless spin draw) ►Advantages ●High speed (275 to 1500 yddmin); (4000 yddmin spin draw) ●No solvents ●No purification problems
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Melt Spinning
► Melt Spinning ● simplest and economical ● melting the polymers ● molten polymer is extruded from spinneret ►ONLY limited to polymers which are stable to high temperatures. ► E.g., polyester, polyamides, polystryrene. etc

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Dry Spinning
► Typical Dry Spun Fibers ●Acetate ●Spandex ► Disadvantages ●Flammable solvent hazards ●Solvent recovery ●Slow (200 - 400 yd/min) ► Advantages ●Yarn does not require purification

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Wet spinning
► Typical Wet Spun Fibers ● Viscose ► Disadvantages ●Slow (70 - 150 yd/min) ●Washing to remove impurities ●Solvent and chemical recovery ► Advantages ● Large tows can be handled

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Viscose

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Viscose

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Rayon: Advantages
► Dyes easily. ► Versatile. ► Relatively inexpensive. ► Absorbent. ► Does not melt.

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Rayon: Limitations
► Wrinkles easily. ► Weaker when wet. ► Damaged by strong acids and mildew. ► May shrink or stretch unless treated. ► May scorch.

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Nylon

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Nylon: Advantages
► Extremely strong. ► Extremely durable. ► Can be heat set to retain pleats. ► Wrinkle resistant. ► Resists mildew and insect damage. ► Does not burn easily. ► High elasticity. ► Very resistant to abrasion.

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Nylon: Limitations
► Builds up static electricity. ► Low moisture absorption. ► Grays and yellows with age and poor care. ► Picks up dye and soil in laundering. ► Absorbs and holds body oils and perspiration stains. ► Melts if too hot. ► Pills if spun.

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Polyester

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Polyester: Advantages
► Wrinkle resistant. ► Retains heat-set pleats and creases. ► Superior wash-wear performance. ► Strong. ► Resists damage from abrasion, strong sunlight, weather conditions, moths, mildew and most strong chemicals.

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Polyester: Limitations
► Absorbs body oils. ► Accumulates static electricity. ► May pill and attract lint. ► Absorbs perspiration odor. ► Melts if too hot.

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Spandex

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Spandex: Advantages
► Provides strength without weight. ► Resists perspiration, cosmetic oils and lotions. ► Has elasticity; great stretch and recovery.

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Spandex: Limitations
► Damaged by chlorine bleach. ► Absorbs little moisture. ► May yellow when exposed to light. ► Melts at relatively low heat.

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Polypropylene

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Fiber Strength
Fiber
Name
Na tura l Fibe rs Cotton Flax Silk W ool Ma n-Ma de Fibe rs Acetate Acrylic Aramid (Filament) Aramid (Staple Fluorocarbon Glass Modacrylic Nov aloid Nylon 6 (Filament) Nylon 6 (Staple) Nylon 66 (Filament) Nylon 66 (Staple) Nylon 66 HT Olefin Polyester (Filament) Polyester (Staple Polyester (Filament HT) Rayon Rayon HT Rayon HW M Rubber Saran Spandex Vinyon Kev lar Spectra Vectran HS

Breaking T enacity (Grams/Denier)
Dry
4.0 5.5 4.5 1.5

Wet
5.0 6.5 3.9 1.0

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1.2-1.5 2.0-3.5 4.3-5.1 3.7-5.3 2.0 7.0 2.0-3.5 1.5-2.5 6.0-9.5 2.5 3.5-7.2 3.0-6.0 6.0-9.5 4.8 4.0-5.5 2.5-5.5 6.3-9.5 0.73-2.6 3.0-6.0 2.5-5.5 0.3 1.5 0.6-0.9 0.7-1.0 20.0 30-35 23.0

0.8-1.2 1.8-3.3 3.2-3.9 2.7-4.1 SAME SAME SAME 1.3-2.3 5.0-8.0 2.0 3.2-6.5 2.6-5.4 5.0-8.0 6.0 SAME SAME SAME 0.7-1.8 1.9-4.6 1.8-4.0 SAME SAME SAME SAME 18.0 SAME SAME

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Specific Gravity

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Thermal Properties
Fiber Melting Point
F
Natural Fibers Cotton Flax Silk Wool Nonmelting Nonmelting Nonmelting Nonmelting

Softenting Sticking Point
F C

Safe Ironing Temperature *
F
425 450 300 300

C

C
218 232 149 149

Man-made Fibers Acetate 446 Arnel Triacetate 575 Acrylic Aramid Doesn't melt: Glass Modacrylic 410

364 184 350 177 482 250 464 240 400-490 204-254 300-350 149-176 carbonizes above 800 F. 1400-3033 210 300 149 200-250 93-121

230 302

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Thermal Properties
Fiber Melting Point
F
Novoloid Nylon 6 Nylon 66 Olefin Nonmelting 414 482 275

Softenting Sticking Point
F C
340 445 260 460 490 300 347 200 260 171 229 127 338 254 149 175 93 127

Safe Ironing Temperature *
F C

C
212 250 135

Polyester PET 480 249 Polyester PCDT 550 311 Rayon Nonmelting Saran 350 177 Spandex 446 230 Vinyon 285 140 Kevlar Nonmelting Spectra 285 140 Vectran 625 300 *Lowest setting on irons: 185-225 F.
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300 149 350 177 150 66 (Lowest Possible) 325 350 375 Do Not Iron 300 Do Not Iron (Lowest Possible)

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Absorbency

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Sunlight Resistance
Glass Acrylic Modacrylic Polyester Flax Cotton Rayon Triacetate Acetate Olefin Nylon Wool Silk Kevlar Vectran
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Excellent

To

Poor
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Fiber Blends - Some Reasons For Blending
► To facilitate processing ► To improve properties ● Abrasion resistance ● Strength ● Absorbency ● Hand ● Dimensional stability ● Resistance to wrinkling ► To produce multi-color fabrics ► To reduce cost
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Summary Of Properties Desired For Textile Fibers
► Tenacity: 3 - 5 gram/denier ► Elongation at break: 10 - 35% ► Recovery from elongation: 100% at strains up to 5% ► Modulus of elasticity: 30 - 60 gram/denier ► Moisture absorbency: 2 - 5% ► Zero strength temperature (excessive creep and softening point): above 215' C

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Summary Of Properties Desired For Textile Fibers
► High abrasion resistance (varies with type fabric structure) ► Dyeable ► Low flammability ► Insoluble with low swelling in water, in moderately strong acids and bases and conventional organic solvents from room temperature to 100' c ► Ease of care

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Fiber Usage
Customer Term Comfort Textile Property
Moisture Character Flexibility

Elasticity
Thermal Character

Appearance Durability

Optical Character Elasticity Tensile Strength

Toughness
Flexibility Elasticity

Easy Care

Moisture Character

Elasticity
Dimensional Stability

Safety
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Flammability Chemical Resistance
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Fibers For Products
► Bed Shits ● The Consumer Expects the Soft and Warm Handle with Easy care Properties. ● Sheets are expected to be hard wearing and dimensional stable. ● The majority of bed sheets are manufactured from polyester / cotton blends.

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Fibers For Products
► Shirting ● Shirts are expected to absorb perspiration as well as being non creasing and retaining their shape in wear. ● Easy care properties are essential and shirts must be hard wearing to give long service life. ● Like bed sheets, most shirts are made from polyester / cotton blends.

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Fibers For Products
► Knitted Jumpers ● Jumpers are worn for warmth and need to be elastic so that they do not lose their shape in wear. ● Wool is often used, but its high cost is a disadvantage. ● Acrylic fibres are cheaper and have better easy care characteristic. ● Increasingly, cotton is used for jumpers and polyester / cotton for sweatshirts.

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Fibers For Products
► Swimwear ● Swimwear needs to fit the body but also allow freedom of movement. ● The fibres must be resistance to salt water, as well as chlorinated water in swimming baths. ● almost exclusively, polyamids are used as the main fibres, with about % of Elastine to give stretch. ● This combination dries quickly since neither is water absorbent.

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Fibers For Products
► Towels ● The most important characteristic of fiber for towels is the ability to absorb the water. ● It is useful that the towel will retain its shape in use and be soft to the touch. ● Cotton is the major fiber used although viscose could also be used.

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Fibers For Products
► Tights ● Tights must fits to legs closely, yet be sufficiently elastic to allow moments. ● The fiber must be strong and extensible to give resistance to snagging, and highly elastic to prevent wrinkling. ● Polyamide is used for the main part of the tights while a small qty of elastane is used for the waisteband.

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Fibers For Products
► Trousers ● The fibres used for the trousers can vary greatly according to consumer requirements. ● In all, easy care and dimensional stability for shape retentation are important. ● For warmth, polyester/wool is effective. This blend is less care. ● Summer trousers are often made from polyester/cotton and denim jeans are just 100% cotton. ● Jeans do not have easy care properties but are hard wearing; creasing in use is often a positive advantage to the consumer.
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Spinning
Spinning is the process where Fiber is Converted into Yarns Yarns are a grouping of fibres twisted together to form a continuous strand
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Yarns

Spun
Spun Yarns are composed of relatively short lengths of Fiber twisted or spun to hold them together

Filament

Filaments yarns are composed of continuous strand of fibers which may be miles long

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Spun Yarn

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Fiber
Blow Room Carding

Draw Frame Combing Speed Frame

Ring Frame

Yarn
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Fiber Blow Room Lap

Carding
Card Sliver Draw Frame D/F Sliver Combing Combed Sliver Speed Frame

Roving
Ring Frame Yarn
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Fiber

Lap

Card Sliver D/F Sliver Combed Sliver

Roving

Yarn
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Blow Room

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Bale to Lap

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Function
► Opening ► Cleaning ► Mixing

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Mixing

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Mixing

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Carding

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Carding
► Function ● Opening ● Cleaning ► Input ● Lap ► Output ● Card Sliver

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Draw Frame

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Drafting

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Draw Frame
► Function ● To Parallel the Fibres ● Drafting ► Input ● 8-10 Card Sliver ► Output ● Drew Frame Sliver

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Lap Preparation

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Lap Preparation
► Function ● To prepare the Lap for Combing ► Input ● 8-10 Draw Frame Sliver ► Output ● Lap for Combing

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Combing
► Function ● To remove the short Fibers ● To Parallel the fibres ► Input ● Lap ► Output ● Combed Sliver

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Speed Frame
► Function ● To prepare the package for the R/F ● To impart the Twist ► Input ● Sliver ► Output ● Roving

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Ring Frame

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Ring Frame
► Function ● Twisting ● Drafting ● Winding ► Input ● Roving ► Output ● Yarn

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Filament Yarn

Knit de Knit Air Jet False Twist Stuffer Box

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Yarn Twist

Clockwise

Anticlockwise

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Yarn Count

Direct

Indirect

Length is Constant Weight is Variable e.g. Tex Denier

Weight is Constant Length is Variable e.g. English

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Tex
► The Tex number is defined as the weight in grams of one thousand meters of the material.

1

10

30

40

50

1000 mtrs or 1 Km

1 g m

10 gm

30 gm

40 gm

50 gm

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English
►The English Count is defined as the numbers of hanks of 840 yds in length that weigh one pound in weight.
1 840 yds 4200 yds 8400 yds 16800 yds 20 10 5

4 0

3 3 6 0 0 y d s

1 lbs each
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Indirect System

70

60

50

40

30

25

20

10

5

1

Direct System 1 5 10 20 25 30 40 50 60 70

Finer Yarn

Coarser Yarn

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Indirect System

Direct System

1

5

10

20

25

30

40

50

60

70

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Winding
► To convert the smaller package in to bigger package ► To remove the faults of yarn ► To lubricate the yarn

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Warping
► An operation where yarn is transferred from single packages of yam to an even sheet of yarn representing hundreds of ends and then wound onto a warp beam. ► To produce a beam which contains a large number of individual threads parallel to each other.

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Sizing
► Around 8-10 Warper‟s beams are passed through the Size paste which contains the Starch based adhesive. ► Sizing increases the Strength of yarn. ► It also reduces the hairiness. ► Make outer surface of yam smoother

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Why Warp Yarns Need To Be Strengthened ??
● Random variations in tension ■ due to large, badly shaped knot ■ yam and fiber entanglements ■ knot tails entangling ► To overcome weaknesses in the yam created by: ● Yam damage caused by the machine ● Weak places in the yam supplied ● Inadequate distribution of load over all warp ends ● Inadequate knotting or joining

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Why Warp Yarns Need To Be Strengthened ??
► To overcome tension levels in the warp ● Constant average tension determined by: ■ rate of take-up of cloth and let-off of warp ■ contraction of warp due to crimp ■ stretch of warp due to tension ● Cycling variations in tension ■ due to shedding ■ due to beat-up ■ higher level in dense fabric ■ highest tension in cycle is where a weak yam will break
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Warp Preparation
► Drawing-In ● Provides each warp yam with its drop wire, heddle, and reed dent. ►Tying - In ● When mass producing the same fabric by simply typing each end of a new beam to its corresponding end of the old beam

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Weaving
► Woven fabric consists of two sets of yarns at right angles to one another. ► Lengthwise yarns are the warp yarns (ends). ► Widthwise yarns are the filling yarns (picks). ► Fabric is woven on a machine called a loom.

