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You are on page 1of 35

semester

• We’ll cover: fluid motion, thermal physics,

electricity, revision

• MASH centre in AMDC 503 - 09.30-16.30 daily

• My consultation hours: Tues 10.30-12.30

• Wayne’s consultation hours: Thurs 2.30-4.30

• cblake@swin.edu.au

• 03 9214 8624

Fluid Motion

• Density and Pressure

• Hydrostatic Equilibrium and Pascal’s Law

• Archimedes' Principle and Buoyancy

• Fluid Dynamics

• Conservation of Mass: Continuity Equation

• Conservation of Energy: Bernoulli’s Equation

• Applications of Fluid Dynamics

A microscopic view

Solid

rigid body

Liquid

Fluid

Incompressible

Gas

Fluid

compressible

What new physics is involved?

to-place

they are compressible (for

example, gasses)

pressure forces

experiences buoyancy

Density

• The density of a fluid is the concentration of mass

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚 𝑘𝑔

𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝜌= 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 3

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑉 𝑚

0%

The shown cubic vessels contain

the stated matter. Which fluid has

the highest density ?

𝟏. 𝟐. 1 2 3 4 5

1 𝑘𝑔 of 1 𝑘𝑔 of

water at water at

73°𝐶 273°𝐶

1𝑚 1𝑚

𝟑. 𝟒.

1 𝑘𝑔 of 1 𝑘𝑔 of

water at water at

273°𝐾 373°𝐶

1𝑚 3𝑚

Pressure

• Pressure is the concentration of a force

– the force exerted per unit area

Greater pressure! sides and through the fluid

(same force, less area)

Pressure

𝐹

𝑝=

𝐴

𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑚

A What is responsible for

the force which holds B

urban climber B in place

when using suction cups.

0%

1. The force of friction

2. Vacuum pressure exerts a pulling

force

3. Atmospheric pressure exerts a

pushing force

4. The normal force of the glass. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

Hydrostatic Equilibrium with Gravity

Derivation:

𝑃 + 𝑑𝑃 𝐴 − 𝑝𝐴 = 𝑚𝑔

𝑑𝑃 𝐴 = 𝜌 𝐴 𝑑ℎ 𝑔

𝑑𝑃

= 𝜌𝑔

𝑑ℎ

𝑃 = 𝑃0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ

Pressure in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid per unit area above it:

𝑃 = 𝑃0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ

Consider the three open containers filled with water.

How do the pressures at the bottoms compare ?

A. B. C.

0%

1. 𝑷𝑨 = 𝑷𝑩 = 𝑷𝑪

2. 𝑷𝑨 < 𝑷𝑩 = 𝑷𝑪

3. 𝑷𝑨 < 𝑷𝑩 < 𝑷𝑪

4. 𝑷𝑩 < 𝑷𝑨 < 𝑷𝑪

5. Not enough information 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The three open containers are now filled with oil,

water and honey respectively. How do the pressures

at the bottoms compare ?

honey

A. B. C.

oil water

0%

1. 𝑷𝑨 = 𝑷𝑩 = 𝑷𝑪

2. 𝑷𝑨 < 𝑷𝑩 = 𝑷𝑪

3. 𝑷𝑨 < 𝑷𝑩 < 𝑷𝑪

4. 𝑷𝑩 < 𝑷𝑨 < 𝑷𝑪

5. Not enough information 1 2 3 4 5

Calculating Crush Depth of a Submarine

Q. A nuclear submarine is rated to withstand a pressure difference

of 70 𝑎𝑡𝑚 before catastrophic failure. If the internal air pressure

is maintained at 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚, what is the maximum permissible depth ?

𝑃 = 𝑃0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ

𝑃 − 𝑃0 7.1 × 106

ℎ= = 3

= 720 𝑚

𝜌𝑔 1 × 10 × 9.8

Measuring Pressure

Q. What is height of mercury (Hg)

at 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚 ?

𝑃 = 𝑃0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ → ℎ = 𝑃/𝜌𝑔

1 × 105

ℎ= 4

= 0.75 𝑚

1.36 × 10 × 9.8

column of water. Moving to higher density fluids 𝑝 = 𝑝0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ

allows a table top barometer to be easily constructed.

Pascal’s Law

• Pressure force is transmitted through a fluid

The total mass of the piston and

car is 3200 𝑘𝑔. What force must F2

A2

A1

be applied to the smaller piston ?

𝐹1 𝐹2 𝐴1 𝜋 × 0.152

= 𝐹1 = 𝑚𝑔 = × 3200 × 9.8 = 490 𝑁

𝐴 1 𝐴2 𝐴2 𝜋 × 1.202

Gauge Pressure

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚𝑜𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 + 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒

Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy

Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy

Objects immersed in a fluid experience a Buoyant Force!

𝐹𝐵 = 𝑚𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑉𝑔

𝑊 = 𝑚𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑑 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑑𝑉𝑔

Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy

floats because the

weight of air displaced

(= the buoyancy force)

is greater than the

weight of the balloon

Which of the three cubes of length 𝑙 shown below

has the largest buoyant force ?

water stone wood

water FB FB FB

A. B. C.

0%

1. 𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓

2. 𝒔𝒕𝒐𝒏𝒆

3. 𝒘𝒐𝒐𝒅

4. 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒃𝒖𝒐𝒚𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆 𝒊𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒆

5. Not enough information 1 2 3 4 5

Example Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy

Q. Find the apparent weight of a 60 𝑘𝑔 concrete block when you lift

it under water, 𝜌𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑒 = 2200 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Evaluate

Interpret

Water provides a buoyancy force Fnet mg Fb wapparent

Apparent weight should be less

Fb mdisp water g waterVg

Develop

water mg

wapp mg

Fb con

m water

con wapp mg (1 )

V con

1000

V

m 60 9.8 (1 ) 321 N

w mg 2200

con

Assess

The Buoyant Force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.

