Geology of Petroleum Systems

Petroleum Geology
Objectives are to be able to: • Discuss basic elements of Petroleum Systems • Describe plate tectonics and sedimentary basins • Recognize names of major sedimentary rock types • Describe importance of sedimentary environments to petroleum industry • Describe the origin of petroleum • Identify hydrocarbon trap types • Define and describe the important geologic controls on reservoir properties, porosity and permeability

• • • • • • •
Petroleum Systems approach Geologic Principles and geologic time Rock and minerals, rock cycle, reservoir properties Hydrocarbon origin, migration and accumulation Sedimentary environments and facies; stratigraphic traps Plate tectonics, basin development, structural geology Structural traps

Petroleum System - A Definition
•A Petroleum System is a dynamic hydrocarbon system that functions in a restricted geologic space and time scale. •A Petroleum System requires timely convergence of geologic events essential to the formation of petroleum deposits. These Include: Mature source rock Hydrocarbon expulsion Hydrocarbon migration Hydrocarbon accumulation Hydrocarbon retention
(modified from Demaison and Huizinga, 1994)

Cross Section Of A Petroleum System (Foreland Basin Example) Geographic Extent of Petroleum System Extent of Play Extent of Prospect/Field O Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System O O Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Source Rock Underburden Rock Basement Rock Top Oil Window Top Gas Window Pod of Active Source Rock Petroleum Reservoir (O) Fold-and-Thrust Belt (arrows indicate relative fault motion) (modified from Magoon and Dow. 1994) Sedimentary Basin Fill Essential Elements of Petroleum System Overburden Rock .

Basic Geologic Principles • • • • Uniformitarianism Original Horizontality Superposition Cross-Cutting Relationships .

Cross-Cutting Relationships K J I H G Angular Unconformity E D il sS u eo n l C Igneous Dike F B A Ig .

Types of Unconformities • Disconformity – An unconformity in which the beds above and below are parallel • Angular Unconformity – An unconformity in which the older bed intersect the younger beds at an angle • Nonconformity – An unconformity in which younger sedimentary rocks overlie older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks .

Correlation • Establishes the age equivalence of rock • layers in different areas Methods: – Similar lithology – Similar stratigraphic section – Index fossils – Fossil assemblages – Radioactive age dating .

Geologic Time Chart 0 0 Quaternary Billions of years ago Millions of years ago Phanerozoic 1 Cryptozoic (Precambrian) 100 150 200 250 300 Mesozoic Cretaceous 20 Miocene Cenozoic Era 50 Tertiary Millions of years ago 0 Pleistocene 10 Recent Pliocene 2 Jurassic Triassic Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian 30 Oligocene 40 50 60 Paleocene 3 Eocene 4 Paleozoic 4.6 350 400 450 500 550 600 Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Tertiary period Quaternary period Eon Era Period Epoch .

Rocks .

or chemically active fluids Crystallization (Solidification of melt) Sedimentation. pressure.Classification of Rocks IGNEOU S SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Rock-forming Source of process material Molten materials in deep crust and upper mantle Weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at surface Rocks under high temperatures and pressures in deep crust Recrystallization due to heat. burial and lithification .

ion And De posit ion Sedimentary Rock Weathering. Igneous Rock Weat her Transportaitng.The Rock Cycle Magma M el t g in Co So oling (Cr lidi ys fic a tal at iza nd n io n) t io Metamorphic Rock And Heat ure Press orphism) etam (M Heat and Pressure We ath eri an ng. T d D ran ep osi sport tion atio n. Transportation and Deposition Ceme ntation and Compaction (Lithification) Sediment .

Sedimentary Rock Types • Relative abundance Sandstone and conglomerate ~11% Limestone and dolomite ~13% Siltstone. mud and shale ~75% .

Minerals .Definition Naturally Occurring Solid Generally Formed by Inorganic Processes Ordered Internal Arrangement of Atoms (Crystal Structure) Chemical Composition and Physical Properties Fixed or Vary Within A Definite Range Quartz Crystals .

