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÷ |   
‡ The DAGMAR came from the abbreviation of the
theme ± |efining dvertising oals for easuring
dvertising esults . It was put forward by Russell H
Colley. According to DAGMAR, advt. has to perform a
particular communication task & the task has to be
accomplished among a well defined audience within a
specified period of time.

‡ DAGMAR is a model of the purchase process

beginning at a point where the prospect does not
know that a particular brand exists in the market.
rom the point of non-awareness Russel H
Colley describes the prospects at moving
through the following steps:
1. Awareness
2. Brand Comprehension
3. Conviction
4. Action

Concepts of DAGMAR:
 ÷: An advertising objective
involves a specific communication task. It is
recognized that advt is a mass paid communication
that is intended to create awareness, impart
information, develop attitude or induce action.

÷: The second important
concept of the DAGMAR approach is that the
advt. goals should be specific. It consists of
1) Measurable Task: As far as possible the
advertising objectives should be quantitative to
facilitate its measurement.
2) Benchmark: Benchmark is a standard or a
point of reference which can be used to
determine the success or failure of an advt.
3) Target Audience: It is very important to define
target audience in precise terms as target
segments differ significantly.
4) Time period: In setting advertising objectives
time period should be specified within which
objectives must be achieved. The time period
can range from a few days to a year or more.
5) Written Goals: In DAGMAR approach it is
expected that the goals must be in writing. Oral
goals are not entertained. Such written goals
are referred for future use.

The Limitations of DAGMAR are as follows: -

‡ Sales Oriented Performance ± DAGMAR
approach is considered to be successful if the
sales increase & it is considered as a failure if
increase in sales is not achieved.
‡ Partial Assessment ± The DAGMAR approach
assesses the impact of ad campaign in a
quantitative term, it does not explain how to
improve qualitative representation.
‡ Unsuitable to Small Advertising ± Only large
advertisers with financial stability can allocate
funds to collect the information about response.
Small firms cannot afford to do it.
‡ Non ± Comprehensive Study ± It is not
necessary that a consumer will go through the
pre ± defined steps in the response hierarchy
model before deciding to buy, he may have
impulsive purchaser. DAGMAR does not
explain impulsive purchaser.

‡ Introduction of a new product.
‡ Countering competition.
‡ Building a long term franchise for the firm.
‡ Retaining customers.
‡ Building up brand image.
‡ Expansion of the market for existing products.
‡ Closing an immediate sales.
‡ Supporting and supplementing the dealers
selling efforts.
‡ Stimulate impulse buying.
‡ Supporting other sales promotion activities.