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DAET 125: Fundamental of Manufacturing



• Definition
• Plant and Shop Layout
• Industrial Safety


Introduction (Definition)
• Manufacturing can be defined as:
• The word manufacture is derived from two Latin words
manus (hand) + factus (make) = “made by hand”
• the English word “manufacture” was first coined around 1567 A.D.
• Most modern manufacturing operations are accomplished by mechanized and
automated equipment that is supervised by human workers
• Technology can be defined as:
the application of science to provide society and its members with those things
that are needed or desired.
• Technology provides the products that help our society and its members live

Introduction (Definition)
• In the modern context, manufacturing can be defined in two ways:
1. Technologic 2. Economic
Application of physical and chemical • Transformation of materials into items of greater
processes to alter the geometry, value by means of one or more processing
and/or assembly operations
properties, and/or appearance of a
starting material to make parts or • Manufacturing adds value to the material by
products changing its shape or properties, or by
combining it with other materials

Figure 1.(a) Manufacturing as a technical process Figure 1.(b) Manufacturing as an economic process

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Definition of Plant layout
• Systematic and efficient functional arrangement of various departments, machines
tools, equipment and other supports services of an industrial organization that will
facilitate the smooth processing of the proposed or undertaken product in the most
effective, most efficient and most economical manner in the minimum possible time

• Plant layout of an industrial organization related to:

- Industrial enterprise
- Buildings
- Machinery
-Working condition
- Departments, etc
Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Good Plant Layout Minimun

Provide Smooth
satisfaction flow of the
to the plant product in
workers the plant
Main objectives of a good plant layout Objectives

utilization of
the space of
the plant

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Available of
Skilled and
unskilled Power
labor locally

Low local
Important Factors for Space for
taxes and
similar other
installation of a plant consideration

facilities for
the planned

Important Factors
Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Merits of A Good Plant Layout
• Reduced men and machine hours per unit of production
• Effectively and economical utilization of entire floor space of the plant
• Work flow is smooth and continuous
• Work in process inventory is less
• Production control is less
• Relatively less floor area is required
• Material handling is less

Merits of Plant Layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Types of Layouts
• Types of layouts are classified into four major categories:
1) Fixed of position layout
2) Process or functional layout
3) Line or product layout
4) Combination or group layout

Types of Layouts
Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
1) Fixed of Position Layout

Ships, aero planes, aircraft, locomotive, ship assembly shops, shipyards, boiler, etc.

Figure 2. Typical project layout

Fixed of Position layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Merits Demerits
• Minimum movement of men, material, • The cost of equipment handling is
and tooling during manufacturing very high
process • Labors and equipment are difficult
• There material is drastically reduced to utilize fully
• Highly skilled operators are required to • It is limited to large items only
complete the work at one point and
responsibility for quality is fixed on one
person or the assembly crew.
• Every personnel of manufacturing
team is responsible for quality work for
manufacturing the product

Fixed of Position Layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
2) Process or Functional Layout
This layout preferred for the industries
involved in job order type of production and
manufacturing or maintenances activities.
• This layout is used for batch or moderate
• It specify path for group technology

Figure 2. Typical functional layout

Process or Functional layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Merits Demerits
• There exists a wide flexibility regarding • Production control becomes
allotment of work to equipment and relatively difficult in this layout
workers. • This layout requires more efficient
• There is a better utilization of the co-ordination and inspections
available equipment. • More material in process remains
• Comparatively less numbers of in queue for further operations
machines are needed in this layout and • Completion of same product takes
hence thus reducing capital investment. more time
• There is an improved product quality, • Requires large in process inventory
because the supervisors and workers
attend to one type of machines and

Process or Functional Layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
3) Line or Product Layout
• It is used in assembly work

Figure 3. Typical line layout

Line or Product Layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Merits Demerits
• It involves smooth and continuous work • It is very difficult to increase production
flow beyond the capacities of the production
• It may require less skilled workers • When single inspector has to look after
• It helps in reducing inventory many machines, inspection becomes
• Production time is reduced in this layout
• This layout is very less flexible for
• Better coordination, simple production product change.
planning and control are achieved in
this layout • The rate or pace rate of working depends
upon the output rate of the slowest
• For the same amount of production, machine and hence leading to excessive
less space requirement for this layout. idle time for other machines if the
production line is not adequately
Line or Product Layout
Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
4) Combination or Group Layout
• Manufacturing circular metal saws, hacksaw, wooden saw, files and crank shaft.