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Weaving

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Weaving
Healds

Warp

Reed

Cloth

Harness
Warp Beam
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Weft Shuttle
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Loom
► Essential features of a loom: ● Warp Bean - A roll containing all the warp yarns. For a 36 yarn per inch fabric woven at 36” wide, it would contain 1296 yarns. ● Harnesses - Controls the movement of warp yarns (i.e., up or down). This creates an opening or shed so that the filling yarn can pass through. ● Shuttle - A projectile that carries the filling yarn. The filling yarn is wound onto a bobbin. ● Reed - A frame with thin, vertical wires that separate the warp yarns after insertion of the filling yarns. It compacts each fill yarn into the fabric.
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Motions of Loom
► Primary ● Shedding ● Picking ● Beating ► Secondary ● Let Off ● Take Up ► Auxiliary ● Warp Stop Motion

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Shedding

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Picking

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Beating

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Shedding

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Shedding Motion
► Definition ● Shedding is a function of weaving involving the lifting of harnesses containing warp ends in order to provide a shed opening for filling insertion and to control design. ► Types Of Shedding ● Cam Shedding ● Dobby Shedding ● Jacquard Shedding

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Jacquard Loom

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Picking
► Shuttle ► Water ► Air ► Projectile ► Rapier ► Other

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Woven Fabric Production

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Shuttleless Looms
►Shuttleless Loom ● Filling yarn is supplied on cones at the side of the loom. ● Filling yarn is cut after each yarn insertion. ● Filling yarn is inserted by a projectile, rapier or jet nozzle. ● The rapier loom is often used to weave industrial fabrics. ● Shuttleless looms are 3 times faster than Shuttle types.

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Shuttleless Looms
► Inserting the filling yarn for Shuttleless looms.

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Rapier

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Rapier

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Air Jet

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Air Jet

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Projectile

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Projectile

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Terry Loom

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Multiphase Weaving

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Beat-Up Motion
► Functions of the reed ● Keep ends parallel and in the same position ● Beat the filling yarn into the fabric ● Provide some control for filling insertion ► Implications of increased beat-up ● Filling density ● Warp tension ● Noise and vibration ● Fabric structure and properties

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Beat Up

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Basic Weaves
► Plain Weave ► Twill Weave ► Satin Weave
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Plain
► Plain Weave - simplest and most common ► Each warp and fill yarn interlace with no floats. It makes one complete cycle on two ends and two picks. ► Only two harnesses are required on the loom.

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Plain

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Plain

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Rib

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Plain Basket Weave
►A popular version of the plain weave is the basket weave. ►Two or more warp yarns are woven with the same number of filling yarns. ►Basket weaves are used to increase tear strength and allow a higher yarn count vs. a plain weave.

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► Twill Weave: ● Produce characteristic diagonal lines on the fabric. ● Can be right hand (diagonals upward to right), left hand (diagonals upward to left), or broken twill (herringbone or chevron). ● The angle of the twill can be varied. ● Twill weaves are infrequently used in industrial fabrics. Commonly used in denim jeans.

Twill

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Twill

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Twill Weave

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Satin
► Satin Weave:
● Only one interlacing for each warp and fill yarn in each repeat. ● No two interlacings ever touch or are adjacent. ● Have a distinctive face side and back side to the fabric. ● Designation 5H Satin means there are only 5 interlacings in a repeat. 5 harnesses on the loom required to weave. ● Satins are know for the excellent hand a drapeability and are used extensively in rigid composites.

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Satin

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Satin

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Sateen and Satin
weft faced warp faced

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Weave Variations are Produced By
► Different ply, count or texture of yarns ► Equal or unequal size and count for warp and filling ► Equal or unequal yam count for warp and filling ► Equal yarn size and unequal or dented spacing ► Equal yarn count for warp and filling and unequal yarn size ► Interlacing different patterns and weave effects ► Interlacing different colored yarns

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Physical Properties of Fabric
► Weight ► Construction ► Strength - tensile and tear ► Abrasion resistance and pilling ► Dimensional stability (heat, washing, dry cleaning) ► Appearance &r washing ► Fastness (wash, light, gas) ► Stiffness and drape (handle) ► Sewability (seam strength and resistance to slippage)
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By Vasant Kothari
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Weaving is the intersection of two sets of straight threads, warp and weft, which cross and interweave at right angles to each other.
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Knitting is the interlooping of yarn(s), which are interlaced in a variety of ways to form a fabric.

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Woven Fabrics
Rigid (Inextensible), High Elastic Recovery. Easy to Tear Gets Crease And Wrinkled Thinner Fabrics

Knitted Fabrics
Weft Knit : Highly Extensible, Incomplete Elastic Recovery. Difficult to Tear Highly Crease resistant Thicker fabrics

Stiffer
Air Permeability is Less Stronger Fabrics coz High Twist in Yarns Tested by Loading or Extending fabrics in Warp/Weft Directions
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Limb
Air Permeability is More Weaker Fabrics coz Less Twist in Yarns Tested by Multi-Directional fabric Bursting Strength Test
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: Courses are ROWS of loops across the width of fabrics, it is measured in units of (Courses / cm ) The number courses determine the LENGTH of fabric.

: Wales are COLUMNS of loops across the length of the fabrics, it is measured in units of (Wales / cm ) The number of wales WIDTH of fabric.
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determine the

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Stitch Density : Stitch density refers to the total
number of loops in a measured area of fabric. Stitch Density is the product of the courses and wales per unit length and is measured in units per square per centimeter.

Stitch Length : Stitch length, measured in millimeters,
is the length of yarn in one knitted loop. It is one of the most important factors controlling the properties of knitted fabrics. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more open and lighter the fabric.
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NEEDLE LOOP The needle loop (H + L in Fig) is the basic unit of knitted structure. It consists of a head (H) and two side limbs or legs (L). At the base of each leg is a foot (F), which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle. The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. SINKER LOOP The sinker loop (S in Fig) is the piece of yarn that joins one weft knitted needle loop to the next.
{The sinker is the second primary knitting element (the needle being the first). It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles.} Functions: Loop formation, www.vasantkothari.com Holding-down, Knocking-over

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Knitting Notations
A knitting notation is a simple, easily-understood, symbolic representation of a knitting repeat sequence and its resultant fabric structure that eliminates the need for time-consuming and possibly confusing sketches and written descriptions.

Point Paper
Each point represents a needle in plan view from above and, after the thread path has been drawn, it also Represents its stitch. Each horizontal row of points thus represents adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle and the course produced by them. The lowest row of points represents the starting course in knitting

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Graph/Squared Paper

This method is developed by the Leicester School of Textiles for weft knitting only. In this method each square representing a needle or stitch.

An „X‟ symbol is placed in a square where a face stitch occurs and an „O‟ where there is a reverse stitch.
When notating each stitch, it is necessary to examine the intermeshing direction at the base of the loop because the intermeshing at its head determines the direction of the intermeshing of the new loop formed above it.

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TYPES OF NEEDLES
Beard Needle Latch Needle Compound Needle

Simplest, but requiring another element to control
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Self acting

Two independent controlled part

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Beard Needle
This is the simplest and cheapest It requires an additional element to close the beard during knitting A knitting section occupies a considerable amount of space, thus limiting productivity.
Eye Head Beard

Individual loop formation has to be achieved by a loop forming element. This leads to a more complicated knitting action but also provides for a more gentle and careful loop formation.
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Stem

Shank 175

The knitting action of the bearded needle

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LATCH NEEDLE

1 The hook 2 The slot or saw cut 3 The cheeks or slot walls 4 The rivet 5 The latch-blade 6 The latch spoon 7 The stem 8 The butt 9 The tail

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The knitting action of the latch needle

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COMPOUND NEEDLE
Compound needles consist of two separatelycontrolled parts – the open hook and the sliding closing element (tongue, latch, piston, plunger). It is most popular in Warp Knitting m/c. Strain is not put on the yarn. Both members of Compound Needle have a straight moment, thus the knitting speed can be increased. These are very expensive to manufacture.

Compound Needles are also consist of Hallow steel tube of finer guage in which a hook closing element, which is also a steel tube of fine guage, © is 2007 www.vasantkothari.com inserted
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The loops are formed across the width of fabric
It possible to knit with ONE thread e.g. Circular Knitting machine
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The loops are formed vertically down the length of fabric
Warp beam is used e.g. Tricot & Raschel machine

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Staple as well as Filament yarns can be worked Successfully. Latch Needles are used Less Versatile M/c. Speed reduces with Design change in Cams Fabric Quality is not Consistent Loops are not Uniform Stretch in Both Direction Less Dimensional Stability
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Filament Yarn can be worked Successfully. (Staple: Size  Fluff) Latch, Beard or Compound Needles are used. Versatile M/c Change in Pattern does not affect the Speed of M/c Fabric Quality is Consistent Loops are Uniform Stretch in Widthwise Direction More Dimensional Stability To Produce
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WEFT KNITTING
♣ In weft knitting, the loops are formed across the width of the
fabric, and each weft thread is fed, more or less, at right angles to the direction in which the fabric is produced.

♣ It

is possible to knit with only one thread or cone of yarn, though production demands have resulted in circular weft knitting machines being manufactured wit up to 192 threads (feeders).

♣ Compared

to Warp knitting, Weft knitting is more versatile method of fabric production in terms of both the range of fabric structures that can be produced and the yarn types that can be utilised.

♣ Weft knitting is the simplest method of converting a yarn into
a fabric.
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WEFT KNITTING MACHINE
Straight bar Machines V-Bed Machines Circular machines

Θ The simplest weft knitting machinery has one set of needles,
arranged either in a straight line or around cylinder. These machines are capable of producing single jersey fabrics and can use a combination of knit, miss or tuck stitch.

Θ With

two needle beds, double jersey fabrics such as rib & interlock can be produced on both flat bar and circular machines. In the case of circular m/cs this second needle bed takes the form of a dial, a flat disc placed on the top of cylinder. In case of v-bed m/cs, the two beds forms an inverted „v‟ shape.

Θ In the case of purl machines, two needle beds are used. They
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WEFT KNITTING FABRICS
In woven fabric structures, three weaves, are called basic Weaves viz. PLAIN, TWILL & SATIN. It is considered that in single layer fabrics all other modifications of the structures are derivatives of PLAIN, TWILL & SATIN. In a similar way in a weft knit structures the following four structures are considered as basic Weft-knit structures..

1 Plain Single Jersey Fabric 2 Rib Fabrics

3 Interlock Fabrics
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Plain Single Jersey Fabric

The three-dimensional structure of plain weft knitting magnified x130 by a stereo scan electron microscope. The arrows indicate the direction in which the fabric will tend to © curl 2007 if it is cut. www.vasantkothari.com
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Plain single jersey is the simplest weft knitted structure that it is possible to produce on one set of needle. Plain is the base structure of ladies‟ hosiery, fully fashioned knitwear and single-jersey fabrics. The production rate is very high because of stitch simplicity and its cost is low because of machine simplicity. If the yarn breaks, needle loops successively unmesh down a wale and sinker loops unmesh up a wale. The stitch length can be varied with cam setting giving more courses per unit length with short stitch length and vice versa. The properties such as rigidity, air permeability, weight per unit area, bursting strength changes with the stitch length. The fabric may appear thick of flimsy if the stitch length is reduced or increased. The fabric can be unroved from either end and if a stitch is broken, the wale will disintegrate causing the stitches in that line to undo or ladder.
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THE KNITTING ACTION
(a) Tucking in the hook or rest position. The sinker is forward, holding down the old loop whilst the needle rises from the rest position.

(b) Clearing. The needle has been raised to its highest position clearing the old Loop from its latch.

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(c) Yarn feeding. The sinker is partially withdrawn allowing the feeder to present its yarn to the descending needle hook and also freeing the old loop so that It can slide up the needle stem and under the open latch spoon. (d) Knock-over. The sinker is fully withdrawn whilst the needle descends to knock-over its old loop on the sinker belly. (e) Holding-down. The sinker moves forward to hold down the new loop in its throat whilst the needle rises under the influence of the upthrow cam to the rest position where the head of the open hook just protrudes above the sinker belly. www.vasantkothari.com
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Rib Fabrics

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The term Rib is used to describe a knitted fabric with vertical rows (wales) of loops meshed in the opposite direction to each other.
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Rib fabrics are generally produced on V-bed or Circular machines. In both the cases, loop formation is effectively same, with V-bed machines having a front bed and a back bed, while Circular machines have a cylinder and dial It is a reversible structure, i.e. face and back side has the same appearance in 1 x 1, 2 x 2, 3 x 3, ribs. It is heavier and thicker structure than the plain knit structure with similar gauge used. The rib machine also requires finer yarn than a similar gauge plain machine. It is a more expensive fabric to produce than plain. The fabric does not curl at the edges due to its balanced nature. This property of rib structure is particularly useful in cutting and sewing operation. Like all weft-knitted fabrics, it can be unroved from the end knitted last by drawing the free loop heads through to the back of each stitch. Rib fabrics are extensively used in the production of outwear garments. © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com 191

The Knitting Action of the Circular Rib Machine

(a) Clearing The cylinder and dial needles move out to clear the plain and rib loops formed in the previous cycle.
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(b) Yarn Feeding The needles are withdrawn into their tricks so that the old loops are covered by the open latches and the new yarn is fed into the open hooks.
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(c) Knocking-over The needles are withdrawn into their tricks so that the old loops are cast off and the new loops are drawn through them.
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Interlock Fabrics

Interlock is a popular double jersey structure produced on a cylinder and dial circular weft knitting machine. Interlock is a interlocking of two 1 x 1rib structures in such a way that the face wale of fabric “1” is directly in front of the „reverse wale‟ of the rib fabric “2”.
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Interlock is a reversible fabric, which has a similar smooth appearance
on each side.

