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Digital land surveying and mapping

Introduction

Digital mapping is the process by which a


collection of data is compiled and formatted into
a virtual image. The primary function of this
technology is to produce maps that give
accurate representations of a particular area,
detailing major road arteries and other points of
interest. The technology also allows the
calculation of distances from one place to
another.
Basic principles of survaying
The fundamental principle upon which the various methods of plane surveying are based can be stated
under the following two aspects.

 Location of a point by measurement from two points of


reference

Working from whole to


part
Chain survey
Chain survey/surveying is an very old method
of Surveying. This article includes definition of
chain survey along with all detailed information
with necessary images about various aspects
of chain surveying.
Compass surveying
 Compass surveying is the branch of surveying in
which the position of an object is located using
angular measurements determined by a compass
and linear measurements using a chain or tape.
Compass surveying is used in following
circumstances:
Levelling

 Levelling is the measurement of geodetic height


using an optical levelling instrument and a level
staff or rod having a numbered scale. Common
levelling instruments include the spirit level, the
dumpy level, the digital level, and the laser level.
 Level of lavelling
Dumpy level

A dumpy level, builder's auto level, leveling instrument, or automatic level is an


optical instrument used to establish or verify points in the same horizontal plane. It
is used in surveying and building with a vertical staff to measure height differences
and to transfer, measure and set heights.

Automatic Level

Automatic level is like the dumpy level. In this case the telescope is fixed to its supports. Circular
spirit can be attached to the side of the telescope for approximate leveling. For more accurate
leveling, compensator is attached inside the telescope.
Tilting Level

Tilting level consist a telescope which enabled for the horizontal rotation as
well as rotation about 4 degree in its vertical plane. Centering of bubble can
be easily done in this type of level. But, for every setup bubble is to be
centered with the help of tilting screw.

Cushing’s Level

In case of Cushing’s level, the telescope is restricted against rotation in its longitudinal axis and it
is non-removable. But, the object end and eye piece end can be interchangeable and reversible.

Y Level

Y level or Wye-level consists y-shaped frames which supports the telescope. Telescope cane be
removed from the y-shaped supports by releasing clamp screws provided. These y-shaped frames are
arranged to vertical spindle which helps to cause the rotation of telescope.
Plane Table Surveying
The plane table surveying is the fast method of surveying. In this type of surveying
plotting of the plan and field observations can be done simultaneously. In case of
plane table surveying Geometrical conditions of site are manuscript in the map
sheet using plane table and alidade after that topographic details are arranged on
the map.

 Equipment Used in Plane Table Survey


General equipment used for conducting plane table survey are
 Plane table
 Alidade for sighting (telescopic or simple)
 Plumb bob and plumb fork
 Compass
 Spirit level
 Chain
 Ranging rods
 Tripod
 Drawing sheet and drawing tools
 Paper clips or screws
Plane Table Survey
Instruments:
1. Drawing Board:

It is made of well-seasoned wood. It varies in size, the common sizes are from 40 cm x 30 cm to
75 cm x 60 cm or 45 cm square, 60 cm square, etc.

2. Alidade

The alidade is a ruler with a sight line attached and is used on the plane table for bisecting the object,
drawing rays, direction lines, etc.
3. Spirit level:

If the spirit level which may be very sensitive, is not fitted to the alidade, the table can be leveled
by placing the spirit level in two positions at right angles to each other and setting the plane table
such that the bubble is central in both positions.
4. Trough Compass:

Trough Compass with two bubble tubes at right angles to each other mounted on a square brass
plate is used for indicating the direction of the magnetic meridian on the paper.

5. U-Frame or Plumbing Fork:

A plumbing fork with a plumb bob attached to one end is used for centering the table at a particular
station. This is used in large-scale work for setting the table such that the point on the paper
(representing the instrument station being occupied) may be brought vertically over the station
marked on the ground.

6. Water Proof Cover:

The Waterproof cover is used to protect the sheet of paper on the plane table from the rain.

Paper or Drawing Sheet:

The paper used for plotting the survey on the plane table should be of excellent quality because it
is very sensitive and liable to changes due to the variation of humidity of the atmosphere.
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