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AGENDA

1. Apa itu IFRS?
2. Beberapa Standar dalam IFRS
3. Beberapa Perbandingan IFRS dengan GAAP
4. Beberapa Perbandingan IFRS dengan PSAK
5. Penerapan IFRS

IFRS
(International Financial Reporting Standard)

Executive Course Leader
Adela SE.,Ak.,MM.,CA.,CAP

Apa itu IFRS? .

transfer pricing  Pasar Modal Global – lintas batas perdagangan saham . dan dilaporkan  Lingkungan bisnis global – management accounting. Sejarah Perkembangan  Abad pertengahan – pertumbuhan perdagangan Internasional di Italy Utara  Perkembangan Kerajaan Inggris – pengawasan perusahaan di koloni  Perkembangan Asosiasi Akuntansi . pajak. direview.1850an  Berdirinya Asosiasi Akuntan Publik di Inggris dan Skotlandia – 1870an  Interaksi antara Auditor dan Akuntan – prosedur dan teknik akuntansi untuk laporan yang akurat dan dapat dipahami.

FAKTOR LAIN YANG MEMPENGARUHI  Sumber-sumber finansial yang tersedia  Sistem Hukum yang berbeda  Peraturan Perpajakan  Politik dan Perekonomian negara  Inflasi  Tingkat Perkembangan Ekonomi  Tingkat Pendidikan  Budaya .

 Tahun 1973 terbentuk International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC)  Produk yang dihasilkan adalah International Accounting Standard (IAS)  Tahun 2001 IASC direstrukturisasi menjadi International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)  IAS digantikan dengan International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) .

g.g. Geographic e. Financial Instruments BALANCE SHEET FAIR VALUE FOCUS ACCOUNTING GREATER INCOME INCREASED STATEMENT DISCLOSURE VOLATILITY .Menuju Keseragaman GREATER COMPARABILITY TRANSPARENCY THE CURRENT PICTURE e.

part of United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Working Group on Accounting Standards (OECD Working Group) .Organisasi-organisasi yang terlibat dalam pembuatan standard  International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)  Commission of the European Union (EU)  International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO)  International Federation of Accountants (IFAC)  United Nations Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting (ISAR).

Structure International Accounting Standards Committee Foundation (19 Trustees : 6 North America. 6 Europe. 3 others) Standards Advisory Council International National standard Accounting setters and other Standards Board interested parties (14 Board Members) (“IASB”) Advisory Committees International Financial Key Reporting Interpretations Committee (12 Members) Appoints (“IFRIC”) Report to Membership links . 4 Asia/Pacific.

Diagram of the Current IASB Structure .

IASB International Accounting Standards Board  IASB http://www.org/  Membentuk International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)  Menggantikan IASC  Tujuan  Mengembangkan suatu perangkat standar yang dapat dimengerti dan diperbandingkan  Mempromosikan penggunaan standar tersebut  Mencapai titik temu antara standar akuntansi nasional dengan standar akuntansi internasional .iasb.

Kerangka Akuntansi 1. IFRS berarti :  IFRS  IFRIC Interpretation  IAS  SIC Interpretation .

aktiva tetap. dan investasi property untuk nilai wajarnya  IFRS menghendaki beberapa kategori dari instrumen keuangan dan biological asset dinilai dengan nilai wajar  Semua aktiva yang tidak disusutkan. Historical Cost  Merupakan konvensi accounting yang utama  IFRS membolehkan revaluasi terhadap aktiva tak berwujud.2. harus dinilai untuk menentukan kewajarannya .

Reliability (penyajian yang jujur.Comparability . hati-hati. 3. Konsep  Accrual Basis  Going concern (setidaknya setahun ke depan)  Qualitatif Characteristics : . netral.Understandability . dalam formulir. dan lengkap) .Relevance (terkait dengan sifat dan materialitas informasi) .

Materiality  Suatu informasi dikatakan material jika hilangnya atau kesalahannya dapat mempengaruhi keputusan yang diambil  Materiality tergantung pada ukuran hilangnya atau salahnya pertimbangan dalam situasi tertentu .4.

Complexities of multi-national  Imagine you are a bank in Europe (European Union)  You operate in 27 different countries  You have to use 27 different sets of reporting standards  You have to comply with 27 different regulators filing requirements  Imagine you are a small country (like New Zealand)  Maintain accounting standards for reporting by public companies  Expensive to maintain quality accounting standards  Imagine you are a company required to report in the US. Europe and Asia  Do you really want to have to deal with multiple sets of accounting standards?  Imagine you are a foreign company but you want access to the US capital markets  How do investors compare a US company with a non-US company using different reporting standards? .

