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# Session 3:

## “The Four Qs”

Considerations in Choosing Appropriate Statistical Analysis Tool
FOUR QUESTIONS WHEN CHOOSING
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS TOOL
There are 4 questions you must answer to choose an
appropriate statistical analysis.
 1. What are your Research Question?
 2. What is the scale of measurement of the variables
used to answer the research question?
 3. What is the Design? (between subjects, within
subjects, etc.)
 4. Are there any data issues? (missing, censored,
truncated, etc.)
GOAL/ OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

## 1. Describe one group

2. Compare one group to a hypothetical value
3. Compare two groups
4. Compare more than two groups
5. Measure correlation/ association
6. Predict value from another variable
Examples:

##  Determine the effect of manipulative materials in the performance of

Grade 3 pupils in Mathematics. (Compare two groups)
 Describe the reading levels of the Grade 4 pupils using the Phil-IRI oral
 Determine the association between reading comprehension levels and
problem-solving skills of Grade 6 pupils. (Measure correlation/association)
WORKSHOP 1: What is your research
objective/question?

Example topics:
 Determine the effect of manipulative materials in the
performance of Grade 3 pupils in Mathematics. (Compare two
groups)
 Describe the reading levels of the Grade 4 pupils using the Phil-IRI
oral reading test. (Describe one group)
 Determine the association between reading comprehension
levels and problem-solving skills of Grade 6 pupils. (Measure
correlation/association)
RESEARCH TITLE FORMULATION: REVIEW
1. Think of a particular topic in the teaching-learning
that you want to work with.
2. Write your research title. IT SHALL CONTAIN THE
FOLLOWING ELEMENTS:
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (CAUSE)
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (EFFECT)
PARTICIPANTS/RESPONDENTS (SUBJECT)
PLACE (LOCALE)
Example:

Communication Exploratory Studio): Its
Impact to the Radio Operation and
Communication Skills of Grade 10 Special
Science Curriculum (SSC) Students”
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

(present tense)

## Ex. “This classroom-based action research

attempts to determine the impact of Home
3. Compare (the difference before and after the implementation) or
Correlation between the variables
 Example Questions : Comparing Two Groups
 Title: “Home Study Workbook: An Intervention Material during
Flashflood Season”
Specifically, it will seek answer to the following questions:
be described prior to the implementation of the study?
 2. What are the learning competencies to be incorporated in
the Home Study Workbook?
 3. How may the academic achievement of the control and
the experimental group of Grade 10 students in Science be
evaluated after the utilization of the said intervention
material?
 4. Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and
post test scores of the control and the experimental group of
students before and after the implementation of the study?
WORKSHOP 1: RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Identify your research title. It shall contain
the following elements
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (CAUSE)
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (EFFECT)
PARTICIPANTS/RESPONDENTS (SUBJECT)
PLACE (LOCALE)

Presentation of
Output:
Workshop 1
(Research
Questions)
VARIABLE TYPE
VARIABLE TYPE
Quantitative or Qualitative?

QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
DATA DATA

## - measures of values or - measures of ‘types’ and

counts and are expressed may be represented by a
as numbers name, symbol, or a
- data about numeric number code
variables (e.g. how many; - data about categorical
how much; how often) variables (e.g. what type)
Examples

##  Test scores -quantitative

 Gender - qualitative
 Age - quantitative
 Nutritional status – quantitative (BMI), qualitative (wasted, severely wasted,
etc.)
 Reading level – quantitative (scores), qualitative (frustration, instructional,
independent)
Let’s identify the variables in your research
study!
1. Review the elements of your research title.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (CAUSE)
DEPENDENT VARIABLE (EFFECT)
PARTICIPANTS/RESPONDENTS (SUBJECT)
PLACE (LOCALE)

##  Title: “Home Study Workbook: An Intervention Material during

Flashflood Season”