Figure 3. Typical combination layout

Combination or Group Layout
Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Merits Demerits
• Reduction in cost of machine set-up • Change of the existing layout is time
time and material handling of metals consuming and costly.
• Elimination of excess work-in-process • Inclusion of new components in the
inventory which subsequently allows existing component requires thorough
the reduction in lot size. analysis.
• Simplification of production planning • Change of input component mix may
functions, etc likely to change complete layout
• Change of batch size may change
number of machines

Combination or Group Layout

Introduction (Plant and shop layout)
Comparison of Line or Product Layout and Process or Functional Layout

No. Line or Product Layout Process or Functional Layout

1 similar machines are arranged according to the Similar machines are arranged in one location for
sequence of operations required for manufacturing manufacturing the product
the product
2 It leads to transfer lines It leads to group technology
3 It is meant for mass production and extremely less It is meant for moderate production and more job
job variety variety
4 Work flow is smooth in this layout Work flow is not smooth in this layout
5 Job movement is very less Job movement is comparatively more
6 Full automation in material handling is possible in Automation in material handling is not effective in
this layout this layout
7 Time taken in completion of product is less Time taken in completion of product is more

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
What is safety
Safety may be defined as a judgment of acceptability of danger, where danger is the
combination of hazard and risk. Hazard is defined as an injury producer, while risk is
defined as the likelihood (probability) that an injury will occur.

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Early safety program were based on the “Three E’s ENGINEERING
of safety”: Engineering, Education and Involve making design improvements to both
product and process.

Ensures that employees know how to work
safely, why it is important to do so, and that
safety is expected by management.

Involves making sure that employees abide by
Figure 1.1: Three E’s of safety safety policies, rules, regulations, practices and

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Objectives of Industrial Safety

1) Industrial safety is needed to check all the possible chances of accidents for preventing loss of life and
permanent disability of any industrial employee, any damage to machine and material as it leads to the
loss to the whole establishment.
2) It is needed to eliminate accidents causing work stoppage and production loss.
3) It is needed to prevent accidents in industry by reducing any hazard to minimum.
4) It is needed to reduce workman’s compensation, insurance rate and all the cost of accidents.
5) It is required to educate all members regarding the safety principles to avoid accidents in industry.
6) It is needed to achieve better morale of the industrial employees.
7) It is required to have better human relations within the industry

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Types of Accident Effect of Accident
Effect on the owner of factory
Near An accident with no damage or injury is • Direct cost of an accident
Accident called near accident • Indirect cost of an accident
An accident with very less damage is Effect on the worker
called trivial • The industrial workers may get temporary or
Minor It is an accident with damage and injury permanent disability.
Accident more than trivial • If the industrial worker dies, his family loses the
earner and the compensation never equals to his
Serious An accident with heavy damage and lot earnings
Accident f injury is called serious accident Effect on the society
It is an accident with very heavy • Cost of accidents is included in the products, so the
Fatal society has to pay more prices for the industrial
damages. There may be loss of lives also
• If some industrial workers do not come under
compensation act, the need for help from society is
much greater
Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Causes of Accident
Human causes
• Accidents may occur while working on unsafe or dangerous equipment or machineries possessing rotating, reciprocating
and moving parts.
• Accidents occur while operating machines without knowledge, without safety precautions, without authority, without
safety devices.
• Accidents generally occur while operating or working at unsafe speed
• Accidents may occur while working for long duration of work, shift duty etc.
• Accidents may occur while working with mental worries, ignorance, carelessness, nervousness, dreaming etc.

