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# Failure Theories

Stress in machine components should be accurately computed. Designer must understand material limits to ensure a safe design.

Design Factor

Factor of Safety (N)

**Expected Stress N! Stress at Component Failure
**

Suitable values depend on inherent danger, certainty of calculations, certainty of material properties, etc.

**Static Stresses - Brittle Materials
**

Percent elongation < 5%

N

N

su t W

su c

for parts in tension for parts in compression for parts with general stress

W W1 W 2 su t su c

1 N

000 in lbs.25´ R0. Compute the resulting design factor.Example The Gray Cast Iron (Grade 40) cylinder carries an axial compressive load of 75.000 lbs and a torque of 20.00´ R0. Ø4.00´ .25´ Ø5.

Ductile Materials Percent elongation > 5% Distortion Energy Theory Define von Mises Stress 2 W ' ! W 12 W 2 W 1W 2 For nominal stress For localized stress ! sy W' su N! W' .Static Stresses .

Static Stresses .Ductile Materials Percent elongation > 5% Maximum Shear Stress Theory For nominal stress ! s ys X max ! sy 2X max For localized stress sus N! X max .

Example Specify a diameter for the middle portion of the rod. if it is to be made from AISI 1040-hot rolled steel. 450 5000 lbs .

specify a standard structural tube to resist static loads shown. Use a design factor of 3. 400 lb 14´ 200 lb 20´ .Example For the seat support shown. The tube has properties similar to AISI 1020 hot-rolled steel.

Repeated Loads Stress Walt Wmean Time .

25´ 0.1´ R 1´ .75´ . Determine the mean and alternating nominal stresses. This bar is subjected to a load that varies from 2000 lb to 3000 lb.Example The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020 steel. 1.

R. Wa Endurance Strength. sn 103 104 105 106 107 108 Cycles to Failure.Fatigue Strength R. N (log) . Moore Test Motor Alternating Stress.

5 su (Steel) sn } 0.4 su (Aluminum) .Endurance Strength sn = Endurance strength y Listed in tables y If no information is available. use sn } 0.

sn¶ = Adjusted endurance strength = (Cs) (Cm) (Cst) (CR) (sn) .R.Adjusted Endurance Strength The data from the standard R. Moore test is adjusted for a particular application.

0 in Cs = D-0.Size and Stress Type Factors ± Cs = Size Factor D< 0.4 in Cs = 1. D=.3)-0.808(h b)1/2 ± Cst = Stress Type Factor = 1.19 For rectangular sections.0 for bending = 0.0 < D 10.4 < D 2.50 for torsion .80 for axial tension = 0.0 in Cs = (D/0.068 2.0 0.

75 .80 for cast steel = 0.70 for cast iron ± CR = Reliability Factor 50% CR = 1.9% CR = 0.90 99% CR = 0.0 90% CR = 0.81 99.Material and Reliability Factor ± Cm = Material Factor = 1.0 for wrought steel = 0.

25´ 0.1´ R 1´ . This bar is subjected to a load that varies from 2000 lb to 3000 lb.Example The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020 steel. 1. Determine the endurance limit of the material.75´ .

Repeated Stresses .Ductile Materials Distortion Energy Theory Define repeated von Mises Stress 2 W 'm ! W 12m W 2 m W 1mW 2 m 2 W 'a ! W 12a W 2 a W 1aW 2 a Solderberg criterion 1 W ' m K t W 'a ! sy s 'n .

5 sn .5 sy s¶sn = 0.Repeated Stresses .Ductile Materials Maximum Shear Stress Theory 1 (X ) max ! N ssy t (X a ) max s ' sn ssy = 0.

1. Comment on the robustness of the design.75´ .1´ R 1´ .25´ 0. This bar is subjected to a load that varies from 2000 lb to 3000 lb.Example The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020 steel.

Example Comment on the robustness of a 1-1/4´ round bar made from AISI 1213 C-D steel. 48´ . It carries a constant tensile load of 1500 lbs. a bending load that varies from 0 to 800 lbs at the senter of the 48´ length and a constant torque of 1200 in lbs.

. Inherently subjected to transverse loads and torsion.Shafts Connect power transmission components.