Floating Objects

Q. If the density of an iceberg is 0.86

that of seawater, how much of an

iceberg’s volume is below the sea?

𝐹𝐵 = 𝑚𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑉𝑠𝑢𝑏 𝑔

𝑉𝑠𝑢𝑏 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑉𝑠𝑢𝑏 𝑔 = 𝜌𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑉𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝑔 → = = 0.86

𝑉𝑖𝑐𝑒 𝜌𝑖𝑐𝑒

A beaker of water weighs 𝑤1 . A block

weighting 𝑤2 is suspended in the water by

a spring balance reading 𝑤3 . Does the

0%

scale read

1. 𝒘𝟏

2. 𝒘𝟏 + 𝒘𝟐

3. 𝒘𝟏 + 𝒘𝟑

scale

4. 𝒘𝟏 + 𝒘𝟐 − 𝒘𝟑

1 2 3 4 5

5. 𝒘𝟏 + 𝒘𝟑 − 𝒘𝟐

Centre of Buoyancy

fluid. For objects to float with stability the Centre of Buoyancy must be

above the Centre of Mass of the object. Otherwise Torque yield Tip !

Fluid Dynamics

Laminar (steady) flow is where each particle in

the fluid moves along a smooth path, and the

paths do not cross.

flow is always tangential, for steady flow don’t

cross. A set of streamlines act as a pipe for an

incompressible fluid

OK, honey not)

become irregular, with whirlpools and paths

crossing. Chaotic and not considered here.

Conservation of Mass: The Continuity Eqn.

The rate a fluid enters a pipe must equal the rate the fluid leaves the pipe.

i.e. There can be no sources or sinks of fluid.

Conservation of Mass: The Continuity Eqn.

A1 A2

v1 v2

Q. How much fluid flows across each area in a time ∆𝑡: v2t

v1t

A1 A2

m V1 A1 v1t m V2 A2v2t

m

flow rate : Av continuity eqn : A1v1 A2v2

t

Conservation of Mass: The Continuity Eqn.

Q. A river is 40m wide, 2.2m deep and flows at 4.5 m/s. It passes

through a 3.7-m wide gorge, where the flow rate increases to 6.0

m/s. How deep is the gorge?

𝐴2 = 𝑤2𝑑2

𝐴1 = 𝑤1𝑑1

𝑤1 𝑑1 𝑣 1 40 × 2.2 × 4.5

𝑑2 = = = 18 𝑚

𝑤2 𝑣2 3.7 × 6.0

Conservation of Energy: Bernoulli’s Eqn.

What happens to the energy density of the fluid if I raise the ends ?

v1t

y2

y1 v2t

volume

p 12 v 2 g y const

at any point in fluid.

Conservation of Energy: Bernoulli’s Eqn.

Q. Find the velocity of water leaving a tank through a hole in the

side 1 metre below the water level.

𝑃 + 𝜌𝑔𝑦 = 𝑃 + 12𝜌𝑣2

Which of the following can be

done to increase the flow rate out

of the water tank ? ℎ

𝐻

1. Raise the tank (↑ 𝑯)

0%

2. Reduce the hole size

3. Lower the water level (↓ 𝒉)

4. Raise the water level (↑ 𝒉)

5. None of the above

1 2 3 4 5

Summary: fluid dynamics

Continuity equation: mass is conserved!

𝜌 × 𝑣 × 𝐴 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

For liquids:

𝜌 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 → 𝑣 × 𝐴 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

(𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝜌, 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑣, 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴)

𝑃 + 12𝜌𝑣2 + 𝜌𝑔𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

(𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑃, 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝜌, 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑣, ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑦)

Bernoulli’s Effect and Lift

𝑃 + 12𝜌𝑣2 + 𝜌𝑔𝑦 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 (air pushed downwards)

Lift on a wing is often explained in textbooks by Bernoulli’s Principle: the air over the

top of the wing moves faster than air over the bottom of the wing because it has further

to move (?) so the pressure upwards on the bottom of the wing is smaller than the

downwards pressure on the top of the wing.

Chapter 15 Fluid Motion Summary

• Density and Pressure describe bulk fluid behaviour

• Pressure in a fluid is the same for points at the same height

• In hydrostatic equilibrium, pressure increases with depth due to gravity

• The buoyant force is the weight of the displaced fluid

• Fluid flow conserves mass (continuity eq.) and energy (Bernoulli’s equation)

• A constriction in flow is accompanied by a velocity and pressure change.

• Reread, Review and Reinforce concepts and techniques of Chapter 15

Examples 15.3 , 15.4 Buoyancy Forces: Working Underwater + Tip of Iceberg

Examples 15.5 Continuity Equation: Ausable Chasm

Examples 15.6, 15.7 Bernoulli's Equation – Draining a Tank and Venturi Flow

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