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‡ The DAGMAR came from the abbreviation of the
theme ± |efining dvertising oals for easuring
dvertising esults . It was put forward by Russell H
Colley. According to DAGMAR, advt. has to perform a
particular communication task & the task has to be
accomplished among a well defined audience within a
specified period of time.

‡ DAGMAR is a model of the purchase process


beginning at a point where the prospect does not
know that a particular brand exists in the market.
rom the point of non-awareness Russel H
Colley describes the prospects at moving
through the following steps:
1. Awareness
2. Brand Comprehension
3. Conviction
4. Action

Concepts of DAGMAR:
Ê  
 
 ÷: An advertising objective
involves a specific communication task. It is
recognized that advt is a mass paid communication
that is intended to create awareness, impart
information, develop attitude or induce action.
Ê  

÷: The second important
concept of the DAGMAR approach is that the
advt. goals should be specific. It consists of
1) Measurable Task: As far as possible the
advertising objectives should be quantitative to
facilitate its measurement.
2) Benchmark: Benchmark is a standard or a
point of reference which can be used to
determine the success or failure of an advt.
campaign.
3) Target Audience: It is very important to define
target audience in precise terms as target
segments differ significantly.
4) Time period: In setting advertising objectives
time period should be specified within which
objectives must be achieved. The time period
can range from a few days to a year or more.
5) Written Goals: In DAGMAR approach it is
expected that the goals must be in writing. Oral
goals are not entertained. Such written goals
are referred for future use.
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The Limitations of DAGMAR are as follows: -


‡ Sales Oriented Performance ± DAGMAR
approach is considered to be successful if the
sales increase & it is considered as a failure if
increase in sales is not achieved.
‡ Partial Assessment ± The DAGMAR approach
assesses the impact of ad campaign in a
quantitative term, it does not explain how to
improve qualitative representation.
‡ Unsuitable to Small Advertising ± Only large
advertisers with financial stability can allocate
funds to collect the information about response.
Small firms cannot afford to do it.
‡ Non ± Comprehensive Study ± It is not
necessary that a consumer will go through the
pre ± defined steps in the response hierarchy
model before deciding to buy, he may have
impulsive purchaser. DAGMAR does not
explain impulsive purchaser.
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‡ Introduction of a new product.
‡ Countering competition.
‡ Building a long term franchise for the firm.
‡ Retaining customers.
‡ Building up brand image.
‡ Expansion of the market for existing products.
‡ Closing an immediate sales.
‡ Supporting and supplementing the dealers
selling efforts.
‡ Stimulate impulse buying.
‡ Supporting other sales promotion activities.