It does not curl at the edges. The fabric is firm i.e. less extensible Fabric

due to interlocking structures knitted in two separate planes by the sinker loops. is thicker, stronger, less elastic and hence is nearer to the woven structure so that cutting and sewing operations are easier.

It unroves from the course knitted the last. Due to complicated mechanisms cam tracks

and short and long needles operating on the machine, the speed and number of feeds are reduced and thus affecting the production.

The fabric becomes costlier due to thickness and less production. Interlock is used for outwear fabrics (dress wear and skirts), often
using wool, acrylic and polyester yarns, while cotton and polyester/cotton blends are used for the production of underwear fabrics.
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Purl Fabrics

1 x 1 Purl fabric has loops knitted to the front and back on alternate courses, in the contrast to a 1 x 1 rib fabric which is knitted to the front and back on alternate wales.
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Interlock is a popular double jersey structure produced on a cylinder
and dial circular weft knitting machine.

In the simplest purl structures each wale consists of face and reverse
loops.

It is reversible in appearance and has soft hand with full cover. Its thickness is theoretically double to that of plain knit. Like the jersey knit fabric, it can be unroved from either end. As the link machine has a horizontal bed for the needles It

to reciprocate, the speed of the machine and the production is much less. does not curl at the edges and because of alternate face and reverse courses it is a balance structure which property is useful in cutting and sewing.

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1 Engagement of the head of the receiving slider with the needle hook that was originally knitting from the opposing bed. 2 Cam action causing the head of the delivering slider to pivot outwards from the trick and thus disengage itself from the other hook of the needle. 3 Sufficient free space to allow the heads of the sliders to pivot outwards from their tricks during engagement and disengagement of the needles. 4 A positive action which maintains the engagement of the head of a slider with a needle hook throughout its knitting cycle by ensuring © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com that it is pressed down into the trick.
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Circular Fabric Knitting Machine

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WARP KNITTING
 Warp knitting forms fabric by interlacing loops of yarn, but vertically
down the length of the fabric in contrast to weft knitting.

 Each needle in the knitting width must be fed by at least one yarn
and in line with the direction of fabric production.

 It is the fastest method of fabric production using mainly continuous
filament yarns.

Construction
Beams supply the warp sheets in parallel form to the guide bars, whose pattern control determines the timing and configuration of the lapping movements in the form of overlaps and underlaps. The needles intermesh the new overlaps through the old overlaps to form the intermeshed loop structure.
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WARP KNITTING MACHINES

Tricot Machine

Compound-Needle Warp Knitting Machine

Raschel Machine

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Tricot Machine
Needles Machine Gauge Beard Finer Gauge 24s-40s

Raschel Machine
Latch or Compound Common Gauge 30,40 & 56

No. of Guides bars
Yarn Used

Two, Three, Four bars
Finer continuous Filament Yarn

Between 4 and 36
Coarser Filament or Coarser, Decorative Staple Spun Yarn

Weight of fabrics
Properties

Light Weight
More Resilient, Better Drape, Higher Bursting Strength, Better Dimensional Stability. Soft Hand & Even. Opaque & Tight

Heavy Weight
Less Resilient, Poor Drape, Lower Bursting Strength, Poor Dimensional Stability. Hard Hand & Uneven. & Loose

Cloth Take up

The fabric comes off the machine at 90o to the needle bed Higher Less Versatile
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The fabric comes off the machine at 170o to175o the needle bed Less More Versatile

Speed Versatility
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TRICOT MACHINE
The main parts of TRICOT MACINE are :

 The warp beam carrying warp threads.  The sley bars which space the warp threads.  The tension bar which maintains tension in the warp threads, one
bar foe each warp.

 The knitting element, comprising the warp guides, sinkers, needles
& presser bar.

 The fabric take up rollers which take the fabric from the rollers at a
constant rate.

 The batch roller which winds up the fabric on a large rolls &  The crank shaft drive within a case which holds the mechanism for
driving the knitting elements.
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Cross-section www.vasantkothari.com of a bearded needle tricot machine 203

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APPLICATIONS

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RASCHEL MACHINE
The main Parts of the RASCHEL MACHINE are :

 The ground beams and pattern beams having an access from front,
top and back

 The tension bar (one for each warp) which maintains tension in the
warp threads.

 Guide bars and guide bar levers and the sley bar.  The knitting elements comprising guides, sinkers, needles, latch
needles and trick plates.

 The fabric tension rollers, situated close to the knitting elements.  The fabric batch roller &  Main drive for the cam shaft.
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Compound-Needle Warp Knitting Machine
For increasing the productivity of the warp knitting machines a compound needle has been used instead of a beard ar latch needle on modern machines.

 Compound Needle (main Body)  Compound Needle (Closing Element)  Trick Plate  Sinker  Yarn End  Yarn Guide  Fabric
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Pretreatment
► “Pre”
► “Treatment”
Before, Prior to
A manner of dealing with something artistically

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Pretreatment
► The term "Preparation" has two implications in textile processing. ● In Greige manufacturing ■ In greige manufacturing it is used to describe the processes which prepare yarns for weaving and knitting. ● In Wet Processing ■ In Wet Processing, the term is used to describe those processes that ready fabrics for the steps that follow, coloration and finishing.

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Fabric Pretreatment
► “Pretreatment can be defined as a series of cleaning processes / steps / operations that make the fabric fit for the preceding process e.g. Dyeing or Printing and Finishing” ► The steps that follow, dyeing or printing and finishing, are greatly influenced by how the fabric is prepared. ► Improper preparation is often the cause of problems encountered in the dyeing and finishing steps.

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Fabric Pretreatment
Singeing Desizing Scouring

Bleaching
Mercerizing Heat Setting
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Singeing
► Definition ● Singeing is the burning off of loose fibers sticking out of textile goods. It is usually the first step carried out after weaving ► Purpose ● Clean fabric surface ● Reduce pilling ● Increased wettability ● Improved visibility of the fabric structure ● Decreased contamination through removal of fluff and lint.
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Singeing

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Desizing
► Definition ● Desizing is the process of removing the size material from the warp yarns in woven fabrics ► Types of Sizes ● Starch ● Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) or PVA ● Carboxy Methyl Cellulose or CMC ► Purpose ● Removal of added impurities like starch ● Weight loss ● Improved wettability
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Scouring
► Definition ● Remove Dirt, Grease, Wax and Oil Impurities ► Two types of Systems ● Aqueous (water) Based ● Solvent ► Problems ● Uneven Dyeing, Spots, Blotches ● Fastness ● Yellowing ● Smoke ● Redeposition (Polyester)
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Contents Of Cotton Fibers After Ginning
► Cellulose ► Proteins ● Hydrolyzed to soluble fragments ► Pectic Substances ● Soluble in alkaline bath ► Ash (Ca, Mg, K, Na, phosphates, carbonates) ● Soluble in water ► Organic Acids ● Soluble in alkaline bath ► Wax ● Converted to soap
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95%

1.3%
0.9% 1.2%

0.8%

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Contents Of Cotton Fibers After Ginning
► Wax ● Converted to soap ►Sugars 0.3% ● Soluble ► Other(Dirt) 0.9% ● Removed hy suspension or emulsification ►Scouring removes residual size and ruptures primary wall to increase absorbency ► Bleached cotton is > 99% Cellulose

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Bleaching Systems
► Definition ● Bleaching is the process of removing natural pigments and vegetable impurities ► Purpose ● Improved whiteness ● Level dyeing properties ► Hydrogen Peroxide (H202) ● Cotton, Silk, Wool, Jute, ► Sodium Hypo chloride (NaOCl) ● Cotton

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Mercerization
► Definition ● Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance ► Purpose ● Improve dye finity and yield ● Improve breaking strength ● Improve dimensional stability ● Improve chemical reactivity ● Improve fabric smoothness ● Cover immature cotton fibers
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Mercerization

Before

After

1-5 6 7
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Swelling process in an alkaline solution Removal of alkali by water substitution After drying
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Heat Setting
► Definition ● Heat treatment of fabrics containing thermoplastic synthetic fibers. Stabilizes fabric by reducing shrinkage and distortion ► Purpose ● Thermoplastic fibers are undergo through the process of heat setting and results in: ■ Stabilization of fabric structure

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Dyeing Definition
► Coloring of Textile Material is called as Dyeing ► Coloration of Dyeing involves the use of Dye Stuff which are capable of reacting and combing with the Textile fiber molecule, usually when in a water solution, and usually with other auxiliary chemicals to enhance the process. ► Depth of Shade: The Darkness or Lightness of Color in Dyeing is known as the depth of the shade, this depend on the quantity of the Dye used in the ratio to the fiber weight.

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Dye Definition
► Colorant which is homogeneously dispersed in the dye medium ► Usually soluble ► Naturally occurring or synthetic organics ► Categorized by... 1. Method of Application 2. Chemical Structure ► The application of color to the whole body of a textile material with Some degree of fastness.

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Principle of Dyeing
► The Textile material is moved in a solution of a Dye, then the dye is attracted to the material and it is seen that the dye liquor gradually looses its color whilst the Textile material becomes more deeply Dyed.

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Dye Expectations
► Dyeing is a craft, not a pure science, and like all crafts there is a learning curve and many nuances that affect the outcome... ► The color, evenness (or lack thereof) and total effect produced depends on several factors that you control: the amount of dye used, ... the temperature of the water of the dye bath,… the fabric, whether pre-washed or not,… particular water chemistry, the type of fabric, does the fabric have any treatments on it, time for the process, etc., etc.

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Dye Expectations
► The color and evenness depends on the factors above and more, most of which you can control, some of which you cannot. Colors also can vary from dyelot to dyelot because the pure primary colors used for mixing can vary a little from the original manufacturer, which can affect the mixes made with them. ► To repeat a color exactly, you need to use the same dyelot, and you need to do everything exactly the same as you first did it.

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Objectives Of Dyeing
► Shade ► Fastness Properties ► Cost

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Keys To Good Quality
► Consistency ► Uniformity ► Knits - Low Tension ► Woven - Penetration

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Types Of Dyeing Systems
► Aqueous - in water ► Non-aqueous - in organic solvents ► Sublimation - thermosol, heat transfer

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Types of Fibers
►Hydrophilic Fibers Cotton, Rayon, Wool, Silk, etc.. ►Hydrophobic Fibers Acetate, Polyesters, Polyamides, etc…

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Basic Steps In Dyeing
► Dissolve or Disperse dye ► Diffuse the dye to the surface of the fiber ► Adsorb the dye "onto" the fiber surface ► Diffuse dye "into" the fiber

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Causes Of Non-Level Dyeing
►Too little agitation ►Too low liquor ratio ►Rate of dyeing too high ►Uneven pick-up in padding ►Uneven moisture penetration ►Migration during drying ►Chemical or mechanical bard in the fabric ►Dyebath Instability ►Construction

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Factors In Selecting Dyes
►Economy ►Shade (brightness or dullness) ►Fastness Requirements ►Level Dyeing Properties ►Barre Control ►Ease of Dispersed Dissolving ►Dusting ►Environmental Concerns

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Dyes for Cellulose Fibers
►These are your choices if you want to dye a t-shirt. Cellulose fibers include cotton, linen, rayon, hemp, ramie, and tencel. ►Fiber Reactive Dyes (best choice) ►Direct Dye (hot water dye, less washfast) ►Vat Dyes (more complex method) ►Naphthol dyes (more hazardous, less available) ►All purpose Dye (hot water dye, less washfast)

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Dyes for Protein Fibers
►Protein fibers include all fibers made by animals: wool, angora, mohair, cashmere, as well as silk. Silk is the only non-hair animal fiber, and can be dyed like wool or like cellulose fibers, above. The high-pH recipes used for most cellulose dyes will ruin animal hair fibers. ► Dyes that can be used for protein fibers include the following: ►Acid dyes ►Reactive dyes used as acid dyes ►Natural dyes (these work better on wool than on cotton) ►Vat Dyes
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Dyes for Synthetic Fibers
► Polyester requires the use of disperse dyes. ► Nylon, which is a truly synthetic fiber, happens to dye quite well with the same acid dyes that work on wool and other animal fibers. Nylon can also be colored with a type of fabric paint called 'Pigment dye'. ► Acetate, also known as rayon acetate, requires the use of disperse dye. ► Acrylic can be dyed with disperse dyes or with basic dyes.

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Dyeing blends
► Most cotton/polyester blends are best dyed as

for cotton, using fiber reactive dyes, leaving the polyester undyed. Cotton/nylon blends may be dyed with all-purpose dye, first with soda ash at room temperature to dye the cotton, then in hot water with vinegar to dye the nylon.