Shaft Forces Gears As before Wt Wr T .

Shaft Forces Chains Ftight Ftight 2T ! D D T Fslack = 0 .

5T ! D D Ftight Fslack T ! 2D T Fslack .Shaft Forces V-belts Ftight 2.

Shaft Forces Flat belts Ftight 3T Ftight ! D D Fslack T ! D T Fslack .

Material Properties For steady load (torsion) sys=.5sy For fatique load ( bending) sn¶=cs cR sn cT = 1 (bending) cm = 1 (wrought steel) .

Stress Concentrations Keyseats ± Sled Runner Kt = 1.0 ± Woodruff Kt = 1.6 ± Profile Kt = 2.5 .

Stress Concentrations Shoulders ± Sharp. Gear Bore (r/d }.5 Try not to let Kt¶s overlap.5 ± Round. Bearing (r/d }.17) Kt = 1.5 Grooves ± Retaining Rings Kt = 1. Leave .15´ between ..03) Kt = 2.10 .

Strength Analysis Kt M c Kt M Bending stress W ! ! I S For round sections T D3 S! 32 Torsion stress Tr T X! ! J 2S J I !2 r c For round sections .

Strength Analysis Mohr¶s circle and Solderberg 1 ! N .

3 2 .

/ sy T t M / s n ' 4 S 2 Suggested Design Factors: N=2 smooth operation N=3 typical industrial operation N=4 shock or impact loading .

Minimum Acceptable Diameter The designer must size the shaft. ± Solve for appropriate diameters « 32 N D!¬ T .

3 2» .

/ sy ¼ T t M / s n ' 4 ½ 2 .

Example Determine a suitable diameter for a shaft made from AISI 1144 OQT 1000. It is subjected to a reversing bending moment of 3000 ft lbs and a steady torque of 1800 ft lbs. . The shaft has a profile keyway.

5 hp to a screw conveyor handling the grain. a 34 lb. Using AISI 1144 cold drawn steel. determine the minimum acceptable diameter at C. All power comes to the shaft through the v-belt at C.Example The shaft shown is part of a grain drying system At A. . propeller-type fan requires 12 hp when rotating at 475 rpm. A flat belt pulley at D delivers 3.

Example A 12´ B C 10´ 10´ D E 4´ Sheave C 150 Sheave D .

Axial Rotational .Shafts Accessories Components used to securely mount power transmitting elements on a shaft.

sprocket.) . sheave.Keys Allow torque to be transferred from a shaft to a power transmitting element (gear. etc.

Key Design Use a soft. low strength material H (ie. low carbon steel) L W Standard size H=W=1/4 D Design length based on strength .

2 .005 in.Standard Key Sizes Shaft Dia. (in) W (in) W T H S D H D2 W 2 S! 2 D H D2 W 2 T! .

Key Design T 2T F! ! D/2 D Key Shear X! F 2T ! DLW Failure Theory N ! Length 4TN L! DWs y sy 2X ! s y LW 4TD .

Example Specify a key for a gear (grade 40.00 in. gray cast iron) to be mounted on a shaft (AISI 1144. . hot rolled) with a 2. diameter. The gear transmits 21000 lb-in of torque and has a hub length of 4 in.

bent-wire. .Retaining Rings Also known as snap rings Provides a removable shoulder to lock components on shafts or in bores. Stamped. with a high shear strength. and spiral-wound. Made of spring steel.

Retaining Ring Selection Based on shaft diameter & thrust force .

They are categorized by drive type and point style. or gears on shafts.Set Screws Setscrews are fasteners that hold collars. pulleys. .

Standard Set Screw Sizes .

Set Screw Holding .

Pins A pin is placed in double shear Holds torsion and axial loads 8T N d! T D sy D d Hole is made slightly smaller than the pin (FN1 fit) .

diameter.Example Specify a pin for a gear (grade 40. hot rolled) with a 2. . gray cast iron) to be mounted on a shaft (AISI 1144. The gear transmits 21000 lb-in of torque and has a hub length of 4 in.00 in.

