You are on page 1of 19

INTRODUCTION TO

THE PHILOSOPHY OF
THE HUMAN PERSON
John Wayne V. Jacinto
Freedom of the Human
Person
 Realize that “all actions have
consequences.”
 Evaluate and exercising prudence in
choices.
 Rationalize that:
 a. Choices have consequences;
 b. Some things are given up while
others are obtained in making choices.
 4. Show situations that demonstrate
freedom of choice and the
consequences of their choices.
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Aristotle: intellect is meaningless
apart from will.
 Reason can legislate, but only
through will can its legislation be
translated into action.
 Free = instrument of free choice.
 Reason – Will - Action
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Aristotle:
 Democratic freedom –
 Personal – to live as one wishes
 Political – to rule and be ruled in
turn.
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Jean-Paul Sartre
 He build an existentialist
philosophy, where man loneliness
and responsibility is absolute.
Despite this fragile condition, man
has to invent his way to define who
he is.
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Human creation is, indeed, free. Sartre, I exist
and I am free, two proposals are rigorously
synonymous and equivalent.
 Exist is to be there, and in an absurd universe
and contingent, build and put his stamp on
things.
 There is no human essence fixed and
predetermined essence that precede
existence.
 The man appeared in the world and there
drew his face
 Human freedom means, in Sartre, the
opportunity given to us to remotely at any
moment, the infinite chain of causes.
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Thomas Hobbes – Theory of
Social Contract
 Jean-Jacques Rousseau - The
Social Contract
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Thomas Hobbes – Theory of Social
Contract
 According to Hobbes social contract
theory, the ruler powers are absolute
because these are inalienable and
indivisible. Besides the laws of the
sovereign are commands. The ruler is
the sole judge of what is right and
what is wrong. The people have only
one right and this is to obey him.
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Thomas Hobbes theory of social contract
begins the state of nature. According to
him it was pre-social. He explains the
state of nature by analyzing human
nature. According to him man by nature is
selfish, egoistic and self-seeking.
` Realize that All Actions
Have Consequences
 Whatever man does, it is only for the
satisfaction of his desires. On many
occasions man does not even hesitate in
harming others for his own gains. So in
the state of nature there was a
competition. Man did not trust others. This
distrust gave rise to hatred, which led to
war. So in the state of nature there was a
war of all against one and one against all.
`
Intersubjectivity
` INTERSUBJECTIVITY REQUIRES
ACCEPTING DIFFERENCES AND NOT
TO IMPOSE ON OTHERS

 For WOJTYLA: the social dimension is


represented by ‘WE RELATON’ and for
BUBER, the intrpersonal is signified by
‘I-YOU RELATIONSHIP’.
` INTERSUBJECTIVITY REQUIRES
ACCEPTING DIFFERENCES AND NOT
TO IMPOSE ON OTHERS

Saint Pope JOHN PAUL II OR


KAROL WOJTYLA WAS BORN IN
Wadowice, Poland. Elected to the papacy
on october 16, 1978(264th) and was
considered a great pope(88%) during his
lifetime.
In his encyclical letter, fides et ratio, he
criticized the definition of human as
“rational animal”. He maintains that the
human person is the one who exists and
acts(conscious acting,has a will, has self
determination)
` INTERSUBJECTIVITY REQUIRES
ACCEPTING DIFFERENCES AND NOT
TO IMPOSE ON OTHERS

for WOJTYLA action reveals the


nature of the human agent. Participation
explains the essence of the human
person. Through participation the person
is able to fulfill one’s self. The human
person is oriented toward relation and
sharing in the communal life for the
common good. As St. Augustine of Hippo
said “ no human being should become
and end to him/herself. We are
responsible to our neighbors as we are to
our own actions.
` INTERSUBJECTIVITY REQUIRES
ACCEPTING DIFFERENCES AND NOT
TO IMPOSE ON OTHERS

 MARIN BUBER is a Jewish


existentialist philosopher, was born in
Vienna and was brought up in Jewish
tradition. In his work “I and Thou” he
conceives the human person in his/her
wholeness, totally concrete existence
and relatedness to the world.
` Intersubjectivity requires
accepting differences and not
to impose on others

 We participate in the communal life


(WE). OUR NOTION of the neighbor and
fellow member is by participating in the
humaness of the other person(I – YOU).
The neighbor takes into account
humaness.
 Buber’s I – thou philosophy is about
the human person as a subject ,who is
a being different from things or from
subjects.
` Intersubjectivity requires
accepting differences and not
to impose on others

 The human person experiences his


wholeness not in virtue of his relation
to one’s self but in virtue of his relation
to another self. The human person
establishes the world mutual relation,
of experience.
` Intersubjectivity

 Scan your experiences and identity 5


situations that require intersubjectivity.
Why?
 Compare the different forms of society
as to their development and problems
faced by people.
 If you are given a chance, how would
you solve problems in society?
` The Human Person in
Society
 Compare the different forms of society
as to their development and problems
faced by people.
 If you are given a chance, how would
you solve problems in society?