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Coloring Matter

Dyes
Readymade Water Soluble Ingrain

Pigment
Vat, Azoic, Mineral Azoic, Oxidation, Mineral

Direct, Acid, Basic, Reactive

Water Insoluble
Vat, Sulphur, Dispersed

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Fiber Type
Application
Cellulose Protein Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Acetate

Direct
Reactive Vat Sulphur Azoic Acid Mordant

Basic
Disperse

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►Direct dyes: used for cotton, linen, regenerated cellulose fibers,
and some synthetics

►Mordant dyes: wool, silk and nylon ►Sulphur dyes: cotton ►Vat dyes: cotton and cellulose fibers ►Soluble vat dyes : cotton, viscose rayon, wool, and silk ►Basic dyes : wool, slik and other protein fibers, and some
synthetics

►Dispersed dyes: acetate and some other synthetics ►Azoic dyes: cotton and viscose rayon, acetate and some other
synthetics, and silk

►Acid dyes: wool, silk, and some synthetics
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Dye Type Fiber Affinity Direct Acid Vat Cellulosics Protein Fibres Cellulosics

End Use Low quality Apparel Fabrics/Lining/Curtains Carpet Yarns / Dress Goods High Quality Curtains, furnishings, shirts, towels, sewing threads

Reactive
Basic

Cellulosics
Acrylics

Curtains, furnishings, apparel fabrics, towels, sewing threads
Furnishings, apparel fabrics Apparel fabrics, bed sheets, carpets

Disperse All Synthetics

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Dye Type Direct Acid Vat Reactive Basic Disperse

Light Fastness
Poor / Good

Washing Fastness
Poor

Good/Moderate Poor Excellent Excellent

Good/Excellent Excellent
Good/Moderate Good Good/Moderate Good

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Dye Type Direct Acid Vat Reactive Basic Disperse

Comments
Cheap, After treatment can improve fastness Bright Colors, Expensive, Bright color often difficult to achieve Excellent Shade range, Good Fastness Bright Shades Best Fastness on polyester

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Direct Dyes
► Direct dyes are a class of dyes for use on cellulose fibers, such as cotton. ► The colors of most direct dyes are duller than those provided by fiber reactive dyes, and the wash fastness is poor. ► One small advantage is that direct dyes are, in just a few cases, a little more lightfast, that is, resistant to fading in the light, than a few of the fiber reactive dyes. ► Without an appropriate after-treatment, direct dyes bleed a little with every washing, losing their brightness and endangering other clothes washed in the same load.
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Disperse Dyes
► These dyes derive their names from their insoluble aqueous properties and the need to apply them from an aqueous dispersion. ► Polyester requires the use of disperse dyes. ► Disperse dyes on fabric are more likely to cause allergies than other textiles dyes. ► Wash Fastness varies with the fibers. ► Fastness to Crocking is Good to Excellent. ► Light Fastness is Fair to Good.

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Acid Dyes
► Acid dyes are water soluble anionic dyes which are applied to fibers such as silk, wool, nylon & modified acrylic fibers from neutral to acid dye baths. ► Bright Colors. ► Most are non fast to washing. ► Excellent Fastness to Dry Cleaning.

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Azoic Dyes
► Azoic dyes are so called because their molecule contain an Azo group. ► It is suitable for Man Made and Natural Cellulose fibers such as Cotton, Viscose, etc. ► Bright Shades, mostly deep Red, Yellow, Orange, etc. ► Light Fastness Fair to Good. ► Washing Fastness Good to Excellent. ► Heavy shades may have poor fastness to Crocking.

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Reactive Dyes
► Reactive Dyes are so called because their molecules react chemically with the fiber polymers to form a covalent bond. ► The dyestuff thus becomes a part of the fibre and is much less likely to be removed by washing than are dyestuffs that adhere by adsorption. ► Suitable for Man made and Natural Cellulose Fibers, Synthetic Fiber and Natural Protein Fiber. ► Difficult dye with which to attain close shade matching. ► Bright Shades. ► Generally good to excellent fastness to light & washing.

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Sulphur Dyes
► These dyes contain Sulphur atom in their molecules. ► Sulphur dyes are insoluble in water ► Suitable for the Man Made and Natural Cellulosic fibers ► Dull Shades, predominantly navy, black, brown ► Excellent Fastness to Light and Washing ► Relatively Low cost for Dark colors.

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Vat Dyes
► Vat dyeing" means dyeing in a bucket or vat. ► Vat dyes are insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibers directly. ► Both cotton and wool, as well as other fibers, can be dyed with vat dyes ► Vat dyes have excellent wash and light fastness properties. ► It is usually very bright and will hold up better when bleached than most other dyes.

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Solvent Dyes
► Solvent dye is a dye which is soluble in an organic solvent and is mostly introduced in the form of a solution in an organic solvent. ► It is very expensive method. ► It‟s a alternative method as the use of water and its disposal in a non polluting form has become more expensive. ► Still it is relatively untied and uneconomical as compared to conventional dyeing techniques.

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Basic Dyes
► Basic dyes ('basic' as in the opposite of acidic, not as in 'back to basics') are said to be very bright, and particularly washfast on acrylic. ► Basic dyes can be used to dye wool or cotton, but they do not perform well, tending to fade in sunlight quite badly. ► Characterized by Brilliance and Intense hue. ► Very Poor fastness to washing for Cellulosic and Protein ► Excellent fastness to light.

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Pigment Dyes
► Pigments are colored organic materials in the form of insoluble powders, which are mixed with various resins, solvents and additives to manufacture plastics, rubbers & allied products. ► The pigment lays on the surface and becomes part of the dry film. ► Heavy Shade tends to stiffen fabric. ► Mostly excellent fastness to light.

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Mordant Dyes
► Mordant dyes are those dyes which require a mordant in their application and which upon combination with the mordant deposit insoluble color on the substrate, e.g., dyes with metal chelating groups. ► The mordant substances include such acids as tannic acid, sumac, gall nuts, bark extracts, oleic and stearic acids, and Turkey red oil; and metallic substances such as various combinations or soluble salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, copper, and tin. ► Suitable for Wool ► Relatively Dull Colors ► Good to Excellent Fastness to Light and Wash.
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Natural Dyes
►Natural dyes are, in most cases, acid dyes, which is why they will bond to wool and other animal fibers, but not to cotton. A way to improve attachment to wool, and to make some weak attachment to cotton possible, is to use metal ions, sometimes including toxic heavy metal ions, to form a bridge between the dye and the fiber; this is called mordanting. Cotton is typically mordanted with tannins in addition to metal ions Indigo is a natural dye, but it is quite different from other natural dyes, in that it is a member (the very first member) of the class of dye known as vat dyes, see above.
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Textile Material may be dyed as…

► Fiber
…… Stock Dyeing and Top Dyeing

► Yarn
…... Skein, Package and Beam Dyeing

► Fabric
……Winch, Jet, Jig, Aerodynamic, Pad & Beam

► Garment …… Paddle
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Stock Dyeing
► It refers to the dyeing of fibers, or stock, before it is spun into yarn. ► It is done by putting loose, unspun fibers into large vats containing the dye solutions, which are heated to proper temperature. ► 500 to 3000 pounds of fiber are dyed at one time. ► Usually result in excellent penetration of the dye into fiber and evenness of color throughout.

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Stock Dyeing
►There is 10-15% Waste of dyed fiber through subsequent manufacturing of Spinning and Weaving. ► There is a strong element of Fashion risk in stock dyeing because as to the final color of a fabric has to be made at the earliest stage in its manufacturing. ► It produces soft, heather like color effect. ► Production is relatively Low. ► It is most costly method for dyeing.

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Top Dyeing
► Top dyeing is also the dyeing of fiber. ► The term TOP refers to fibers of Wool from which shorter fibers have been removed, thus it select long fibers. ► The top in the form of Sliver is dyed, then later blended with the other colors of dyed top to produce desired blended heather shades. ► It would be waste of money if all the fibers, both the short and long, were dyed before being made into sliver.

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Skein Dyeing
► It consists of immersing large, loosely wound hank of yarn. ► Soft, lofty yarns, such as hand knitting yarns, are usually skein dyed. ► Skein dyeing is the most costly yarn dyed method.

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Package Dyeing
► In this about a pound of yarn is wound on a small perforated spool or tube called package.

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Beam Dyeing
► Beam Dyeing is simply a much larger version of package dyeing. ► An entire warp beam is wound onto a perforated cylinder, which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine where the flow of the dye bath alternates as in package dyeing. ► Beam dyeing is more economical than Skein and Package dyeing.

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Winch Dyeing
► Also know as Beck Dyeing or Box Dyeing. ► The fabric, in a rope like form, is dyed in a relaxed condition (without tension). ► It retains much of its original softness of hand and fabric fullness. ► Widely used for Knitted fabrics, woolen and worsted woven cloths. ► Capacity of around 1000 yds

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Jet Dyeing
► In this the fabric is being dyed is circulated through the dyeing machine on a jet flow of a dye bath. ► Compared to Winch dyeing uses much less water, energy and chemical, and has shorter dyeing cycle time. ► The capacity is around 1400 lbs of material.

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Jet Dyeing

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Jig Dyeing
►It involves treating the fabric in open width. ►The fabric is not passed through the dye bath but rather passed through the dye bath. ► Upon completion of the first pass, the fabric reverses and is passed again through the dye bath. ► It places the certain degree of tension. ► It is more economical. ► Chances of shade variation are there due to variation in tension.

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Pad Dyeing
► In this, fabric in open width first passed through the dye bath, then through rollers where the dye solution is squeezed into the fabric. ► Pad Dyeing places the tension on the fabric. ► Pigment may be applied to achieve solid color fabric. ► It is continuous dye system where quantities of fabric are run continuously run through a pad, then into heat steam chambers, then into washers, rinsers and dry and finally emerging as completely dyed fabric.

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Beam Dyeing
► It is practically identical beam dyeing used for yarns. ► Used to dye fabrics of light weight, open construction. ► Tricot is a typical type which is dyed on Beam Dyeing. ► It is rapid and economical. ► Beam Dyed fabric is not subject to the stresses and tensions. ► 10000 yds or 4000 lbs of fabric could be wound on the beam.
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Aerodynamic Dyeing
►The fabric transport takes place by means of a separate gas circuit through humid air or through an air-steammixture so that also an injection-free transport, i.e. a fabric passage without liquor is possible. i.e. the fabric is constantly moved from loading to the batch end, also during the discharge and filling processes. ► Dyestuffs, chemicals and auxiliaries are dissolved in the processing liquor and injected directly into an air stream. ► In such a way, the liquor is atomized and evenly distributed on the surface of the textile material. The penetration of the fibers and consequently, the liquor exchange in the textile material are optimal.
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Aerodynamic Dyeing
Process technological advantages:
► Short heating times by efficient heat exchanger ► Safe fabric run and good load capacity also for lighter articles ►No unwelcome formation of crease marks ►High speed of fabrics ►The dyeing machine can be used as tumbler

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Aerodynamic Dyeing
Economical advantages:
►Extremely low water consumption ►Considerably reduced consumption of chemicals and auxiliaries ►Savings in dyestuff are possible ►Significant savings in time by hot drop ►Extremely easy to operate ►Application of ecological dyeing processes

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Garment Dyeing
► Garment Dyeing is the dyeing of the garment dyeing. ► It is done by placing a suitable number of garments into a large nylon net bag in a loose form. ► The most important advantage of garment dyeing is the fact that materials need not be dyed until shortly before the actual sale of merchandise. ► It requires that the initial size of the garment be adjusted during design and manufacture to account for the shrinkage ► It is an inexpensive.

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Imperfections of Dyed Fabrics
► Imperfections of Dyeing may be due to faulty or improper dyeing procedures, faulty or improper preparation of the fabric prior to dyeing, or to imperfications in the material itself.

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Barre
► In woven fabrics, a horizontal band of off-shaded yarns extending from selvedge to selvedge. ► Caused by differences in filling yarn size or differences in tension of warp or filling yarn.

Color Crocking
► Color in a dyed fabric which rubs off rather easily onto other fabric surface. ► Caused by inadequate scouring at the completion of the dyeing cycle.
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Color Bleeding
► Loss of color from a dyed fabric when immersed in a liquid. ► The liquid subsequently becomes colored.

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Off Shade
► An expression referring to the fact that the color of the dyed fabric does not match the standard color or reference sample.

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Shade Bar
► A shade change in a fabric that appears as a horizontal selvedge to selvedge change. ► Caused by a filling change or loom stop and subsequent start up.

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Stained Cross Bar
► In cross dyed fabric, usually of one color and white, where the dye of the colored portion stains the white portion sometimes called unclear cross dye. ► In solid color fabric, the term refers to specks of foreign fiber that have been caught in the material and do not become dyed.

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Stained / Streaked
► A discolored area on the cloth. ► Caused by foreign matter such as dirt, grease, oil or residue of sizing on the fabric being dyed.

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Tender Spots
► Places in the fabric that have been excessively weakened, actually by exposure to processing of chemicals.

Uneven Shade
► Differences in the shade of a fabric from edge to edge or one end of the fabric to the other.

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Textile Printing
► The application of color to a fabric in a design or pattern (localized dyeing) ► Modern printing generally incorporates one of the following techniques:
● ● ● ● Flat-bed screen printing Rotary screen printing Engraved roller printing Heat transfer printing

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Steps In Printing Process
► Preparation of print paste ► Printing of fabric ► Drying ► Fixation of dyestuff ► Washing - off

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Preparation Of Printing Pastes
Type of specific formulation used depends on the fiber, the colorant system used and, to some extent, the type of printing machine.

