CIVILIZATIONS OF THE WORLD

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CIVILIZATION:
‡ Civilization means process of becoming civil. ‡ "Civilization" is often used as a synonym for the broader term "culture . ‡ it is a descriptive term for a ‡ complex agricultural and ‡ urban culture. ‡ its distinguished from other cultures by their ‡ high level of social complexity , ‡ organization, ‡ diverse economic and cultural activities.

‡ Civilization is a network of cities emerged from pre-urban culture ‡ It is the economic,political,cultural interactions among people. ‡ Any organization is complex social system and civilization is a large organization.

CRITISM:
‡ ENVIRONMENTALISTS: criticize civilization is exploitation of the environment ‡ KARL MARX: beginning of civilization is the beginning of oppression and exploitation. ‡ RICHARD HEINBERG: civilization destroys natural settings, habitats, and depletes resources, also called dominator culture.

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS:
‡ Ancient Rome grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea, it became one of the largest empires in the ancient world. ‡ Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with ancient Greece.

ROMANS:
‡ GOVERNMENT: Romans choosed as one man for their leader of the country. ‡ AGRICULTURE: All farmers grew wheat in their fields. ‡ ARCHITECTURE: poor Romans had simple house but rich had well decorated ones. ‡ RELIGILON: they believed in many gods n goddesses n built many temples.

ANCIENT GREECE:
Ancient Greece is the civilization belonging to the period of Greek history lasting from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC. ‡ It is considered to be a seminal culture n provided foundation of western civilization.

GREEKS:
‡ DEMOCRACY: upper, middle and lower. ‡ AGRICULTURE: they lived near sea and ate many foods. ‡ RELIGION: they were polytheistic people ‡ ARCHITECTURE: all houses were of mud, walls were made from stones, tiles n pebbles. ‡ HISTORY: archaic,classical,helleinsteic,christianization.

CHINESE CIVILIZATION:
‡ Chinese civilization originated along the Yellow River and the Yangtze River ‡ The history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty. ‡ The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy, developed during the Zhou Dynasty

ANCIENT ERA:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Neolithic: XIA: SHANG: ZHOU:

ANCIENT JAPAN:
‡ The history of Japan comprises the history of the islands of Japan . ‡ there is evidence that suggests people were living on the islands of Japan since the upper paleolithic period. ‡ The earliest-known pottery belongs to the J mon period.

ANCIENT ERA:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ KOFUN ASUKA NARA HEIN

RUSSIAN CIVILIZATION:
‡ The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988.

ANCIENT ERA:
‡ EARLY EAST SLAVS: ‡ KEIVEN RUS: ‡ MONGOL INVASION:

MAYA CIVILIZATION:
‡ It is a meso American civilization, established during pre classic period. ‡ The Classic period (c. 250 900 AD) witnessed the peak of large-scale construction and urbanism. ‡ They developed an agriculturally intensive, city-centered empire consisting of numerous independent city-states.

THE MAYA COLLAPSE:
‡ It was declined in 8th n 9th centuries. ‡ The reasons are : overpopulation, foreign invasion, collapse of key trade routes, environmental disaster, epidemic disease, and climate change. ‡ Some scholars believed that 200 year drought led to the collapse of Maya civilization.

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION:
‡ The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (2600-1900 BC). ‡ It was centred mostly in the western part[1] of the Indian Subcontinent, flourished around the indus river basins ‡ It is also called harappan Civilization.

HARAPPA AND MOHEN-JO DARO:
‡ The civilization of the Indus River at MohenjoDaro and Harappa arose at about 2500 -1500 ‡ The cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were built of fire-baked bricks. ‡ The people had much knowledge about trade,arts,culture,religion,science and language.

THE LOST CIVILIZATIONS:
‡ There were many civilizations of the world which are being lost and are found no more. ‡ The reason of it is unknown till today as there is no evidence of how they were lost ‡ There are some of those civilizations: 1. ATLANTIS 2. MAYA 3. ANGOR WAT

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CLOVIS PEOPLE THE CHACHA POYA THE GONER THE MINOAN CULTURE HARAPPAN MEGALITH BUILDERS ROME

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