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Jets & Buckets for Pelton Wheels

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department

Means to Complete the Second Law of Power


Retrieval…….
Geometrical Relations for Nozzle

1.1dO – 1.3dO

2dO – 2.4dO
dO

0.8dO – 0.9dO
1.2dO – 1.4dO
5dO – 9dO
Numerical Computation of Total Pressure Variation
Acceptable Performance of Nozzle

V jet ,VC:actual  K v1 2 gH 0.98  Kv1  0.99


Jet carrying a discharge of Q to deliver a power P

P  turbineQgH
 2

Q  d jet ,VC K v1 2 gH
4

To generate a discharge of Q, we need a least jet diameter of

4Q
d jet ,VC 
 K v1 2 gH 
The Diameter of Jet before Reaching Bucket

Diameter of the Jet at the outlet, do

 2

Q  d o K vo 2 gH
4

0.81  KvO  0.83

It is important to find out the VC and outlet jet


diameters/areas
A Set of Relations

• A jet of finite velocity needs to have a relation with


peripheral velocity of wheel.
• A jet of finite area need to have a relation with dimensions
of bucket.
• A bucket of finite dimensions and shape should have a
relation with wheel.
Jet Vs Mean Diameter of Pelton Runner

Mean diameter or Pitch


circle diameter:
Dwheel

Circumferential velocity of
the wheel, Uwheel

U wheel  2 gH

U wheel  K uwheel 2 gH
Jet Power & Conditions for Maximum Power
  V jet  cos  i  U b  

P  m  U b  V jet  cos  i  U b  kb   cos180   e  
  cos   
  i  

   Ub  
   cos  i   
Ub    V jet  
 cos180   e  
Ub
P  m
   cos  i    kb 
V jet V jet  cos  i 
   
 
 
 
   
Ub
Define, Blade Speed Ratio as C b 
V jet

      
cos180   e  
cos C
P  m  Cb   cos  i   Cb  kb  i b

  cos  i  
  
P
0
Cb
Implication of Maximum Power Condition
U wheel
Cb, formax  power 
V jet
Dwheel N wheel
U wheel  K u wheel  max . power 2 gH 
60
60 K uwheel 2 gH P  turbineQgH
N wheel 
Dwheel
P

Ns 
N wheel  

 2

Q  d jet ,VC K v1 2 gH
4

4
gH 5

P  gH

4

d 2jet ,VC K v1 
2 gH  turbine

 60 K uwheel 2 gH 

  2

 turbinegH d jet ,VC K v1 2 gH 
   4 

  D wheel 
   
 
Ns 
4
gH 
5


 60 K uwheel 2 
   2 
Ns     2turbine d jet ,VC K v1 
 Dwheel 
   4 

 60 K uwheel  d jet ,VC


Ns    turbineK v1 
 2   Dwheel
4 5

2
C 
 Dwheel 
turbine  2  Ns  
2
 For maximum efficiency
K u  K v1 
 jet ,VC 
d 
wheel
Optimal values of Wheel diameter to jet diameter
30

25

20

Dwheel 15
d jet

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Ns
Experimental values of Best values of Wheel diameter to jet
diameter

Dwheel /djet,VC 6.5 7.5 10 20

Ns (rpm) 35 32 24 10
turbine 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.90

N P
Ns  5 P in hp, H in meters and N in rpm
4
H

Essential to have a minimum of 10 for acceptable


turbine efficiency.
Extreme Engineering Conditions

The highest ratio used in the world is 110 (Kt. Glauraus Power
House in Switzerland).

Specifications of this Pelton wheel are:

Power 3000HP (2.24MW) Speed: 500 rpm


Dwheel= 5.36m djet,VC=48.77mm
Head =1,650 m

P
N wheel
 500  3000
Ns    2.6
4
gH 5 4
1650 5
The Second Relation : Jet Vs Bucket
External stroboscopic
flow visualization
Runner with Advanced Buckets
Bucket Displacement Diagram
• A notch made near the edge of the outer rim of each bucket is
carefully sharpened to ensure a loss-free entry of the jet into the
buckets,
• i.e., the path of the jet is not obstructed by the incoming buckets.
BUCKET GEOMETRIC DEFINITIONS
Geometric Details of Bucket

The hydraulic efficiency


depends more on the main
bucket dimensions (length (A),
width (B) and depth (C)).
The shape of the outer part of
its rim or on the lateral surface
curvature also has marginal
effect on hydraulic efficiency.