► Typical Ingredients Used Include: ● Dyes or pigments ● Thickeners ● Binders, cross-linking agents ● Dispersing agents - surfactants ● Water-retaining agents (humectants) ● Adhesion promoters ● Defoamers ● Catalysts ● Hand modifiers
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Block Printing

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Hand Screen
► Important Features and Advantages ● Best method for low yardage; samples; exclusive, limited quantity designs. ● Large repeat sizes (upto 120 in.) possible. ● Wet-on-dry print effects possible. ● Better color definition than roller print due to heavier lay-on of color. ● Acceptable to all woven and knitted constructions. ● Rapid preparation of Screen and pattern change over is possible. ● Ability to print cut garment parts and small items.
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Hand Screen
► Limitations and Disadvantages ● Half tone designs not possible. ● Fine line paisley prints not possible. ● Lengthwise stripe designs not possible. ● Slow production. Uneconomical for large production yardages.

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Automatic Screen (Flat Bed)
► Important Features and Advantages ● Large repeat size (upto 120 in.) possible. ● Faster than Hand. ● Better Color definition than roller print; equal to hand screen. ● Adaptable to all woven and knitted construction. ● Rapid changeover of design possible. ● Best machine registration.

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Flat Screen Printing
► In flat screen printing, a screen on which print paste has been applied is lowered onto a section of fabric. ► A squeegee then moves across the screen, forcing the print paste through the screen and into the fabric. ► Flat screen machines are used mostly in printing terry towels.

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Flat-Bed Screen Printing
► Mechanization of hand screen process ► Fabric glued to blanket ► Screens rise and fall ► Printing done while screen in down position ► Rod or blade squeegee system ► Up to four strokes possible ► Slow process

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Automatic Flat Screen Printing
► Approximately 17% of printed goods ► Advantages ● Large repeats ● Multiple strokes for pile fabrics ► Disadvantages ● Slow ● No continuous patterns

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Automatic Screen (Flat Bed)
► Limitations and Disadvantages

● Cost of Screen preparation and special mounting more costly than hand screen. ● Not adaptable to low yardage. ● Half tone designs are not possible. ● Fine-Line paisley prints not possible. ● Lengthwise stripes not possible.

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Roller Print
► Important Features and Advantages

● Requires long production runs of same pattern (10000 yds) ● Best method for fine line patterns and Paisley Prints. ● Can produce half tones and fall on effects. ● Can print woven fabrics, knitted fabrics requires special handling.

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Roller Print
► In the roller printing process, print paste is

applied to an engraved roller, and the fabric is guided between it and a central cylinder.

► The pressure of the roller and central cylinder forces the print paste into the fabric. ► Because of the high quality it can achieve, roller printing is the most appealing method for printing designer and fashion apparel fabrics.

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Roller Print
► Limitations and Disadvantages

● Except for special machines, size of pattern repeat limited to 16 inches maximum for apparel pattern and 22 inches for home furnishings. ● Uneconomical for short runs. ● Long production delays in pattern changeovers engraving is expensive.

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Engraved Roller Printing
► Approximately 26% of printed goods ► Advantages ● High design capability ● Finedetail ● Multiple tones ► Disadvantages ● Copper cylinders very expensive ● Not economical for short runs ● Requires highly skilled workers

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Rotary Screen
► Important Features and Advantages ● Oven 40 inch repeat size possible; larger than roller printing, but smaller than flat screen. ● Lengthwise stripe effect possible. ● Fall on designs possible. Adaptable to all woven and knitted constructions. ● Cleaner and brighter colors than on roller prints. ● Excellent color definitions, but less than flat screen methods. ● Rapid change over of design possible. ● Efficient for long runs and moderately small (1000yds) runs.
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Rotary Screen
► In rotary screen printing, tubular screens rotate at the same velocity as the fabric. ► Print paste distributed inside the tubular screen is forced into the fabric as it is pressed between the screen and a printing blanket (a continuous rubber belt). ► Rotary screen printing machines are used mostly but not exclusively for bottom weight apparel fabrics or fabric not for apparel use. ►Most knit fabric is printed by the rotary screen method, because it does not stress (pull or stretch) the fabric during the process.
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Rotary Screen Printing
► Continuous screen printing process

► Fabric glued to blanket ► Fabric moves under rotating screens ► Rod or blade squeegee system ► Fine adjustments easily made ► Speeds up to 100 yd/min

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Rotary Screen
► Limitations and Disadvantages ● Fine Line paisley prints not possible. ● Half tone designs not as effective as in roller printing. ● Screen do not last as long as rollers.

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Rotary Screen Printing
► Approximately 50% of printed goods ► Advantages ● Fast ● Quick changeover of patterns ● Continuous patterns ►Disadvantages ● Design limitations ● Small repeats

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Heat Transfer
► Important Features and Advantages ● Produces bright, sharp, clear fine line designs. ● Ability to print cut garment parts and small items. Adaptable to long and short yardages runs. ● Rapid pattern changeover possible. ● Simple, low investment installation possible. Steamers washers, dryers etc not required. ● Fewest seconds of all print process. ● Heat setting also accomplished.
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Heat Transfer
► Limitations and Disadvantages

● Lead time for paper preparation can cause problems in high fashion markets. ● Limited to fabrics having minimum 50% man made fibers. Cellulosic and protein (100%) fibres cannot be printed. ● Overprint only on pastels or else will not completely cover the original color.

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Heat Transfer Printing
► Approximately 7% of printed goods ► Advantages ● High quality prints ● Fewer seconds ● Economical for short runs ● Practically pollution free ► Disadvantages ● Slow ● Primarily only for polyester

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Direct Prints
► A direct Print is one in which the design is printed directly onto a white cloth or over a previously dyed fabric. ► The Latter is called an over print and the printed design must be considerable darker than the dyed background.

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Identification of Direct prints
► The background is white, or has large portions of white background. ► The printed design is lighter in shade on back of the fabric than on the face. This may not be evident on lightweight fabrics because of the strike-through of the print paste. ● If the fabric is over print. ► If the background color is the same shade on the face and back (piece dyed), and the print design are substantially darker than the background.
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Discharge Print
► Discharge prints are fabrics which are dyed a solid color prior to printing.

► When printing is done, the design is applied by screen or roller with a chemical (Sodium Sulphoxylate Formaldehyde, a reducing agent) which removes the color of the originally dyed fabric. ► Production is more costly than direct prints since it is necessary to dye the fabric prior to printing. ► Very careful and precise process control is required.
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Identification of discharge prints
► The background removing is the same shade on the face and back of the fabric (piece dyed). ► Print design area is white or a different removing or shade than background. ► Back of the print design reveals traces of the background removing.

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Discharge Print

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Resist Print
► Resist Prints involve a two step procedure: ● Printing a pattern design on a white fabric with chemical or Wax like resinous substance that will prevent or resist the penetration of dyes; and ● Piece Dyeing the fabric. ► It is used where background colors in fabric cannot be discharged. ► It is usually not possible to distinguish by ordinary visual examination between discharge prints and resist prints, since both types of prints produce the same results.

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Resist Print

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Pre Dyed

Printed

Printed

Overdyed

After Fixation and Wash off
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Pigment Print
► Pigment Prints are direct prints made with Pigments. ► The process is frequently called Dry Printing as distinguished from Wet Printing. ► The Pigment area will be slightly stiffer and perhaps a bit thicker than the nonprint area. ► Pigment prints are the least costly type of Print. ► Pigment produce bright, rich colors, and are applied to all Textile fibres. ► It has good to excellent fastness to light and dry cleaning.
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Identification of Pigment Prints
► Comparing the differences in fabric stiffness between a designs printed portion and a non-printed portion of the same fabric. ► The pigment print area will be slightly stiffer and a bit thicker than the non-print area. ► Deep shades are stiffer than light shades.

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Blotch Prints
► Background has been obtained by printing rather than piece dyeing; Direct Print; The print and pattern design color are printed on to a white fabric in one printing operation; Imitates discharge or resist print effects. ► Identification: - The blotch print background color is lighter on backside of the fabric. ► Possibilities of large background color areas of the print are not covered with full depth of colors; Precious control is necessary; If pigment prints, fabrics very often result in objectionable stiff hand.

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Flock Printing
► Tiny particles of fibers (1/10” – 1/4”) are made to adhere to a fabric surface in according to a particular design; printing the design with adhesive; exposing the fibre flock to the fabric. ► There are two methods of adhering the flock to the adhesive treated fabric surface: ● Mechanical Flocking. ● Electrostatic Flocking.

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Warp Prints
► Warp Prints involve printing the warp yarns of a fabric before it is placed on the loom for weaving, then, the fabric is woven with a solid color weft usually white or contrast color. ►The result is a soft, shadowy design on the fabric; Producing warp prints require careful and skilled labor; these prints are found almost exclusively on high quantity and expensive fabrics.

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Burn-out Prints
► Printing with chemical substance (sulfuric Acid) that will destroy the fibre in the pattern design print area; ► Fabrics are used in low-cost summer blouses and cotton lingerie; ► Interesting designs can be created with blends.

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Duplex Prints
► Fabrics in which both sides of the fabric have been printed; ► Imitate Jacquard & Dobby woven design fabric; ► Very expensive printing

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Engineered Prints
► Prints that have two or more distinct designs, ► Each located in separate areas of the fabric, and each designed to become a specific part of the garment; ► Printed by hand screen or heat transfer methods.

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Wet Prints Fiber Applied

Dry Prints

Heat Transfer

All Fibres fiber / Can applied to Polyester/Nylon dye affinity req. all fibres /Acetate Physical Roller / Screen Stiff and Thick Sublimation Transfer Paper Stiff on Acetate Good to Excell

Nature of Appl Chemical Application Method Fabric Hand Light fastness Rubbing Laundering Cost
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Depend on Dye Good to Excell

Depend on Dye Fair in Light Excellent Shade & Poor Depend on Dye in Dark Shade Excellent Polyester Highest Lowest
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Second Highest
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Printing Method Engraved Roller

Productivity High Very Low

Down Time High Low

Capital Cost Very High Very Low Very High High

Space Low Low/Mod Very High Low/Mod

Hand Screen

Flat Bed Screen Low/Moderate Low Rotary Screen Very High Low

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Printing Method Engraved Roller

Skill Highly Skilled Low/High Semi Skilled Semi Skilled

Design Cost Design Durability High Low Low Mod/High High Low Low Moderate

Hand Screen Flat Bed Screen Rotary Screen

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Printing Method Engraved Roller

Design Limitations Complexity

Pattern Repeat

Very Good- Fine Detail, tone Eff Limited Max 41 cm Can be Good High High Moderate 100cm

Hand Screen

Flat Bed Screen Very Good Rotary Screen Very Good

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Printing Method Engraved Roller

Fabric Limitations Width Lim., Diff for Delicate Width Limitations

Eff of Dye Duller, Crush Effect Bright Prints Bright Prints Bright Prints

Hand Screen

Flat Bed Screen Wide width possible Rotary Screen Wide width possible

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Flipped Yarn
► The arrows show the part that looks like scratches because the warp and weft yarns have been turned upside down. This failure of finishing is called, flipped yarn. Basically, the cause of this trouble is due to the insufficient penetration of color paste, and it often happens when the treatment after printing is carried out inappropriately.

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Blebbiness
► A part of the printed surface became blebby with a rough appearance like that of sharkskin. This is often caused by such factors as unsuitability of color paste viscosity and screen mesh, and uneven adhesion.

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Bleeding
► A printed motif blurs, and as a result the outline of the design appears unclear. When bleeding occurs, it is possible to think of the following reasons: the viscosity of color paste is too low; the concentration of dyestuff in print paste is too high and the amount of color paste printed or the amount of hygroscopic agent used is too large.

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Staining During Steaming
► Stains are transferred when a poorly washed printing table is used, the printed cloth is piled up after insufficient drying or a part of the cloth touches another during steaming. In Japan, some factories carry out complete washing of finished cloth applying tensionless rope washers.

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Stains (Non-Cleaned Printing Table)

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Uneven Printing
► Color tone gaps appear horizontally at the same distance from each other. Bad screen frame, a poorly installed squeegee and uneven squeegee pressure can cause such a problem.

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Slight Touching
► Some area in a motif has pale spots. This is caused by such factors as the slow replenishment of color paste, uneven squeegee pressure, choosing a squeegee with inappropriate hardness, bad squeegee relay, uneven surface of printing table, inappropriate viscosity of color paste and inappropriate use of thickener.

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Poorly Adjusted Screen
► Disfigured designs or overlapped motifs. The problem occurs when the belt-drive and point adjustments, etc are not properly done.

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Double Printing
► Designs printed are a little off. Disfigured designs, poor engraving, poor cloth adhesion etc are the causes of this problem.

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Pressing Paste by Frame
► Sometimes a frame mark appears in the printed area. This phenomenon occurs because of poor belt drive and frame installation.

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Pattern Bending
► Printed patterns are diagonal to the line pattern or sometimes curved. This is caused when the cloth is delivered diagonally or the cloth is adhered diagonally to the printing table because of inappropriately sewed end stitches.

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Speck
► The arrow points to the dots of color stain. This is because non-dissolved dyestuff and impurities contained in color paste have fixed to the problem area.

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Stain by Friction
► Staining occurs since the motif touches something when it is not dried and is scuffed after all.

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Color Paste Splash
► Sometimes stains can be made by color paste splashes. The splashes are most likely to occur when the roller printing speed is too fast, the screen plate is lifted inappropriately or the viscosity of color paste is too low

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Stain Made by Extra Hanging Yarns
► Yarn-like-stains are made by the extra hanging yarns sticking out of the cloth. This happens especially when poorly knit fabric is used.