##  2. Identify the independent variable/s. (Is it quantitative or qualitative?)

 3. Identify the dependent variable/s. (Is it quantitative or qualitative?)
Title: “Home Study Workbook: An
Intervention Material during Flashflood
Season”
Independent Variable:
Home Study Workbook(intervention)
Dependent Variable:
students
Workshop 2: VARIABLE TYPE
2. Identify the independent variable,
determine if it is qualitative or quantitative
3. Identify the dependent variable,
determine if it is qualitative or quantitative
Presentation of
Output:
Workshop 2
(VARIABLE TYPE)
LEVEL OF
MEASUREMENT
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
RATIO
INTERVAL
ORDINAL Ratios
Variables are between
still classified
measurements
NOMINAL into ordered
as well as
Variables are still categories, but
classified into there is an intervals are
categories, but equivalent meaningful
Variables these categories
distance because there
are ordered, and
are between these is a starting
there is no
organized equivalent categories. point
into non- distance There is an (absolute
numerical between
categories.
arbitrary zero zero).
categories. point.
Examples

##  scores in a Math test - ratio

 NAT MPS - ratio
 religious preference - nominal
 Gender - nominal
 educational attainment - ordinal
 monthly income - ratio
 shoe size (size 3, size 4, size 5, size 6) - interval
 Level of agreement (likert) – ordinal/ quasi-interval
Let’s identify what should be measured
Title:“Home Study Workbook: An Intervention Material during Flashflood Season”
Research Questions:
 1. How may the academic achievement of Grade 10 students be described prior to the
implementation of the study? – academic achievement, pretest scores-ratio
 2. What are the learning competencies to be incorporated in the Home Study Workbook?
 3. How may the academic achievement of the control and the experimental group of Grade 10
students in Science be evaluated after the utilization of the said intervention material?
- academic achievement, posttest scores of two groups-ratio
 4. Is there a significant difference between the pre-test and post test scores of the control and
the experimental group of students before and after the implementation of the study?
Workshop 3: MEASUREMENT

1.Research Title
2.Reseach Questions
3.Data/ Variables need to
measure, Level of Measurement
of each data
Presentation of
Output:
Workshop 3
(MEASUREMENT)
RESEARCH DESIGN
WHAT IS THE DESIGN?

## Related or Independent samples

- independent- probability of selection of samples in one group is not
affected by the selection in the other group
- Related- sample in one group is dependent/ affected by the other
group (paired, matched)

##  One-group pretest-posttest design – PAIRED/DEPENDENT

 Two-group (control-experimental) – UNPAIRED/ INDEPENDENT
WORKSHOP:

##  Determine the following:

a. Research objective and type
b. Variables, variable type and level of measurement
c. Related or independent samples
1. Three new methods of teaching spelling are
being contrasted with a conventional method by
only one instructor. Four groups of fifteen pupils,
randomly drawn from a large number of potential
subjects, have been equated with respect to pre-
experiment spelling scores, intelligence test scores,
and previous scholastic performance in school.
The researcher wished to determine significant
differences in the scores of the four groups (three
experimental, one control) on a post-experiment
spelling test.
2. A high school guidance counselor
wants to determine the association
between number of extracurricular
activities participated in by students and
their scholastic achievement. This
counselor tallied the number of activities
each student participated in and then
3. Consider the case of an educational investigator who wished to test whether
there are any significant differences between the achievement scores of three
samples of students taught by three rather distinctive varieties of lecture
instruction. The first lecture approach features a multitude of rhetorical but
content of the lecture. The second lecture approach embodies many rhetorical
questions, which the lecturer himself quickly answers. The final lecture technique
has few, if any, rhetorical questions.
The investigator also wishes to see if the student’s level of intelligence
interacts in any significant fashion with the performance under the three varieties
of lecture techniques. He gathers post-test achievement scores for three sets of
subjects who have been exposed to the different lecture methods. Intelligence
test data are also secured for each subject so that the total sample of 300
students (100 taught by each method) can be classified as "above average
intelligence," "average intelligence," or "below average intelligence."
4. A high school counselor is faced with the task of setting up a systematic procedure
for predicting the likely success of his school’s seniors at a nearby private university. In
previous years, students with a grade point average lower than B+, regardless of
intelligence or any other factors, have been advised not to enroll in the University on
the grounds that they would probably fail to maintain university grade standards. Both
the admission officials at the University and the administrators at the school have
requested that the counseling office develop a more precise scheme for predicting
potential University success. Certain of the high school’s graduates, each with C
averages throughout high school, have entered the University (against advisement)
and maintained excellent scholastic records.
The counselor is given complete access to records at the University, as well as the
high school, for all the students who were graduated from the high school and entered
the University. Records were quite complete for the past twelve years. Included in the
University records were college grades and entrance examination scores. The high-
school records have high-school grades, scores on a standardized intelligence test
administered during the ninth grade, and certain personal data such as sex, church
affiliation, etc.
5. A pilot experiment, designed to test the effectiveness of a new
approach to spelling proficiency, has been conducted over a
semester-long period in a junior high school. Two different classes of 29
seventh grade pupils participated in the study. Students in Group X
received their formal spelling instruction from Mr. Jordan, an
experienced teacher. Mr. Jordan employed conventional methods of
spelling instruction such as are commonly used in upper elementary
grades. While he met with Group X five times each week for a period
of one hour, only one hour per week was devoted to spelling
instruction. Group Y also met with Mr. Jordan daily, but while they
devoted an hour per week to spelling instruction, all formal spelling
teaching was carried out through the use of newly developed
programmed spelling lessons that were presented to the student
through the use of self-instruction "teaching machines." Since all of the
students involved in the pilot study had been pre-selected for purposes
of the research, subjects in the two groups had been matched in pairs
with respect to intellectual ability and pre-experimental performance
on an orally administered spelling quiz of 150 words. At the conclusion
of the semester’s experiment, the spelling quiz was readministered to
both groups.
#1
a. Research objective and type
Determine significant differences in the scores of the four groups (conventional
and three new methods) – COMPARE MORE THAN TWO GROUPS
b. Variables, variable type and level of measurement
SPELLING ACHIEVEMENT (Scores) – Quantitative, Ratio level
c. Related or independent samples
 Four groups of fifteen pupils, randomly drawn from a large number of
potential subjects have been equated with respect to pre-experiment
spelling scores, intelligence test scores, and previous scholastic
performance in school. – RELATED (PAIRED/MATCHED)

#2
a. Research objective and type
Determine the association between number of extracurricular activities
participated in by students and their scholastic achievement – MEASURE
CORRELATION/ASSOCIATION
b. Variables, variable type and level of measurement
number of extracurricular activities – QUANTITATIVE, RATIO LEVEL
scholastic achievement (GPA) – QUANTITATIVE, RATIO LEVEL
c. Related or independent samples
#3
a. Research objective and type
Determine whether there are any significant differences between the
achievement scores of three samples of students taught by three varieties of
lecture instruction. - COMPARE MORE THAN TWO GROUPS
Determine if the student’s level of intelligence interacts in any significant
fashion with the performance under the three varieties of lecture techniques. –
MEASURE CORRELATION/ASSOCIATION
b. Variables, variable type and level of measurement
Student’s achievement (achievement scores – posttest) – QUANTITATIVE,
RATIO LEVEL
Level of Intelligence (above average, average, below average) –
QUALITATIVE - Ordinal
c. Related or independent samples
300 students (100 taught by each method) – independent samples

#4
a. Research objective and type
Predict the likely success of the school’s seniors at a nearby private university. –
PREDICT VALUE FROM ANOTHER VARIABLE
b. Variables, variable type and level of measurement
college grades and entrance examination scores – QUANTITATIVE, RATIOO
LEVEL
during the ninth grade – QUANTITATIVE, RATIO LEVEL
personal data such as sex, church affiliation, etc – QUALITATIVE, NOMINAL
c. Related or independent samples