Hematite. 1982) . and Other Minerals 60 30 4 <5 3 <3 Sandstone (%) 5 65 10-15 15 <1 <1 (modified from Blatt.Average Detrital Mineral Composition of Shale and Sandstone Mineral Composition Shale (%) Clay Minerals Quartz Feldspar Rock Fragments Carbonate Organic Matter.

Cleavage. and Reactivity With Weak Acid Calcite .The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Minerals Strongly Influence the Composition of Sedimentary Rocks Quartz Feldspar Mechanically and Chemically Stable Can Survive Transport and Burial Nearly as Hard as Quartz. but Cleavage Lessens Mechanical Stability May be Chemically Unstable in Some Climates and During Burial Mechanically Unstable During Transport Chemically Unstable in Humid Climates Because of Low Hardness.

common) through Anorthite (Ca-rich . etc . Plagioclase Albite (Na-rich .Some Common Minerals Oxides Hematite Magnetite Sulfides Pyrite Galena Sphalerite Carbonates Aragonite Calcite Dolomite Fe-Dolomite Ankerite Sulfates Anhydrite Gypsum Halides Halite Sylvite Silicates Non-Ferromagnesian (Common in Sedimentary Rocks) Quartz Muscovite (mica) Feldspars Potassium feldspar (K-spar) Orthoclase Microcline.not common) Ferromagnesian (not common in sedimentary rocks) Olivine Pyroxene Augite Amphibole Hornblende Biotite (mica) Red = Sedimentary RockForming Minerals .

The Four Major Components • Framework – Sand (and Silt) Size Detrital Grains • Matrix – Clay Size Detrital Material • Cement – Material precipitated post-depositionally. during burial. Cements fill pores and replace framework grains • Pores – Voids between above components .

25 mm in Diameter/Length . Offshore Alabama. USA Grains are About =< 0.Sandstone Composition Framework Grains KF = Potassium Feldspar PRF = Plutonic Rock Fragment PRF KF CEMENT P = Pore Potassium Feldspar is Stained Yellow With a Chemical Dye Pores are Impregnated With Blue-Dyed Epoxy P Norphlet Sandstone.

USA . Offshore Alabama.Porosity in Sandstone Pore Throat Pores Provide the Volume to Contain Hydrocarbon Fluids Pore Throats Restrict Fluid Flow Scanning Electron Micrograph Norphlet Formation.

USA (Photograph by R.L.Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs Fibrous Authigenic Illite Secondary Electron Micrograph Significant Permeability Reduction Negligible Porosity Reduction High Irreducible Water Saturation Migration of Fines Problem Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone Hatters Pond Field. Alabama. Kugler) Illite .

Kugler) .Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs Authigenic Chlorite Secondary Electron Micrograph Iron-Rich Varieties React With Acid Occurs in Several Deeply Buried Sandstones With High Reservoir Quality Occurs as Thin Coats on Detrital Grain Surfaces Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone Offshore Alabama.L. USA ~ 10µ m (Photograph by R.

L. Kugler) . Alabama.Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs Authigenic Kaolinite Secondary Electron Micrograph Significant Permeability Reduction High Irreducible Water Saturation Migration of Fines Problem Carter Sandstone North Blowhorn Creek Oil Unit Black Warrior Basin. USA (Photograph by R.

1 0.1 0.01 2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18 Authigenic Chlorite Permeability (md) 10 0.Effects of Clays on Reservoir Quality Authigenic Illite 100 1000 100 10 1 1 0. 1990) .01 Porosity (%) (modified from Kugler and McHugh.

Rip-Up Clasts.Influence of Clay-Mineral Distribution on Effective Porosity φe Dispersed Clay Clay Minerals Detrital Quartz Grains φe Clay Lamination (Rock Fragments. Clay-Replaced Grains) Structural Clay φe .

Venezuela The Effects of Diagenesis May Enhance or Degrade Reservoir Quality .Diagenesis Carbonate Cemented Diagenesis is the PostDepositional Chemical and Mechanical Changes that Occur in Sedimentary Rocks Some Diagenetic Effects Include Oil Stained Compaction Precipitation of Cement Dissolution of Framework Grains and Cement Whole Core Misoa Formation.