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Listing
► The color shade or depth of selvages are different from that of the center. This sort of color shade or depth difference occurs because of poor bleaching, the poor installation of a frame and squeegee, uneven squeegee pressure and inappropriate padding and color fixing.

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End Stitches Stain
► Stain made by sewing machine stitches, or the end stitches of undercloth. This happens when the end stitches or joint overlaps end up too large.

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Drops
► Stains or unevenness due to drops. Drain (condensed water) or drops can stain like the one the arrow points to before the completion of steaming.

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Doctor Mark
► Belt-like-stain appears vertical to the direction of roller printing

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Take Up Wire

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Uneven Printing due to Crease
► Non printed areas appear because of crease on fabric. This is caused by crease on fabric, bad end stitches, too much tension during adhesion, crease on undercloth etc.

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Poor Discharge or Resist Printing
► Poor white discharge and colored discharge have to do with poor conditions of discharge/resist printing paste, color paste, squeegee pressure, steaming.

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Crack of Print Paste
► Printed color paste cracks. The problem occurs because poor treatment is carried out after printing or the viscosity of the color paste is inappropriate.

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Rope Mark Modification
► Rope and roller leave their marks on printed cloth. It happens when the temperatures during steaming are too high, or the temperatures set for finishing are too low.

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Rope Mark Fading
► The area that has touched rope or rollers during steaming has faded colors or stains. This problem occurs particularly when steam is condensed in rope or rollers.

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Clip and Pin Miss
► Tenter's clip or pin marks remain or appear too inside. Bad clips or pins, poorly conditioned guilder and unusual cloth width can lead to the problem.

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Unprinted Area
► Some area in a motif are not printed. The reason is that foreign matter has been built up in the screen mesh, or that color paste cannot adhere to the cloth because of yarn knot or foreign matter.

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Crack Marks
► Unprinted part appears when the fabric is stretched or bent. This is caused by poor penetration of color paste due to inappropriate viscosity of color paste, screen mesh and squeegee pressure.

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Moire
► Moire pattern appears on printed designs. Screen mesh, the roulettes of rollers, the line delineation pattern have to do with this phenomenon.

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Water Mark
► An unwanted ripple effect/light mark produced on the fabric is known as a water mark. Main causes are Improper Scouring, Surface pressure of one fabric on another, Contamination with water prior to tinting or dyeing on the pad mangle resulting in a reduction in the update of dye liquor,

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Finishing is one of the essential processes of a processing mill where all bleached, dyed and printed material are subjected before they are put on the material.

It refers to the application of specific compounds in order to improve the Physical and/or Chemical properties of the Textile Material.
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Advantages
► Improved Appearance: Luster, Whiteness ► Improved Feel: Softness, Fullness ► Improved Wearing qualities: Anticrease ► It gives special properties required for particular use: Water proofing, Flame proofing ► It covers the faults of the original cloth ► Increases the weight of the fabric ► Increases the sales value of the material ► Improves the natural attractiveness of the fabric ► Improves the serviceability of the fabric
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Classification
Textile Finishes are classified in several ways

► Aesthetic Finishes and Functional Finishes ► Chemical Finishes and Mechanical Finishes ► Temporary, Permanent and Semi permanent Finish

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Aesthetic Finishes
Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and/or hand or drape of the fabrics. Examples are as follows.

► Calendering ► Fulling ► Mercerization ► Napping and Sueding ► Plisse ► Shearing ► Softening ► Stiffening
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Functional Finishes
Functional Finishes improve the performance properties of the fabric. Examples are as follows.

► Antiseptic/Antimicrobial ► Antistatic ► Crease Resistant ► Durable Press ► Flame Resistant ► Mothproofed ► Shrinkage Control ► Soil Release ► Water Proof/Repelant
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Chemical Finishes
Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by padding followed by curing and drying. This is also called as Wet Finishes. Examples are as follows.

► Stiff and Transparent ► Flame Retardant ► Soil Release ► Water Proof ► Crease Resistance ► Softening

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Mechanical Finishes
Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific physical treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in fabric appearance. This is also known as Dry Finish.

► Calendering ► Raising ► Sanforising ► Milling

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Temporary Finishes
A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is know as Temporary Finish and these finish disappears during subsequent washing and usage.

► Calendering ► Embossing ► Starching ► Softening

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Permanent Finishes
If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and remains unaffected through all the conditions of wear and washing treatments, then the finish is said to be Permanent Finish.

► Sanforising ► Resin Finish ► Water Proof ► Flame Proof

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Semi permanent Finishes
► A Finishing on the fabric is said to be Semi Permanent Finish if it is stable to more than 5 to 10 washes and not afterwards. ► Schreiner Calendering ► Buckram Finish

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Calendering
► Calendering may be defined as the modification of the surface of a fabric by the action of Heat and Pressure. ► The finish is obtained by passing the fabric between heated rotating rollers when both speed of rotation and pressure applied are variable. ► The surface of rollers can be either smooth or engraved to provide the appropriate finish to fabric. ► The rollers may be made of various material from hardened steel to elastic thermoplastic.

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Objects of Calendering
► To improve the fabric handle and to impart a smooth silky touch to the fabric. ► To compress the fabric and reduce its thickness ► To reduce the Air Permeability by closing the threads ► To increase the Luster ► To reduce the Yarn slippage ► To increase the opacity of fabric ► Surface patterning by Embossing

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Calendering
► Swissing Or Normal Gloss
● A cold calendar produces a smooth flat fabric – if the steel bowl of the calendar is heated thus produces lustrous fabric. If a 7-bowl multi purpose calendar is used, the result is smooth fabric with surface gloss on both sides of the fabric

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Calendering
► Chintz Or Glazing Or Friction Calendaring
● Gives highly polished surface like Glazed Chintz Cotton fabric ● If very highly gloss required the fabric is preimpregnated with a wax emulsion, if the fabric is pretreated with resin this is a semi-durable finish

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Calendering
► Cire Calendaring
● 3-bowl calendaring where top bowl rotates much greater than friction calendaring (400 rpm). The resultant fabric becomes highly lustrous. Fabrics of cotton, rayon, polyester, nylon and blends may be given cire finish. The fabrics are pre-treated with wax or resin, to get highly polished effect. When synthetics are cire finished, the fabrics become moderately water-repellent due to flattening or partially fusing of fabric

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Calendering
► Embossed Calendaring ● Produces 3-dimensional design on fabric. Embossing calendar consists of heated hollow metal roller engraved with the embossing design and solid paper roller twice the size of engraved roller. Fabric is drawn between the two rollers and is embossed with the design. ►Celluloses => Temporary finish

►Celluloses pre treated with resin => Semi durable ►Synthetic => Permanent finish

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Calendering
► Moiré Calendaring
● Produces wood grain design on the face side of the fabric. There are two ways to achieve this result.

►Method One: ► Rib fabric (Faille / Taffeta) and balanced plain weave fabric
are placed face to face. Both the fabrics are fed into smooth heated metal rolls for calendaring keeping the speed of the rib fabric greater than that of the plain woven fabric. The pressure on the calendar rolls is maintained at about 8 – 10 tons

► The result is undefined watermark or moiré effect is formed on rib woven fabric
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Calendering
► Moiré Calendaring ● Method Two: ► Embossed metal roll is used which has moiré pattern engraved on it. When the roll passes over a fabric, the ribs are flattened and a moiré pattern is created. ► If Celluloses => Temporary ► If Celluloses or blends pre treated with resin => Semi Durable ► If synthetic => Permanent

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Calendering
► Schrenier Calendaring ● Produces low, soft, smooth and luster on the fabric. 3-bowl calendaring, top metal roller engraved with 200-300 fine diagonal lines per inch. This finish scatters light rays and produces a deep-seated luster rather shines. It can upgrade low quality cotton fabric. Also produces a softer hand and improved fabric cover Celluloses => Temporary Celluloses / blends, pre treated with resin => Semi Durable Synthetic => Permanent
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Fulling
► It is a permanent finish used on wool fabrics. ► The process is a carefully controlled scouring or laundering process to induce progressive felting shrinkage in wool fabric. ► The resultant wool fabric is smoother, more compact, and has yarns more tightly embedded then an unfulled fabric.

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Napping / Brushing
► Mechanical finish for woven and knitted fabrics. Fabrics are passed against rotating bristled wire covered rollers. Thereby raising the fibres from fabric surface. Example: Cotton, Woolen, rayon, Melton, Wool Fleece flannels etc (Plain weave) ► Provides softer hand and better insulation; widely used in blankets, sleep wear and winter clothing ► Drawback: Subject to pilling in particularly sleeve ends, coat fronts, buttonholes, elbows and other rubbing areas ► Requirement: Medium twist warp, Low twist weft

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► Produces soft and smooth / silky feel. The fabric moves at a speed of 15 – 20 meters / minute under two or more rollers with fine emery paper on first roller to more abrasive paper in each successive roller. This process abrades the surface causing fibrils to split from the fibres. High abrasion and coarse abrasive sheet may cause damage to fabric. Abrasion generate heat may cause harshness on synthetic fabric. ► After this finish => heat set => washing => dyeing ► Decreases the strength by 60%. Dry cleaning is preferred
for this fabric. Can be applied to P/C, P/N blends, and 100% Silk, Polyester, Nylon and Micro denier synthetics for sportswear.
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Emerizing, Sue ding, Sanding Or Peach Finish

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Shearing
► Shearing is a process used to cut off surface fibers on fabrics. ► It makes the uniform the surface of napped fabrics and pile fabrics to provide the uniform pilled height. ► A fabric shear, the high speed machine that performs the operation, has cutting action similar to a lawn mower. ► The blades are stationary and the fabric moves to the cutting blades.

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Softening
► Softening of fabric gave a more pleasant hand and to provide better drapability. ► Fabric softening may be accomplished by either mechanical or chemical finishing procedures. ► In Chemical finishing the most effective and widely used are Silicon compounds which are durable. ► This finish is applied by pad method and dried.

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► Sodium Hydroxide paste is printed as stripes / checks or any other pattern. Permanent chemical finish. Mainly used for Cotton / Rayon by the action of Sodium Hydroxide. Due to differential shrinkage between printed and non-printed area, puckering effect is produced. Usually do not require ironing ► “Seersucker” is a fabric with a lengthwise striped puckered effect. Produced by alternate stripes of loose and light warp yarn while fabric is woven. ► Plisse fabric is cheaper than Seersucker. Degree of pucker is high in seersucker ► Identification. By stretching the fabric in warp direction, Plisse puckers will stretch out flat
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Plisse

Stiffening
► Stiffening of fabrics may be done by any of several chemical finishes, all applied by Pad and either dried or cured. ► Starch of various types is widely used as a stiffening agent. ► Fine yarn, sheer cotton fabrics can be finished to be both stiff and transparent. The process, called Acid Stiffening, involves the rapid immersion of a fabric in a Sulfuric Acid followed by immediate neutralization in Sodium Hydroxide. ► The finish is Permanent and ORGANDY is an example.
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Parchmentising “Organdy”
► Treatment of cellulosic fabric (fine count light weight) with concentrated Sulfuric acid produces beautiful transparent stiffer fabric. The action of Sulfuric acid produces three different effects depending on its strength. ● Sulfuric acid of 110o Tw for 2-3 seconds => Fine wool like appearance ● Sulfuric acid of 114o Tw for 2-3 seconds => Fabric shrinks considerably and becomes stiff. ● Sulfuric acid of 116-125o Tw for 15-20 seconds => Fabric becomes thinner, finer, stiff and more transparent. ►The degree of luster and interesting surface effect can be obtained depending on pre-treatment of bleaching and mercerization.
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Shape Retention Finishes
► Apparel products retain their shape and their pressed appearance even after many wearing, washings and dry cleaning sessions“ Durable Press, Wrinkle Free, Wrinkle Resistant and Permanent Press”. ► Wrinkles are due to crushes on fabric during use and care. Wrinkle recovery depends on „Cross Links‟ in inner molecular structure of fibre. „Cross Links” which hold adjacent molecular chain together and pull them back in to position after the fibre is bent, Thus preventing the formation of a wrinkle. Fibres with strong inter molecular bonds have good molecular memory and they resist wrinkling. Fibres with weak bonds wrinkle easily
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Durable Press
► Durable Press is not a specific textile finish, but rather a descriptive term for garments or other sewn products that maintain a pressed appearance through many laundering and wearing and do not require ironing. ► Also called as Permanent Press.

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Durable Press
► There are 3 basic systems by which the objectives are attained. ● by heat setting of Thermoplastic fibres. ● by resin treatment and curing in fabrics of Cellulosic/polyester blends and of 100% cellulosic. ● by liquid ammonia process for 100% cellulosic fibrics.