Environmental causes
• Accidents may occur during working at improper temperature and humidity causes fatigue to the workers so chances of
accidents increases with workers having fatigue.
• The presence of dust fumes and smoke in the working area may causes accidents.
• Poor housekeeping, congestion, blocked exits, bad plant layout etc. may cause accidents.
• Accidents occur due to inadequate illumination.
• Improper ventilation in the plant may also leads to industrial accidents.

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Causes of Accident (Continue)
Mechanical causes
• Continued use of old, poor maintained or unsafe equipment may result in accidents.
• Accidents commonly occur due to use of unguarded or improper guarded machines or equipment.
• Unsafe processes, unsafe design and unsafe construction of building structure may lead to accidents in the plant.
• Accidents occur due to improper material handling system and improper plant layout.
• Accidents may occur due to not using of safety devices such as helmets, goggles, gloves, masks etc.

Preventive Measure
• Minimize the number of accidents taking place.
• Prevent premature death of talented employee.
• Prevent needles pain and suffering to industrial employees.
• Reduce damages to equipment and machinery .
• Increase production and reduce production cost.

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Types of Safety Divided into two broad categories
•Practices that will prevent injury to workers.
•Practices that will prevent damage to machines
and equipment.

Safety of Self:
•Always wear approved safety glasses.
•Never wear loose clothing.
•Remove wrist watches, rings and bracelets.
•Long hair must be protected by hair net or cap
•Canvas shoes or open-toed sandals must never worn in a machine
shop because they offer no protection to the feet against sharp chips
or falling objects.

Safety of Self
Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Safety of Job
Types of Safety Each year accidents that could have been avoided result not only in
millions of dollars worth of lost time and production but also in a great
deal of pain, many lasting physical handicaps, or even the death of
Develop safe work habits:
•Be neat, tidy and safely dressed for job being performed.
•Develop responsibility for personal safety and safety of fellow workers.
•Think safely and work safely at all times.
Safe Work Practices:
•Before operating a machine, check that safety devices are in place
and working.
•Disconnect power and lock it off at switch box when making repairs
to machine.
•Keep hands away from moving parts.
•Always stop a machine before measuring, cleaning, or making any
•Get first aid immediately for any work piece, remove all burns and
sharp edges with file.

Safety of Job
Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Types of Safety Safety of Machines Tools
The following safety precautions or guidelines are generally adopted for every
metal cutting or machining shop. Specific safety guidelines for some of the
machine process like lathe, drilling, shaping, planning slotting, grinding,
milling, and finishing operations are described in below:

• One should use the correct tools and work holding devices
recommended for the process.
• One should wear goggles to protect eyes from flying chips.
• One should hold the work piece and tool securely on the machine.
• One should clamp the tool correctly. An overhanging tool may cause
catastrophic failure of the tool, work piece or the machine tool.
• One should not try to remove chips from the machine with your hands.
• Never use compressed air from mouth. Use brush.
• One should re-sharp the tools immediately when it starts producing
rough surfaces on the job-piece or produces chatter.
• Stop machine before attempting to clean, removing tool or work piece.

Safety of Machines Tools

Introduction (Industrial Safety)
Fire Prevention
The maximum number of workers and officers should be trained with fire fighting systems and equipment

Keep all flammable liquids in closed containers or in safe cylinders.

All doors should be opened towards outside the workroom as means of escape incase of fire

The doors and windows to be used as exit in case of fire should be easily located. These should be marked
with red letters of adequate size

Always select the least flammable liquid that will serve the purpose.

A free passageways and easily open-able windows should be always provided.

Safe disposal for the flammable liquid wastes must be provided

No one is permitted to accumulate fuels or other combustibles near the source of open fire or spark

Fire Prevention