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NUTRIENTS:

IMPORTANCE AND
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS
C

OF DEFICIENCY
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IMPORTANCE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
OF DEFICIENCY
A. MACRONUTRIENTS
PROTEINS • Needed for growth, building, • Ridges or white lines in both
and repair of body tissues. finger and toe nails; hair loss
• Enough protein is essential to and thinning or brittle hair;
maintain muscle mass and muscle deterioration.
strength, but eating more
protein does not yield bigger
muscle.
CARBOHYDRATES • Main source of energy • Irritability, nausea, bad breath,
• Maintains blood glucose level muscle crumps, excess fatigue,
during exercise and replaces increase in body fat, deficit in
glycogen stores after exercise. body, sodium and water,
constipation, regular
headaches.
FATS • Needed for immune system • Dry skin, hair loss, body weight
function and helps the body deficiency, cold intolerance,
store and use vitamins. bruising, slow growth, poor
• Stored fat provides enough infection resistance and slow
energy for long endurance wound healing, loss of
events. menstruation.
WATER • Needed for waste removal, • Dehydration, muscle cramps,
regulates body temperature, confusion, nausea, slurred speech,
cushions the spinal cord and and disorientation.
joints.

B. MACRONUTRIENTS
Vitamins • Help the body use
carbohydrates, proteins, fats.

• Maintains healthy skin, bones, • Anemia, painful joints, cracks in


Vitamin A
teeth, and hair; ads vision. teeth, depression, frequent
infections.
VITAMIN B (thiamin, • Important in the production of • Anemia, depression, convulsions, skin
riboflavin, and niacin) energy from carbohydrates and rashes.
fats.

• Needed to break down • Anemia, nervous system


VITAMIN B6 glycogen to release glucose degeneration, progressing to
and make hemoglobin that paralysis and hypersensitivity.
carries oxygen in the blood.
VITAMIN B12 • Aids in maintenance of red • Red blood cell breakage, anemia,
blood cells. muscle degeneration, difficulty
walking, leg cramps.
VITAMIN E and C • Aid in bone, teeth, and skin formation • Anemia, frequent infections,
and resistance to infection. bleeding gums, loosened teeth,
• Help protect the body from oxidative muscle degeneration and pain, joint
damage. pain, blotchy bruises, failure of
wounds to heal.
FOLATE • Aids in the formation of red blood • Anemia, heartburn, frequent
cells and protein. infections, smooth red tongue,
depression, and mental confusion.
MINERALS • Help in regulating the chemical • Sports anemia- a condition where
reactions in the body. temporary decrease in hemoglobin
concentration occurs during exercise
• Helps in energy metabolism; training
IRON
important in transporting oxygen
through the bloodstream; prevents
anemia. • Anemia, weakness, fatigue, pale
• Important during exercise for the appearance, reduced attention
formation of hemoglobin and span, developmental delays in
myoglobin, other iron-containing children.
proteins that are essential for energy
production.
CALCIUM • Helps build and maintain bones and • Stunted growth
teeth; nerve and muscle function
and blood clotting.
• Needed to maintain blood calcium
levels and promote bone density,
consequently reducing the risk of
ZINC • Helps carry out body • Growth failure, delayed sexual
processes; plays a role in maturation, slow wound
immune function, protein healing.
synthesis, and wound healing.