Roll Pins

Easier disassembly

Collars

Creates a shoulder on shaft without increasing stock size. Held with either set screw or friction (clamped)

Mechanical Couplings

Couplings are used to join two shafts Rigid couplings are simple and low cost. But they demand almost perfect alignment of the mating shafts. Misalignment causes undue forces and accelerated wear on the shafts, coupling, shaft bearings, or machine housing.

It comes from such sources as bearing wear. thermal expansion. When misalignment is expected. structural deflection. . misalignment is the rule rather than the exception. or settling machine foundations. a flexible coupling must be used.Mechanical Couplings In connecting two shafts.

Mechanical Couplings Selection factors include: y Amount of torque (or power & speed) y Shaft Size y Misalignment tolerance .

Power Screw. transmit angular motion to liner motion Transmit large or produce large axial force It is always desired to reduce number of screws . Connections Helical thread screw was an important invention.Fasteners. Powers Screws.

Definition of important Terminologies Major diameter d. Minor diameter dr Mean dia or pitch diameter dp Lead l. distance the nut moves for one turn rotation .

Single and Double threaded screws Double threaded screws are stronger and moves faster .

.Screw Designations United National Standard UNS International Standard Organization Roots and crest can be either flat or round Pitch diameter produce same width in the thread and space.

Thread and B for Internal.5 10 diameter mm major diameter. because of its small helix angle.Coarse thread Designated by UNC Fine Thread UNF. A for Ext. They are used when Vibration is present Class of screw. Class 1 fits have widest tolerances.1. Class 2 is the most commonly used Class three for very precision application Example:1in-12 UNRF-2A-LH. is more resistance to loosening. defines its fit.5 pitch . R root radius Metric M10x1.

Some important Data for UNC. UNF and M threads Lets Look at the Table 8-1 on Page 398 .

Square and Acme Threads are used for the power screw Preferred pitch for Acme Thread d.in 1/4 1/16 5/16 1/14 3/8 1/12 1/2 1/10 5/8 1/8 3/4 1/6 7/8 1/6 1 1/5 1 1/4 1/5 . in p.

Mechanics of Power Screws .

Could you recall recent failure of power screw leading to significant causalities .Used in design to change the angular motion to linear motion.

What is the relationship between the applied torque on power screw and lifting force F

**Torque for single flat thread
**

Fd m l Tfd m TR ! ( ) 2 Td m fl Fd m Tfd m l TL ! ( ) 2 Td m fl

If the thread as an angle , the torque will be

**Fd m l Tfd m sec E TR ! ( ) 2 Td m fl sec E
**

Wedging action, it increases friction

Stresses in the power Screw

Shear stress in the base of the screw Bearing stress Bending stress at the root of the screw Shear stress in the thread nt number of engaged thread

16T X ! 3 Td F WB ! Td m nt p / 2 6F Wb ! Td r nt p 3V 3F X ! ! 2 A Td r nt p

Loading to the fasteners and their Failure considerations .

Bolts are used to clamp two or more parts It causes pre tension in the bolt Grip length is the total thickness of parts and washers l d l t l .

ld L¶ effective grip= h+t2 if t2<d =h=d/2 for t2 u d .ld h t2 lt=L¶.

Failure of bolted or riveted joints .

Type of Joints Lap Joint (single Joint) But Joint .

Example 1 .

Example 2 .

Example 2 .

Example 3 .

Weld .

.

Weld under Bending .

.

.

.

Springs Flexible machine elements Used to: Exert force Store energy .

Slope of the spring deflection curve is the rate Force k 1 Deflection (F k! (L .Spring Rate Effective springs have a linear deflection curve.

Example A compression spring with a rate of 20 lb/in is loaded with 6 lbs and has a length of 1. Determine the unloaded spring length (free length) .5 in.

Dw (Standard gages) Mean Diameter.Dw .Geometry Dw Di Dw L Do Wire diameter. Dm Dm = Do .

Spring Parameters Spring index Dm C! Dw C > 5 (manufacturing limits) Active coils. Na = N for plain ends = N-1 for ground ends = N-2 for closed ends .

Deflection Deflection for helical springs 3 3 8FDm N a 8 FC N a H ! ! 4 GDw GDw G = Shear modulus Spring rate for helical springs GDw k! 3 8C N a .

