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Instrument Procedures Nebyou

Lemi
Enroute Procedures & Charts Yonatan D
Jose
yonas

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DISCUSSION TOPICS
 INTRODUCTION
 DEFINITIONS
 AIRWAYS AND ROUTE SYSTEMS
 WAYS TO NAVIGATE IFR
 AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTERS
 ENROUTE RNP
 ATC COMMUNICATION
 ATC COMMUNICATION FAILURE
 POSITION REPORTING
 ADDITIONAL REPORTS
 IFR FLIGHT LOG

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INTRODUCTION

The increase in the number of navaids and the complexity of the


airway and airspace system has made specialized enroute
charts a necessity for IFR flight.

In addition to helping you keep track of your position, enroute


charts provide the information you need to maintain a safe
altitude and ensure navigation signal reception.

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INTRODUCTION
Enroute procedure
It is a procedure which starts from end of departure to starting of arrival
descent.

Or it is the point where ATC begins to radar vector the aircraft for an instrument
approach.

Flight segments
For the navigation computer the flight consist of different elements known as
‘segments’.
• The segments must be connected together by the pilot.
• ‘Route discontinuity’ occurs when segments are not linked.

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DEFINITIONS
1. Reduced vertical separation minimums(RVSM)
It is any airspace between FL 290 and FL 410, inclusive ,where
airplanes are separated by 1000ft vertically.

2. Tango(T) Route
It enable RNAV-equipped aircraft to more efficiently fly around or
through terminal areas with class B and class C airspace. These
route also reduce controller workload by providing a published
route instead of controllers having to radar vector aircraft along
those flight path.

3. Changeover point (COP)


Is a point where a frequency change is necessary and show the
distance in NM to each navaid.

4. Random RNAV routes


The ability to go direct to your destination is a core advantage of
RNAV. If you can remain in radar contact over the entire route, ATC
may give you for a random RNAV route.
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AIRWAYS AND ROUTE SYSTEMS

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AIRWAYS

Airways is a defined corridor that connects one specified location to


another at a specified altitude, along which an aircraft that meets the
requirements of the airway may be flown.

Airways below 18,000ft MSL are depicted on low altitude enroute charts
and are called Victor airways.

Those at and above 18,000ft MSL and up to FL450 are shown on high
altitude enroute charts and are called Jet routes.

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VICTOR AIRWAYS
The V in Vector airways stands for VHF, because there airways connect
VOR, VORTAC, and VOR/DME STATIONS.

All distance on enroute chart are in NM.

The width of an airway is normally 8NM, 4 on each side of its centerline.


When an airway segment is more than 102NM long, additional airspace is
allocated.

Even numbers are used for airways that generally go east/west (E.g., V12)

Odd numbers are used for airways that generally go north/south (E.g., V493)

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ONE WAY AIRWAYS

• Airways can be designed for one direction only

• Depicted with an arrow.

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4 WAYS TO NAVIGATE IFR

1. Flying Victor airways, Q/T routes, or jet routes

2. Flying direct between ground-based navaids

3. Flying direct to waypoints via RNAV systems

4. Flying via radar vectors.

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AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTERS

• ARTCCs provide central authority for issuing IFR clearances;


nationwide monitoring of each IFR flight

• ARTCC provides enroute air/ground communications,


primarily for IFR traffic

• Provide for safe and expeditious movement of aircraft


operating under IFR.

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ENROUTE RNP

• RNP airspace means airspace, routes, legs, operations, or


procedures where minimum required navigational
performance (RNP) has been established.

• RNP is a function of RNAV equipment that calculates and


displays lateral guidance to a profile or path.

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ATC COMMUNICATIONS

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ATC COMMUNICATIONS

• Under IFR in controlled airspace, the PIC must continuously


monitor the appropriate Center or control frequency

• You must get permission to leave a frequency. You may wish


to do so for things like contacting Flight Service Station (FSS1)
for weather info etc.

• If you have been given permission to leave a frequency, you


must report back on when you have returned to the ATC
frequency you are monitoring.

