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Load

The motor drives a load which has a certain


characteristics torque-speed requirement.

In general,

where, k may be an integer of a fraction.


Load
4 In a feed drive,

4 In fans and pumps,

4 The motor can be connected to the load through a set


of gears
4 The gears have teeth ratio and can be treated as torque
transformers
Load horsepower and torque
characteristics

4 onstant torque, horsepower varies as the speed

4 pplications: General machinery hoists, conveyors,


printing press
Load horsepower and torque characteristics

4 orsepower varies as square of the speed, torque


varies with speed

4 pplications: Pumps, some mixers, some extruders


Load horsepower and torque
characteristics

4 igh inertial loads

4 pplications: re typically associated with machines


using flywheel to supply most of the operating energy,
punch press
Load horsepower and torque characteristics

4 hock loads

4 pplications: Drives of crushers, separators, grinders,


conveyors, and vehicular systems

4 Power converters and motors can be damaged if they


are not protected from the overload conditions
     
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For a given direction of current flow at terminal A1, say into terminal A1, the
flux directions within the poles are shown in the figures.

In case (a), the flux lines are out of the pole A (seen from the rotor) for and
into pole C, thus establishing a two-pole structure.

In case (b) however, the flux lines are out of the poles in A & C. The flux lines
will be then have to complete the circuit by flowing into the pole structures on
the sides. Pole configurations produced by these connections is
a two-pole arrangement in fig. (a) and a four-pole arrangement in fig. (b).
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Opeed-Torque
Characteristics for
Otator Voltage
Control Method
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AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
Four ± Quadrant Control
! Forward Motoring and reverse plugging
operations
! Low speed motoring and high speed braking
! Thyristor pairs A,B and C provide operation
in quadrants I and IV
! Thyristor pairs A¶ , B and C¶ provide
operation in quadrants II and III
! Zero current sensor [ dead time 5 to 10 ms]
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VARIABLE FREQUENCY
CONTROL
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VARIABLE FREQUENCY
CONTROL
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Power onverters (contd¶)
2. Inverters ± Voltage and current source converters are
fed from a D link. The D link is generated with
either a controlled or uncontrolled rectifier.

Vc: controlled magnitude command


fc: frequency command
Power onverters (contd¶)

ü. ycloconverter
ontrollers

4 The controllers implement the control strategy


governing the load and motor characteristics

4 To match the load and motor, the input to the power


converter is controlled (manipulated) by the
controller
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