The free length is 2 inches.Example A helical compression spring is formed from 35 gage music wire with 10-1/4 turns and an O. if 0.D. It¶s ends are squared.850 in. . Determine the force to press the spring solid.

615 K! 4C 4 C F V T .Stress Analysis Spring wire is in torsion T r 8K F C X! ! 2 J T Dw Wahl factor. K Accounts for the curvature of the wire 4C 1 .

3 in. If the spring is repeatedly compressed to 1. It¶s made from A228 and the ends are squared. The free length is 2 inches. do you expect problems? . if 0.Example A helical compression spring is formed from 35 gage music wire with 10-1/4 turns and an O.850 in.D.

2) Select standard wire Verify actual stress is satisfactory. . Compute number of coils required.Design Procedure Select a material Compute required spring rate Estimate Dm based on size constraints Determine required Dw (use K=1.

75 in. When its length is 3. . Use ASTM A401 steel wire. it must exert 5 lb.0 in.Example Design a helical compression spring to exert a force of 22 lbs when compressed to a length of 1. The spring will be cycled rapidly.

Q=0.001 .005 .Rolling Element Bearings Provides support for machine elements.0. while allowing smooth motion.

Types Single-row Radial Ball Radial Roller Angular Contact Ball Angular Roller .

Types Spherical Roller Tapered Roller Needle Thrust .

Ball Bearings .

000 psi .000 psi su=322. rollers and races are made from extremely high strength steel ex. AISI 52100 sy = 260.000 is not unusual Balls.Stress Analysis Contact Stress Wc=300.

0 (ball) k=3.Bearing Load/Life Test (fatigue) data Radial Load (lbs) Empirical relationship: L2 ¨ P ¸ !© 1 ¹ L1 © P2 ¹ ª º k k=3.33 (roller) L10 Life (cycles) .

. Determine the expected L10 life. The bearing has been tested to have a L10 life of 300 hrs. when loaded with 500 lbs.Example A bearing is mounted on a shaft rotating at 1200 rpm. if the load is increased to 700 lbs.

Manufacturer¶s Data Vendors publish the Basic Dynamic Load rating (C) of a bearing at an L10 life of 1 million cycles. .

2 for outer race rotation Calculate the required basic dynamic load 1 Creq 'd ¨ Ld ¸ k ! Pd © 6 ¹ ª 10 º Select a bearing with (C > Creq¶d) and a bore that closely matches the shaft diameter. .Bearing Selection Determine the design life (in cycles) Determine the design load Pd = V R V=1 for inner race rotation V=1.

The shaft rotates at 1700 rpm.Example Specify suitable bearings for a shaft used in an grain dryer. The required supporting loads at the bearing are R =589 lb Bx RBy=164 lb and the minimum acceptable diameter is 2.16´. .

. Check manufacturers catalog Match maximum permissible fillet radius.Mounting of Bearings Shaft/bearing bore has a light interference fit. Shaft or housing shoulders not to exceed 20% of diameter. Housing/outer race has a slight clearance fit.

Mounted Bearings Pillow block Bearing is inserted into a cast housing. with base or flange slots. which can be readily attached to a machine base. .

Bearings with Varying Loads Compute a weighted average load based on duty cycle. ¨ § .

Fi p N i Fm ! © © § Ni ª ? A¸ ¹ ¹ º 1 p Fm=equivalent load Fi= load level for condition i Ni= cycles for condition i p = exponent for load/life .

while rotating at 1700 rpm.Example Bearing 6211 is carrying the following load cycle. Stage Load (lbs) Time (min) 1 600 480 2 200 115 3 100 45 Compute the bearing L10 life in minutes. .

Radial & Thrust Loads Calculate an equivalent load P=VXR +YT T=thrust load X factors depending = Y on bearing .

56 for all values of Y . ball bearings X = 0.Thrust factors. Y Deep -groove.

000 hrs. . Specify a suitable single-row. deep-groove ball bearing if the shaft rotates at 1150 rpm and the design life is 20.Example A bearing is to carry a radial load of 650 lb and a thrust load of 270 lb.