Properties of neurons

y Irritability: It is the ability of neurons to initiate nerve

impulse in response to stimuli from outside or inside the body. y Conductivity: it is the ability to transmit nerve impulse. y It is formed of:
y Cell bodies: Form the gray matter in the periphery of the

brain and the center of the spinal cord y Axons and dendrites: form tracts in the brasin and nerve fibers in the spinal cord.

A Typical Neuron Overview
y Dentrites y Cell Body y Axon y Terminal

Action Potential Stages: Overview

Figure 8-9: The action potential

Conduction of nerve impulse y In myelinated nerves y It is of higher speed y Conduction is saltatory y It conducts impulse up to 130 meter / second y In unmyelinated nerves: y It is lower speed y Continuous conduction y Reaches 0.5 meter/ second .

Fi re 11-5: A t mic sym at etic a d arasym at etic at ways .

. y Qautonomic afferent nerves. y Proprioceptors. Sensory nerves: They carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the spinal cord or to the brain they carry impulses from y Somatic or common skin receptors. y Special senses.Types of nerves 1.

spinal cord and autonomic ganglia.Motor nerves: They originate in the brain.Types of nerves 2. cardiac muscle and glands. y They are of two types: y Somatic motor nerves that supplies the skeletal muscles.Mixed nerve: sensory and motor fibers are enclosed in the same sheath. y 3. y Autonomic motor nerves that supply the involuntary organs like smooth muscles. .

Synapse Mechanism .

. y It acts as a shock absorber between the brain and cranial bones. y Its Volume is about 120 ml and produces pressure of about 10 mmhg during lying and 30 mmhg during standing. y It keeps the brain and spinal cord moist and helps exchange of materials between the CSF and the nerve cells.Functions of the CSF y It supports and protects the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebrum y It is formed of y Cerebral cortex y Basal ganglia y Thalamus y Hypothalamus. .

y Sensory perception y Initiation of motor functions. y Association areas. .Cerebral cortex y Main functions y Mental activities. y Functional areas of the cerebral cortex: y Motor areas y Sensory areas.

Cerebral Cortex: Outer layer of neurons (1mm thick) Fi re -15: Functi nal areas f t e cerebral cortex .

Motor areas of the cerebral cortex .


The Cerebellum y Located dorsal to the pons and medulla y Protrudes under the occipital lobes of the cerebrum y Makes up 11% of the brain s mass y Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction y Cerebellar activity occurs subconsciously .

y Eye y Semicircular canals y Maintenance of balance and equiliprium y Enhancement of muscle tone y Coordination and planning of skilled voluntary muscle activity y It plays a role in learning and language. .Cerebellum Function y It receives impulses from : y Proprioceptors in muscles.

.Cerebellar lesion y It produces y Uncoordinated muscle movements y Staggering gait y Ataxia.

y Reflex centrer like vomiting coughing and sneezingbreflexes . y Medulla oblongata: y Relay station y Vital centers y CVS centers y Respiratory centers.Functions of brain stem y Midbrain: Acts as a relay station for asscending and descending tracts y Pons: It acts as a relay station for tracts and contains the respiratory apneustic and pneumotaxic centrers.


Neural Reflexes: Classification of Pathways Fi ure 13-1: Monosyna tic and olysyna tic somatic motor reflexes .

Autonomic Reflexes: visceral reflexes Fi ure 13-2: Autonomic reflexes .

y Motor tracts: Impulses are transmitted from brain to other parts of the body through motor tracts in the spinal cord: y Pyramidal.Functions of the spinal cord y Have sensory tracts : which transmit two types of sensations: y Skin sensations like touch and tenmperature and pain. . y Proprioceptive sensations from ligaments and muscle and joints. For involuntary movements y Reflex center. For Voluntary movements y Extrapyramidal.

. Pons and medulla y In the spinal cord pass in the lateral corticospinal tract in the white matter.Motor Pathways: Upper motor neurons y Its cell body lie in the primary motoe area y It passes through internal capsule. y They form the pyramidal tract and decussate in the pyramid of the medulla oblongata.

y It forms the neuromuscular junctions and secrete acetyl choline as a neurotransmitter. y It is the final common pathway for impulse transmission to the skeletal muscls. .Motor Pathways: Lower motor neurons y Its cell bodies lie in the anterior horn gray matter of the spinal cord. y It ends in the motor end plates in the skeletal muscles.

Spinal reflexes y Reflex arc is formed of y Sensory neuron y Connecting neuron y Motor neuron. y Examples y Stretch reflex : Knee jerk y Autonomic reflexes : defeccation and micturition reflexes .

.Peripheral nervous system y Formed of y Cranial nerves y Spinal nerves y It also diveds into y Somatic nerves. y Autonomic nerves.

Peripheral nerves y Spinal y 31 pairs y 8 Cervical y 12 Thoracic y 5 Lumber y 5 Sacral y 1 coccyx y Cranial y 12 pairs .

Somatic Pathways Fi ure 10.: Sensory at ways cross t e body¶s midline .

Actions of Parasympathetic Branch Constricts y Pupil y Bronchioles y Slows heart y Stimulates y Digestion Insulin release Urination Erections y y y y .

Stimulatory Actions of Sympathetic Branch Pupil dilation y Salivation y Heart beat & volume y Dilation y Blood vessels y Bronchioles y Catecholamine release y Fat breakdown y Ejaculation y .

Inhibitory Actions of Sympathetic Branch y Di esti y a creas secreti y ri ati .

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