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Physical Quantities GOOD LINK http://www.isd.mel.nist.gov/projects/omacapi/Software/MeasuresAndUnits/Measure sandUnitIntroduction.html
Physical Quantities
GOOD LINK
http://www.isd.mel.nist.gov/projects/omacapi/Software/MeasuresAndUnits/Measure
sandUnitIntroduction.html
Physical Quantities  Base quantities vs. Derived quantities SPPA 4030 Speech Science 2

Physical Quantities

  • Base quantities vs. Derived quantities

Base or Fundamental quantities  Quantities that must be measured  Base measures from which all

Base or Fundamental quantities

  • Quantities that must be measured

  • Base measures from which all others are derived

Selected Base Quantities 1. Distance or Length ( l ) 2. Mass ( m ) 3.

Selected Base Quantities

  • 1. Distance or Length (l)

  • 2. Mass (m)

  • 3. Time (t)

Systems of Measure English system: fps system F: foot P: pound S: second Metric system cgs

Systems of Measure

English system: fps system

F: foot P: pound

S: second

Metric system

cgs system c: centimeters

g: grams s: seconds

Metric system (System International) mks system m: meter k: kilogram s: second

What is the mass of speech structures? Vocal folds ~ 2 grams combined!! Lips ~ 25-50

What is the mass of speech structures?

What is the mass of speech structures? Vocal folds ~ 2 grams combined!! Lips ~ 25-50
What is the mass of speech structures? Vocal folds ~ 2 grams combined!! Lips ~ 25-50
What is the mass of speech structures? Vocal folds ~ 2 grams combined!! Lips ~ 25-50

Vocal folds ~ 2 grams combined!!

Lips ~ 25-50 grams each

Tongue ~ 150 grams

What are typical distances moved by speech structures? SPPA 4030 Speech Science 7

What are typical distances moved by speech structures?

What is the typical duration of speech events? SPPA 4030 Speech Science 8

What is the typical duration of speech events?

Scalar vs. Vector quantities Scalar quantities  Has only a magnitude Vector quantities  Includes more

Scalar vs. Vector quantities

Scalar quantities

  • Has only a magnitude

Vector quantities

  • Includes more than one piece of information

  • i.e. Magnitude AND direction

Area and Volume Area  2-dimensional  distance l Volume l  3-dimensional  distance l

Area and Volume

Area

  • 2-dimensional

  • distance 2

l

Area and Volume Area  2-dimensional  distance l Volume l  3-dimensional  distance l

Volume

l

  • 3-dimensional

  • distance 3

l

l
l

l

Jaw vertical position

Jaw vertical position Displacement  Displacement is a change in position  Is a vector quantity

Displacement

  • Displacement is a change in position

  • Is a vector quantity

    • Has a magnitude (basic quantity of length)

    • Has a direction

Jaw vertical position Displacement  Displacement is a change in position  Is a vector quantity

Time

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Velocity ( v )  Rate at which a quantity changes it’s value v = x

Velocity (v)

  • Rate at which a quantity changes it’s value

  • v = x/t

where

  • v = velocity

x = distance

t = time

  • May be expressed as

    • average velocity

    • instantaneous velocity

  • Velocity units

    • m/sec (SI)

    • cm/sec

    • miles/hour

  • Velocity vs. speed

  • Volume velocity or flow

  • JAW POSITION

    JAW VELOCITY

    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13

    Velocity (v)

    40

    0

    -40

    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    JAW POSITION JAW VELOCITY Velocity ( v ) 40 0 -40 SPPA 4030 Speech Science 13
    Acceleration ( a )  Rate of change in velocity  ‘speeding’ up or positive acceleration

    Acceleration (a)

    • Rate of change in velocity

      • ‘speeding’ up or positive acceleration

      • ‘slowing’ down or negative acceleration

    a = v/t

    where a = acceleration v = velocity t = time

    May be expressed as

    • average acceleration

    • instantaneous acceleration

    Acceleration units

    • m/sec 2 (SI)

    JAW VELOCITY

    JAW ACCELERATION

    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech
     

    JAW POSITION

     

    40

    40

    0

    -40

    1000

    0

    -1000

    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech
    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech
    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech
    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech
    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech
    JAW VELOCITY JAW ACCELERATION JAW POSITION 40 0 -40 1000 0 -1000 TIME SPPA 4030 Speech

    TIME

    Force ( F )  Is a push or a pull on an object F =

    Force (F)

    • Is a push or a pull on an object

    F = M*a

    where F = force M = mass a = acceleration

    Force ↑ (or ↓)

    • ↑ (or ↓) mass

    • ↑ (or ↓) acceleration

    Force units

    • Newton (SI)

    • dyne

    Pressure ( E or P )  Force distributed over an area E = F/A where

    Pressure (E or P)

    • Force distributed over an area

    E = F/A

    where E = pressure F = force A = area (x 2 )

    Pressure units

    • Pascal (SI)

    • dyne/cm 2

    Ways to increase Pressure = area = force 18

    Ways to increase Pressure

    Ways to increase Pressure = area = force 18
    Ways to increase Pressure = area = force 18
    = area = force

    = area

    = force

    18

    Work ( W ) Force applied over a given distance W = F*x where W =

    Work (W)

    Force applied over a given distance

    W = F*x

    where W = work F = force x = distance

    Work ↑ (or ↓)

    • ↑ (or ↓) force

    • ↑ (or ↓) distance

    Work units

    • Joule (SI)

    • Erg

    • Footpound

    Power ( P ) Power = rate at which work is done Power (P) P =

    Power (P)

    Power = rate at which work is done

    Power (P) P = W/t

    where P = Power W = work t = time

    Power units

    • Watt (SI)

    • horsepower

    Intensity ( I )  Area over which power is focused  Intensity is to power

    Intensity (I)

    • Area over which power is focused

    • Intensity is to power what pressure is to force

    • I = P/A

    where

    • I = Intensity

    P = Power A = area

    Intensity units

    • watt/cm 2

    Resistance  acoustic or aerodynamic resistance = pressure/flow  In electrical world Ohm’s Law R=E/I where

    Resistance

    • acoustic or aerodynamic resistance = pressure/flow

    • In electrical world

    Ohm’s Law

    R=E/I

    where

    R= resistance E=voltage I=electric current

    Note: voltage is an electric analog to pressure