A constitution is a set of laws that a set of people have made and agreed upon for government often codified
as a written document that enumerates and limits the powers and functions of a political entity. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. The term constitution can be applied to any overall system of law that defines the functioning of a government, including several unmodified historical constitutions that existed before the development of modern codified constitutions.
. y Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times. under which the rights of the majority non-white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by white people was maintained.y Apartheid was a system of legal racial segregation
enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994. but apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election of 1948.
. and other public services. and provided black people with services inferior to those of white people.and residential areas were segregated. "coloured". medical care. legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based self-governing homelands called bantustans. "white". and "Indian"). sometimes by means of forced removals. four of which became nominally independent states. black people were deprived of their citizenship. The government segregated education.y New legislation classified inhabitants into racial
I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.The Fighter
I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination .
. But if needs be. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve.
. He spent the next 28 years in South Africa s most dreaded prison. He and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country.y This was Nelson Mandela. being tried for treason by
the white South African government.
The oppressor and the oppresses in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. Constitution making is not unique to South Africa.y The South Africa example is a good way to under stand
why we need a constitution and what do constitutions do. Every Country has its own type of constitution
y Third' it lays down some limits to the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of a citizen are.it expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society. y Fourth.y First it generates a degree of trust and coordination
that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together y Second.
.& who will have the power to take which decidions. it specifies how the government will be constituted.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: y JUSTICE.Preamble: y WE. expression. social.SECULAR. SOCIALIST . y EQUALITY of status and of opportunity. y FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.. y LIBERTY of thought. having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN. THE PEOPLE OF INDIA. economic and political. belief. faith and worship..
Constitution is mainly about embodying these values into institutional arrangements. ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. Therefore it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated. It is very long and detailed document.IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November. ---A constitution is not merely a statement of values and philosophy.
. Much of the document called Constitution of India is about these arrangements. 1949. do HEREBY ADOPT.
Founder of Republican Party of India.Later Law Minister in 1st Cabinet of post independent India.
. He became Prime Minister of the interim government & Later 1st Prime Minister of India.Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru delivered his famous speech to the Constituent Assembly at the stroke of midnight on August 15. 1947.
Later the 1st President of India.
.Chairman of Constituent Assembly.