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Precured Process
► Saturate the fabric with resin and dry. Cure in curing oven to form cross-linking between molecular chains. Cut and sew the products and press ● Disadvantages Advantages ● No permanent creases Smooth fabric ● Puckered seams Dimensionally stable ● Strength loss Lowest cost ● Abrasion sensitive ► Used for shirting, draperies and other items that do not require pleats (Curtains, Bed sheets). Common with Cotton / Polyester blends. May also used for shaped garments (pants with a center crease)
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► Saturate the fabric with resin and dry. Cut and sew the product and press shape with Hot Head Press. Cure the pressed item in a curing oven at 300 – 400o F ● Advantages Disadvantages ● Dimensionally stable Higher Cost ● Crease retention May set prematurely ● Minimum Seam Puckering Over finished areas ► Commonly used for P/C and P/V blends ► Reason for using Polyester => to compensate loss of strength / Abrasion resistance due to resin for cellulose ► Durable finish 40 – 50 laundering
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Post Cured Process

Post Cured Process
► For 100% Cotton, to reduce the resin induced loss at abrasion resistance and tensile strength, specially constructed fabric and modified techniques are required; Fabric Construction requires long staple cotton, tightly twisted yarns and compactly constructed (more yarns per inch); Semi durable: 15 – 20 laundering ► Modified techniques: ● Sewn product => apply resin, semi dried and pressed at warm temperature while still damp => cure

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►Immerse the garment / product in the resin solution and dry the product; Hand and performance are modified with fabric softeners and other compounds; Finished product will appeal to consumers; Press desired features (creases, pleats etc) in to garment with special Hot Head Press; Cure product in curing oven at 300o F for 5 – 15 minutes ● Advantages Disadvantages ● No premature setting higher costs ● Controlled hand and Process control is difficult aesthetics ● Greater flexibility Fabric preparation critical ► Semi durable finish 20-25 laundering; Used for fashion apparels of 100% cotton.
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Immersion Process

Metered-Addition Process
► Spray garment with the resin solution in a rotating chamber; Hand and performance can be adjusted with fabric softeners and other compounds; Press desired features (pleats / creases) in to garment with special Hot Head Press; Cure the product in curing oven at 300o F for 5-15 minutes ● Advantages Disadvantages ● No premature setting Higher cost ● Control hand / aesthetics Process control difficult ● Greater flexibility Fabric preparation critical ► Used for fashion apparels and furnishings, bed linen, curtains, draperies of 100% cotton
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Vapor Phase Process
►Press desired features (creases / pleats) in to garment with special Hot Head Press; Hand and performance can be modified with fabric softeners and other compounds => finished products would be more appealing; Apply finish in a vapor form to the product in a closed chamber and cure while it is in the chamber. ● Advantages Disadvantages ● No premature setting Higher cost ● Control hand / aesthetics Process control is difficult ●Greater flexibility Fabric prep. is critical ● Use less chemicals ► Used for cotton, rayon and their blends; since the chemical consumption is less, the effect of hand, abrasion and staining are less © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com 440

► Used for 100% cellulosics; this process does not involve use of resins. This process involves: Carefully controlled treatment of fabric in Ammonium Hydroxide bath ► Temperature: 120 – 150o C; Time: 2 – 5 seconds ► Precise fabric tension, time, Ammonia concentration and temperature are critical to the process and followed by compressive shrinkage treatment ► Combination of these two process stabilizes the fibres in the fabric results improved wrinkle resistance and shrinkage control in laundering; Durable finish => 40 – 50 launderings ► Mainly used for 100% cotton denims, bottom weights, winter-weight shirts and blouse; Higher processing costs; Very rigid quality control required
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Liquid Ammonia Durable Press

Special Problems Of Durable Press Garments
► Frosting: Localized color change at creases, cuffs, collars and elbows; Repairs / Alterations is difficult; When seams are opened are impossible to remove ► General Care Guidelines ● Resins have a strong affinity for oil / grease stains; Use spot removal agents on grease spots; Pre-treat stains at collars and cuffs; Keep wash loads small to minimize wrinkling; To avoid wrinkles to set, keep washing / drying temperature at cool; Remove items promptly when dry

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Shrinkage Control Finishes
► A reduction in the length or width of a fibre, yarn or fabric is known as shrinkage. Growth occurs when a fabric increases in dimension. It is essential to know shrinkage to determine construction and design of garment ► Causes of shrinkage ● Intermolecular structure of fibres ● Yarn twist ● Fabric construction (Yarns / inch) ● Weave / knit structure

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► Woven fabrics generally shrink more in the warp than in the weft direction because the warp yarns are under excessive tension during weaving. ► When the fabric is latter subjected in to wet treatment or heat treatment in the case of synthetic fibres, the stress and strain within the fibres are relieved, and the fabric relaxes. ► Fibres that are moisture absorbent absorb water and swell. Accordingly, the yarn diameter increases, and the yarns in each direction must move closer together to accommodate the yarns in the opposite direction and results in increase the crimp of weft yarns.
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► Knit fabrics tend to stretch more during production than woven fabrics, and therefore knit fabrics are likely to shrink more than woven fabrics. ►In commercial dry cleaning process, the procedures and solvents used do not permit fabrics to relax, as washing does, so that garments that are dry-cleaned may not shrink as readily. Shrinkage in dry cleaning generally results from the high moisture content in the solvent or from steaming the fabric during pressing.

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Relaxation Shrinkage
► Occurs due to the fibres and yarns are under considerable tension during weaving, knitting and wet processing, the fabric undergoes stress and strain due to tension. Later when fabric becomes wet or steamed in a tension less condition, the stresses and strains are relaxed. ► Relaxation shrinkage occurs when fabric is laundered at initial stages.

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Progressive Shrinkage
► Occurs each time a fabric is laundered. This continuous shrinkage is due to the surface scale of the wool fibre, which also causes felting. ► In case of viscose rayon this continuous shrinkage is mainly due to high absorbency and swelling nature.

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Residual Shrinkage
► Even after fabrics have been properly pre-shrunk in finishing, there is a small amount of shrinkage potential still remaining. This shrinkage is called residual shrinkage

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Shrinkage Control Methods
► Compressive Shrinkage (Sanforization)
● A sample of fabric is measured, the measurements

are recorded, and the fabric is laundered such a way as to produce maximum shrinkage. The shrunken fabric is measured, and percentages of warp and weft shrinkage are calculated. This indicates the processor the amount of compression to be given to the fabric.

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► In Compressive Shrinkage process, the fabric is dampened and is placed on a machine equipped with a continuous thick woolen or felt blanket. ► The blanket travels around a smaller roller carrying the fabric with it as it stretches around the curve of the roller. ► As the carrier moves from the curve to a straight area, it compresses in to a smaller, flat area. ► When the carrier compresses, the fabric it carries is also compressed and is then heated to set in this compressed configuration.

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Shrinkage Control for Knits
► During knitting and finishing, knit fabrics are subject to tension and stretching, especially in the lengthwise direction. The construction of most knits allows for greater stretch. They often shrink far more than comparable woven goods. Shrinkage may be particularly pronounced in the lengthwise direction, often accompanied by growth in the crosswise direction. ► Techniques used to control shrinkage in knitted fabrics include subjecting fabrics to treatment with resin-containing solutions, wetting then drying fabrics to relax tensions applied during processing and compressive shrinkage processes similar to those described for woven fabrics.
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► Compressive shrinkage processes for knits use different methods to return fabrics to their relaxed position. ► Among these is a process that feeds fabric through a machine in which a series of rollers operating at different speeds causes the fabric become compressed. ► In another process, knitted fabrics are stretched in a crosswise direction.

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► Sanfor-Knit addresses the problem of knit shrinkage in both length and width. In this process, test garments have compressive shrinkage control treatment are made up in the desired size, washed, tumble dried and checked by a testing instrument called the Knit picker. ► The test instrument determines whether the garments have held both the length dimension techniques. SanforKnit garments are available in men's T-shirts, athletic shirts, and the elasticity in girth that will provide comfortable wear. If the garment does not meet the established standard, the knitter is advised as to changes that should be made in construction, yarn characteristics or production polo shirts, briefs and sports knits.
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► There is another technique for controlling shrinkage in knits is known as Micrex shrinkage control. Fabrics are moved between two conveyors, each 6 inches apart. The cloth is kept in constant motion, both vertically ad horizontally by hot air from a high-energy nozzle system. This action allows the relaxation of the tensions that were imposed in previous operations, thereby allowing the fabric to relax to its original dimensions. ► Heat setting stabilizes synthetic knits. If heat setting has not been done, the fabrics will shrink. Low priced double knits for example may shrink as a result of inadequate heat setting.
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Shrinkage Control Through Heat Setting
► Fabrics made from thermoplastic fibers may be stabilized through heat setting. ► Synthetics can be permanently set into shape by subjecting them to heat near their glass transition temperature. ► The heat allows the molecules to relax so the fiber will not exhibit further shrinkage. ► This process is used to establish permanent dimensions for these fabrics. Synthetic knits, for example, are relatively free from shrinkage problems during laundering if they are properly heat-set. ► They may, however, undergo thermal shrinkage when subjected to high heat.
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Soil Release / Stain Proof / Stain Repellent Finishes
► Improve in resistance to soil / releasing soil and retaining whiteness of fabric ► Reduces the degree of soiling of the fabrics by: ● Repelling the soil ● Preventing formation of bond between soil and fabric ● Following chemicals are commonly used and applied by pad system Silicon Durable Fluoro carbon Durable Wax and metallic salt Semi durable
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Water repellent
► Water repellency depends on surface tension and fabric penetrability; Water repellent fabric resist wetting but air / moisture can penetrate; It is achieved by combination of fabric structure and finish ►Commonly used chemicals are: ●Paraffin Wax => Spray ●Pyridinum Salt => Pad -> Dry -> Bake ► These chemicals fill the gaps between yarns in fabric; Performance of repellency depends upon: Nature of fabric and Soaps / detergents in cleaning

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► Completely moisture proofed; Provide protection under all conditions of wet weather; Fabric is coated or laminated with a film of natural or synthetic rubber or plastic such as Vinyl or Polyurethane; Permanent Finish ► Applications: Heavy duty, foul whether clothing‟s, special military protective clothing, rain wear, ski wear, golf suits, sports footwear linings, hospital drapes, mattress, tarpaulins, tents and sleeping bag covers

Water Proof Fabrics

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Anti Microbial Finishes
► Prevents growth of bacteria and odor-causing germs; Prevent decay and damage from perspiration; Control the spread of disease and reduce the risk of infection following injury; Used in intimate apparels / body-fit garments / jogging and exercise clothing / sportswear, shoe linings, hospital linen and carpets ► Usually applied by padding; Semi durable finish => 20 – 25 launderings ► A variety of terms are used to describe the antimicrobial finishes applied to fabric. These include sterilization, disinfectant, antiseptic, and fungistat, mildew-resistant and rot proof finishes.
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Antistatic Finish
► Antistatic finishes are chemical substances applied as wet finishes for the purpose of reducing or eliminating static. ► These chemicals are actually substances that absorb small amount of moisture from the atmosphere, thus reducing the dryness of fabric. ► It is this dryness that initially causes the static condition.

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Insect & Moth Control Finishes
► Mainly applied for Wool and Wool Blends; Chemical finish, Permethrin is applied at the scouring or dyeing stage; Semi Durable Finish => 15 – 20 launderings ► The prime requirement of mothproofing agent is that it to be toxic to moths and beetles that attack wool, but it must nit be toxic to human beings at concentration levels used for mothproofing.

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Fabric Flammability
► Fabrics can be placed in different categories with regard to flammability ►Flammable: Completely consumed when exposed to fire ►Flame Resistant: Chemically treated to resist the spread of the flame ►Flame Proof: Fabrics made of fibres that are inherently non-flammable ► Factors, which Affect the Degree of Fabric Flammability ● Fibre content; More air spaces within the fabric to burn more easily; Light weight fabric; Low twist in yarn; Thin yarn; Low yarn / stitches per inch; Pile or napped surface
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Micro Encapsulated Finishes
► Micro capsules are between 5 – 50 microns and may contain fragrance, insect repellents, disinfectants, cleaning agents or activated charcoal Micro capsule are sprayed on to a fabric and held in place with Poly Vinyl Alcohol or Acrylic binder

► Fragrance: Hand Kerchiefs, Scarves, Curtains, Fur, Women‟s hosiery, sweaters and T shirts; Normal rubbing during wear rupture the capsules and release the fragrance ► Moth Protecting agents have micro capsulated for application to wool products; Micro capsules containing bactericidal agents are applied to socks underwear, women‟s intimate apparel and active wear
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Flame Retardant
► Durable flame retardant is chemical finishes, which react with or physically held on the surface of the fabric or within the fibre. These finishes are permenant. Durable flame retardant are generally organic compounds, which contains phosphorus, nitrogen and / or halogen (chlorine or bromine) or combination of these in the chemical structure. ► Durable flame retardant finishes are applied to fabric by a pad-dry-cure process. ► The finish formulation usually contains the flame retardant chemical, a softener, a resin binder or crosslinking agent and catalyst.

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Foam Finishing
► This process consists of making a concentrated solution of the finishing chemical using a reduced quantity of water, and the addition of a foaming agent. ► The foam is applied to the fabric by various techniques, such as knife coating, kiss roll followed by a doctor blade, horizontal padder, and rotary screen. ► After application the foam is collapsed, so that the chemical migrates into the fabric, and then dried or cured. ► The benefits of finishing using foam include energy conservation through smaller heated, water requirements and faster fabric drying times as well as reduction of waste water.
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D E N I M

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ADVANTAGES OF GARMENT PROCESSING

► Increases the opportunities
► Offers option to retailer.

► Unique looks and finishes that cannot be achieved in
fabric form.

► Shorten the time to market.

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Acid wash
► Patented in 1986, this wash uses pumice stones soaked in bleach to create deep contrast within the coloring of the jeans.