1. A flight service station (FSS) is an air traffic facility that provides information and
services to aircraft pilots before, during, and after flights, but unlike air traffic control 14
(ATC), is not responsible for giving instructions or clearances or providing separation.
ATC COMMUNICATIONS

• In IFR flying, after initial contact with ATC, you will be notified
by ATC when to contact another control frequency

• Initial contact may be with ground control, tower control, or if


you have departed from an uncontrolled airport it will be the
ATC frequency you were told to contact in your clearance

• When taking off IFR from an uncontrolled airport,

 First frequency may be departure controller from nearby


airport with radar

 Or it may be ARTCC.
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ATC COMMUNICATIONS

• When told to contact another controller,

 Acknowledge frequency change


 Dial new frequency in standby window or in a different
radio
 Change frequencies

• Use standby window or second radio so you do not lose the


earlier radio frequency

• If after switching to new frequency, you cannot make


contact with ATC, return to previously assigned ATC
frequency.

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ATC COMMUNICATION FAILURE

• ATC’s radio can fail

• If so, backup system engages after 1 minute

• If you believe ATC comm. is lost, wait 1 minute & try again

• If communications are lost, return to the previous ATC signal if


the frequency change was not too long in the past.

• If it has been some time since you last changed frequencies,


and you are now out of ATC communications, select a
frequency from the ATC communications box closest to you
on the enroute chart.

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ARTCC Communications Boxes

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POSITION REPORTING

• When in radar contact the pilot is required to report their


position only if asked to do so by ATC

• When not in radar contact, such as when ATC states “radar


contact lost” or “radar service terminated”, then the pilot
must make required position reports.

• These reporting points are called designated compulsory


reporting points.

• When flying direct or via RNAV, any point or waypoint listed in


your flight plan automatically becomes a compulsory
reporting point.

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POSITION REPORTING PROCEDURE
1. Noncompulsory reporting points

• Are identified by open triangle

• Position reports are not required unless


requested by ATC.

2. Compulsory reporting point

• Identified by solid triangle

• In a nonradar environment , we are


required to make a position report when
we pass over this point.

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POSITION REPORT ITEMS

When required to make a position report, it should contain the


following:
 Identification – your call sign

 Position – the fix you are over

 Time – that you were over the fix

 Altitude or Flight Level

 Type of flight plan – this is only required when talking to FSS

 ETA and name of next reporting point

 Name of the next succeeding reporting point

 Any Pertinent Remarks


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ADDITIONAL REPORTS

The following reports should be made to ATC or FSS facilities


without a specific ATC request at all times;

 When evacuating any previously assigned altitude or flight


level for a newly assigned altitude or flight level

 When an altitude change will be made if operating on a


clearance specifying VFR-on-top

 When unable to climb / descend at a rate of a least 500 feet


per minute.

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ADDITIONAL REPORTS

The following reports should be made to ATC or FSS facilities


without a specific ATC request at all times;

 Change in the average true airspeed (at cruising altitude)


when it varies by 5 percent or 10 knots (whichever is greater)
from that filed in the flight plan. 5% of 200 TAS is 10 knots

 The time and altitude or flight level upon reaching a holding


fix or point to which cleared

 When leaving any assigned holding fix or point.

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ADDITIONAL REPORTS

The following reports should be made to ATC or FSS facilities


without a specific ATC request at all times;

 Any loss, in controlled airspace, of VOR, TACAN, ADF, low


frequency navigation receiver capability, GPS anomalies
while using installed IFR-certified GPS/GNSS receivers,
complete or partial loss of ILS receiver capability or
impairment of air/ground communications capability.

 Reports should include aircraft identification, equipment


affected, degree to which the capability to operate under
IFR in the ATC system is impaired, and the nature and extent
of assistance desired from ATC.

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ADDITIONAL REPORTS

The following reports should be made to ATC or FSS facilities


without a specific ATC request at all times;

 Any information relating to the safety of flight

 Pilots encountering weather conditions which have not been


forecast, or hazardous conditions which have been forecast,
are expected to forward a report of such weather to ATC.

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ADDITIONAL REPORTS when not in radar contact

 When leaving final approach fix inbound on final approach


(non-precision approach) or when leaving the outer marker
or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound on final
approach (precision approach)

 A corrected estimate at anytime it becomes apparent that


an estimate as previously submitted is in error in excess of 3
minutes.

• For flights in the North Atlantic (NAT), a revised estimate is


required if error is 3 minutes or more.

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IFR FLIGHT LOG

 Possibility of losing ATC radar does exist. Therefore, pilot must


be ready at all times to start giving position reports

 This is why it is so important to have an IFR flight log and keep


track of groundspeed, fuel burn etc…

 Also you should have an E6B, even when flying IFR; and
always have enroute chart out, folded to the area you are
currently in.

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Thank you for your attention!

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