Manfaat  Keuntungan adanya satu set standar akuntansi global .Perbandingan secara global dan transparansi .Mudah dan murah untuk : * Merger dan akuisisi * Mencari sumber dana internasional * Komunikasi antar perusahaan * Penyiapan laporan keuangan .

Kerugian Bila Tidak Ada Standar Akuntansi Internasional  Masing-masing negara mempunyai Standar akuntansi sendiri- sendiri dan format laporan yang berbeda  Banyaknya alasan-alasan yang mendasar atas perbedaan yang terjadi  Implikasi terhadap perbedaan praktek akuntansi :  Perbedaan istilah dan pelaporan  Perbedaan dalam jumlah dan bentuk pengungkapan (khususnya untuk lingkungan dan sosial)  Kurang dapat diperbandingkan .

Dampak terhadap Perkembangan Internasional  Perdagangan antar perusahaan antar negara  Menjual atau membeli perusahaan antara negara  Informasi bagi para investor  Keseragam pelaporan dalam grup  Proses pembentuk standar global .

Implikasi terhadap Pasar Modal  Akses yang lebih efisien terhadap modal bagi perusahaan multinasional  Meningkatkan daya perbandingan perusahaan antar negara dalam industri sejenis  Mengurangi cost of compliance  Meningkatkan transparansi bagi perusahaan- perusahaan non-US  Mempermudah aktivitas merger dan akuisi .

Impact of IFRS on businesses The adoption of IFRS affects all facets of a business  Stakeholder management  Performance management  Acquisition and divestment  People and systems  Bonuses and remuneration programs  Adequate and sufficient resources  Changes to information systems .

S. where?  Major GAAPs  Japanese  U.S.  International (IFRS)  Which GAAP used depends on where you are  Home country  Foreign country  Generally IFRS  U.  2009 expected to allow IFRS .What GAAPs are used.

revaluations of PP&E. rules  Both frameworks built under principles-based methodology  However.Key differences IFRS and US GAAP  Principles vs.g. investment property and intangibles) .. US GAAP is more prescriptive and rules-based addressing specific industries and types of transactions in many areas  Fair value accounting  Greater use of FV under IFRS than US GAAP (e.

Many countries are adopting IFRS as National GAAP  The adoption of IFRS in the EU in 2005 affected more than 8. South Africa.000 companies and was key to accelerating the transition to IFRS across the world  Nearly 100 countries around the world require or permit the use of IFRS since January 2005  Mandatory for all listed companies in the EU  Permitted for non-listed companies in some member states  Commonly used in Central and Eastern Europe. Singapore and New Zealand China. Canada and Korea recently announced convergence programs . and in Russia  Many countries have converged their local standards to IFRS. including Australia.

1606/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council (the “EU Regulation”).  All listed companies incorporated in the EU are required to apply IFRS in their consolidated financial statements for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.  ‘Listed’ means any companies that. EU Factor  EU  Outlined in Regulation (EC) No.  ‘Securities’ means debt as well as equity. . at the balance sheet date. have securities admitted to trading on a regulated market of any EU member state.

Use of IFRS is Increasing  What reason is there for needing 50 different sets of financial reporting standards?  Expensive to create and maintain quality standards  Hard to compare businesses reporting using different standards  Trend is to move toward 2 sets  IFRS  US GAAP  Or maybe one  US GAAP/IFRS convergence project (FASB/IASB)  Call for “principles based reporting” in US (which is more rules based)  High probability of US GAAP and IFRS being “parallel”  Maybe US GAAP will fade away .

XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language is feeding on IFRS’s momentum . Australia.Use of IFRS is Increasing  The European Union requires that all listed/public companies report using IFRS in 2007  New Zealand. other countries dropping their reporting standards and moving to IFRS for listed companies and SMEs  Canada will move to IFRS in 2009 (uses US GAAP now)  China is moving toward IFRS  US GAAP/IFRS convergence project  US SEC will accept IFRS filings beginning in 2007 (still need to reconcile to US GAAP)  IFRS is feeding on XBRL’s momentum.

people .system .regulation .Hambatan Lain  Government .institution  Business practice .