Antique
► A denim finish achieved through sanding and washing, which gives an aged look to the garment. Antique is also a type of ring denim in which the yarn is strongly uneven.

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Clean
► Denim that retains its indigo color even after repeated washings.

Creased
► A finish that produces a white line down the front of the jean, creating the illusion that the jeans have been repeatedly ironed.

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Crushed
►A textured effect achieved through a special fabric construction and wet processing. The denim is woven with an overtwisted weft yarn; when the garment is washed, the yarn “shrinks,” acquiring a goffer look that is further enhanced by bleaching and stonewashing.

Dirty wash
►A finish that creates the look of stained jeans.

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Enzyme washed
►Proteins used to speed up the chemical processes and used in finishing of denim.

Frayed
► A finish in which the waistband and hems of jeans have been sanded to create a “worn” effect.

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Sandblasted
►A laundry process in which jeans are shot with guns of sand in order to make the jeans look as if they‟ve been worn.

Sand washed
► A finish achieved through a combination of pumice stones, enzymes and sand; used to create the illusion of aged denim.

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Stonewashed
►A type of wash in which jeans are abraded with stones.

Tear and Repair
► A finish that uses tools to create holes in jeans, that are then sewn closed prior to sale.

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Tinted
►Jeans that have been dyed a second time, usually with a yellow khaki hue, to create the look of vintage denim.

Whiskered
► A jeans finish that produces white lines that look like wrinkles near the crotch and sometimes behind the knees.

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Stonewash Effect
► Stone wash process gives “used” look or “vintage”
► Volcanic rocks or pumice stones used. ► The degree of colour fading depends on
-The garment to stone ratio
-Washing time -Size of stones

-Material to liquor ratio and load of garments.
-Process time varies from 60-120 mins.

► Using new enzyme based washing technology.

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Single Bath Stone Washing And Tinting Technique
►In this, garment has been lightly colored in order to give the final denim appearance a slight shift. ► By using a new technique, tinting and stone washing effect can be achieved in a single bath. ► Advantages ● Less process time to achieve tinted look. ● No extra chemical required therefore making process more economical. ● Less water consumption. ● Less energy consumption. ● Less chance of patches or unevenness
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Enzyme Wash „biostone washing'
► A small dose of enzyme can replace several kilograms of pumice stones. Facilitate the removal of the indigo from the yarn surface. ► Three washing methods can be used: –stone washing with pumice only –stone-free washing with enzymes only ("biostoning") –washing with a combination of pumice and enzymes
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Advantages of enzyme washing
● Soft handle and attractive clean appearance is obtained without severe damage to the surface of yarn. ● Inexpensive, low-grade fabric quality can be finished to a top quality product by the removal of hairiness fluff and pills, etc. ● Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem. ● Better feel to touch and increased gloss or luster. ● Prevents tendency of pilling relatively short period of wear. after

● Can be applied on cellulose and its blend. ● Due to mild condition of treatment © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com process is less corrosive.
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Acid Wash
►World famous, acid wash was first commercialized by the Italian firm Rifle, at Inter-Jeans in 1986 ►The process was actually patented by the Italian Candida Laundry Company the same year. ►It consists of soaking pumice stones with chlorine and using their abrasive power to bleach jeans into sharp contrasts. ►Also known as moon, fog, marble, ice and frosted.

Black Denim
►A denim weave using black yarn rather than indigo. ►Wrangler claims to have been the first to introduce black denim back in 1950,
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Dirty Wash
► After

stonewashing dyed with special chemicals, creating a look in which the jeans will appear to be dirty.

Destroyed / Damaged / Used / Whiskers
►Whiskers, which normally appear around the hip to crotch area of the pant usually made by using a grinder. ►Cut the edges at bottom, (back-) pockets, fly and knee area before the (stone)washing.
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Alternate Of Pumice Stone
►To overcome the shortcoming of pumice stones  synthetic stones ►These are made of abrasive material such as silicate, plastic, rubber or Portland cement. ►The advantage of using such type of products are: ● All major problems associated with the use of volcanic grade pumice stone can be overcome. ● Higher Durability ●Can be used repeatedly from 50-300 cycle depending upon type of synthetic stone. ● Reproducibility of washing is manageable. ● Stone discharge of the process is very less  economical and ecological process © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com 482 ● Less damage of machine and garments.

Sand Blasting
► Laundry

process performed before washing in which jeans are shot with sand in order to abrade them and cause a worn appearance. While originally done by hand, this process is now automated at most large laundry houses.

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Sand Blasting
► Sand

blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular, powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of the garment surface

► Gives distressed/ abraded/used look. ► Advantages of sand blasting process ● It is purely mechanical process, not using any chemicals. ● It is a water free process therefore no drying required. ● Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible. ● Any number of designs could be created by special © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com techniques.

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Mechanical Abrasion
► To give worn out effect, abraded look or used look ► These are based on mechanical abrasion by which the indigo can be removed. Some of these processes are sueding, raising, emerising, peaching and brushing. ► Advantages of these processes: ● Control on the abrasion ● Different look on the garment can be achieved. ● All are dry process. ● Economical, ecological and environmental friendly.

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Spray Techniques
►This technique is based on spraying the chemicals or pigments to get different effect on the garments. This can be done by using robotic spraying gun or by manual spray and followed by curing of the garment. ► Advantages ● Water free process  zero effluent discharge ● Less time consumin ● Different designs possible ● Easy to us ● No adverse effect on fabric © 2007 www.vasantkothari.com strength.

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Denim Bleaching
►In this process, a strong oxidative bleaching agent such as sodium hypochlorite or KMnO4 is added during the washing with or without stone addition. ► Discoloration is usually more apparent depending on the strength of the bleach liquor quantity, temperature and treatment time.

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E Bleaching Concept For Denim
► Glucose bleaching, bleaching with sulphinic acid derivatives, and recently with laccase (enzyme). ► Laccase enzyme belongs to the oxidoreductase group. Advantages ► The product is specialized on indigo that it does not attack any other dyes. ► Laccases open up the door to bleach Lycra containing denim without loosing the strength of the fabric. Finally the process is based on enzyme so no risk of environmental pollution and harmful effluent discharge. Limitations ► Expensive, compared to traditional process. ► Heavy faded look is difficult to achieve.
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“Resin Bake” crease
► A relatively new finishing treatment. The process seeks to replicate the look of permanent creases which normally would occur only after repeated wear and abuse heaped on specific areas.

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Whiskering
►A fading of the ridges and creases in the hip and crotch area and back of the knees, which gives the appearance of aged denim; can also be the inverse – dark creased in faded denim.

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Grinding
►creates the look of age and wear. It is generally applied to hems, seams, belt loops, pockets and waistbands.

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Ozone Fading
► Garment is bleached. ► Done in washing machine with ozone dissolved in water. ► Bleached or faded also by using ozone gas in closed
chamber.

► The advantages associated with this process are:
● Colour removal is possible without losing strength.

● Very simple and environmentally friendly method
● After
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ozonized

water

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easily

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deozonized by UV radiation.
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Waterjet Fading
►Hydrojet treatment  developed for patterning and/or enhancing the surface finish, texture, durability, and other characteristics of denim garment. ► Involves exposing one or both surfaces of the garment through hydrojet nozzles. ► The degree of colour washout, clarity of patterns, and softness of the resulting fabric are related to the type of dye in the fabric ► No chemical used  pollution free ► Water recycling system  economical and environmental friendly denim processing. ► Color washout of dye in the striped areas produces a faded effect without blurring, loss of fabric strength or
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Use Of Laser Technology
► It is a computer controlled process for denim fading. ► The novelty of this system is that
● It is water free fading of denim. ● It is an ecological and economical process. ● It can create local abrasion and fabric breaks, used look effect, moustache with excellent reproducibility and higher productivity. ● Being an automatic system, chances of human error are slim. ● The design is electronically translated on the fabric, thus avoiding the need for photolites of serigraphy cleaning. ● The machine is very simple and compact, therefore requires very low maintenance and cleaning, extremely safe www.vasantkothari.com 497 and reliable.

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Technocrats need to realize that they have to

develop simple and cost-effective garment processing
technologies, that aim at conservation of energy, water, time, and are environment-friendly.

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4 Point Inspection
► A widely recognized inspection method frequently used in the textile industry. ► It is a technique issued by the American Society for Testing & Materials with reference to the designation ASTM D5 430-93 ► Start the frame and inspect for defects. Run the frame at 20 ± 5 yards per minute (18 ± 5 meters per minute).

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► If a defect is observed: ● Faults are classified and scored with penalty points of 1, 2, 3 and 4, according to their size and significance. ● Each defect should be counted as a separate defect even if the nature is the same and then based on the points allocated to each defect, total points should be calculated.

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Vertical Defects (along the length) Length
0.1 to 3.0 in (0.1 to 8.0 cm) 3.1 to 6.0 in (8.1 to 15.0 cm) 6.1 to 9.0 in(15.1 to 23.0 cm)
9.1 to 36.0 in (23.1 to 92.0 cm)

Horizontal Defects (along the width) Points 1 Length
0.1 to 3.0 in (0.1 to 8.0 cm) 3.1 to 6.0 in (8.1 to 15.0 cm) 6.1 to 9.0 in (15.1 to 23.0 cm)
9.1 to full width (above 23.1 cm)

Points 1

2
3 4

2
3 4

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► Note: ● A maximum of 4 points may be assigned to any one linear yard), regardless of the number or size of the individual defects. ● For a continuous lengthwise running defect, 4 points and 1 defect will be assigned to each linear yard where the defect exceeds 9 inches (23 centimeters). ► Example: barre effect on the full roll in 100linear yards: 400 points should be assigned with 100 defects

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► So if the acceptance criteria are 40 points / 100 yd2, then this roll is acceptable. ► The maximum number of defect points to be counted against any one linear yard is 4 points. ► Overall, fabric quality is assessed on the basis of the number of defect points per 100 yd2 of fabric.

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Inspection Results
► Complete the worksheet and calculate the total points of each inspected roll and the total of the inspected linear yards/meters. With this information use the appropriate formula below to calculate the Average Points (per 100 linear yards or linear meters).
Average Points/100 linear yds =

Total Points of inspected roll Total Inspected Yards
Total Points of inspected roll Total Inspected Meters

X 100

Average Points/100 linear mts =

X 100

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► All textiles are evaluated on a square meter computation. The formula used to determine the point count level of a roll of fabric is as follows.
Total Points x 10,000 _________ Inspected meters x Cuttable Fabric Width (cm) = Points per 100m2

► The penalty points total is divided by the product of the meters inspected then multiplied by the cuttable width in centimeters. Multiply the result by 10,000 in order to calculate the shipment point count per 100 square meters.

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► The linear meter points total is divided by the product of the inspected meters then multiplied by the cuttable width in centimeters. Multiply the result by 10, 000 in order to calculate the shipment point count per 100square meters.

Total Linear Meter Points x 10,000 _________= Shipment Points per 100 m2 Total Inspected Meters x Cuttable Width (cm)

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► Individual rolls with penalty point count levels exceeding the stated requirements of the classified group are rejected. They are graded as second quality and may not be shipped unless otherwise directed by the buyer. ► Shipment fails the inspection if the shipment penalty point count exceeds the specified point count level or, if more than 10% of the total shipment audited is graded as second quality.

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► Shipment Lot Size
Per Color way (meters) 1-2,500 2,501-5,000 5,001-20,000 Inspection Quantity (meters) Percentage 500 251-500 400-1,600 20% 10% 8%

20,001- 30,000
30,001-50,000

1,200-1,800
1,200-2,000

6%
4%

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► Penalty Point Table
Acceptance Criteria for 100 sq. meters of fabric Individual Roll
Group

Total Shipment Maximum Average Penalty Points of Shipment per 100 sq. meters 14 points. 19 points 24 points 38 points

Maximum Penalty Points in a roll per 100 sq. meters 18 points 24 points 30 points 48 points

One Two Three Four

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Fabric Group Classifications
► Group One ● All synthetics (polyster/nylon/acetate) ● Basic denims (open end spun)> 12 oz sq. yards ● Dress shirtings > 50/1 ● Filament rayons ● Twills (Imported) ● Worsted Spun

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Fabric Group Classifications
► Group Two ● Basic denims (ring spun) > 12 oz sq.yards ● Basic knitted fabrics ● Canvas ● Carded fabrics ● Lightweight denim > 4 oz < 8 oz sq.yards ● Midweight denims > 9 or < 12 oz sq. yards ● Poplin/oxford/gingham shirting > 32/1, < 50/1 ● Spun rayons (Viscose) ● Woolen spun ● Twills (Indian)
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Fabric Group Classifications
► Group Three ● All specialty fabrics ( jacquard / seersucker / dobby / sateen) ● Chambray/indigo yarn dyes ● Coated fabrics with wax, oil, ● Corduroy ● Flannel ● Fleece ● Cotton- synthetic blends ● Silk Fabrics (except Indian silk and Dupioni) ● Knitted and woven stretch fabrics, i.e., stretch twill ● Velvet
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Fabric Group Classifications
► Group Four ● Dupioni silk ● Indian “Madras” (hand dyed-power/hand loom) ● Indian Silk ● Linen and Linen blends ● Muslin ● Patchwork

© 2007

www.vasantkothari.com

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© 2007

www.vasantkothari.com

521

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