1983) Subsidence .CO 2.H2 S (modified from from Galloway and Hobday.Fluids Affecting Diagenesis heric Circ ula Atmosp ti o n Precipitation n han C w Flo el Evaporation Evapotranspiration Water Table Infiltration Meteoric Water COMPACTIONAL WATER Petroleum Fluids Meteoric Water Zone of abnormal pressure Isotherms CH 4.

Neuquen Basin. Kugler) . for Example) and Cement may Enhance the Interconnected Pore System This is Called Secondary Porosity Pore Quartz Detrital Grain Thin Section Micrograph .Plane Polarized Light Avile Sandstone.L.Dissolution Porosity Partially Dissolved Feldspar Dissolution of Framework Grains (Feldspar. Argentina (Photomicrograph by R.

Migration. and Accumulation .Hydrocarbon Generation.

Vitrinite Vitrinite A nonfluorescent type of organic material in petroleum source rocks derived primarily from woody material. Bases.Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks Kerogen Disseminated Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble in Oxidizing Acids. Reflected-Light Micrograph of Coal . The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the best indicators of coal rank and thermal maturity of petroleum source rock. and Organic Solvents.

0 .0-5.0 1.5-1.2-0.5 0. %) 0.5-1.0 >5.0-0.0-2. %) 0.0 2.0-2.5 0.0 TOC in Carbonates (wt.0 >2.0 1.2 0.0-0.Interpretation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (based on early oil window maturity) Hydrocarbon Generation Potential Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent TOC in Shale (wt.

1984) .Schematic Representation of the Mechanism of Petroleum Generation and Destruction Progressive Burial and Heating Organic Debris Diagenesis Oil Reservoir Kerogen Catagenesis Thermal Degradation Oil and Gas Cracking Metagenesis Carbon Methane Initial Bitumen Migration (modified from Tissot and Welte.

6 0.0 Max.3 Weight % Carbon in Kerogen 2 .9 1. Oil Generated Wet Gas Dry Gas Max. after Dow and O’Conner.Comparison of Several Commonly Used Maturity Techniques and Their Correlation to Oil and Gas Generation Limits 0.2 Incipient Oil Generation OIL 75 80 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 430 450 465 1.3 2.5 0.8 0. 85 90 Oil Floor Wet Gas Floor Dry Gas Floor Dry Gas Generated 95 (modified from Foster and Beaumont.0 4.0 1. 1982) Pyrolysis Tmax (C) 0.4 Spore Coloration Index (SCI) 0.2 65 70 1 Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro) % 0.7 0.0 3. 1991.

and Trapping of Hydrocarbons Fault (impermeable) Oil/water contact (OWC) Migration route Seal Hydrocarbon accumulation in the reservoir rock Top of maturity Source rock Reservoir rock .Generation. Migration.

1994) Sedimentary Basin Fill Essential Elements of Petroleum System Overburden Rock .Cross Section Of A Petroleum System (Foreland Basin Example) Geographic Extent of Petroleum System Extent of Play Extent of Prospect/Field O Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System O O Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Source Rock Underburden Rock Basement Rock Top Oil Window Top Gas Window Pod of Active Source Rock Petroleum Reservoir (O) Fold-and-Thrust Belt (arrows indicate relative fault motion) (modified from Magoon and Dow.

Hydrocarbon Traps • • • Structural traps Stratigraphic traps Combination traps .

Structural Hydrocarbon Traps Shale Oil Trap Oil/Gas Contact Oil/Water Contact Oil Gas Closure Sea l Fracture Basement Fold Trap Salt Dome Salt Diapir Oil (modified from Bjorlykke. 1989) .

Dome Gas Oil Sandstone W at er Shale .Hydrocarbon Traps .

Fault Trap Oil / Gas Sand Shale .

1989) .Stratigraphic Hydrocarbon Traps Unconformity Pinch out Uncomformity Oil/Gas Oil/Gas Channel Pinch Out Oil/Gas (modified from Bjorlykke.

Other Traps Meteoric Water Asphalt Trap Biodegraded Oil/Asphalt Water Partly Biodegraded Oil Hydrodynamic Trap Shale Water Hydrostatic Head Oil (modified from Bjorlykke. 1989) .

Heterogeneity .

Misoa Sandstone. Venezuela) .Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone Heterogeneity Segments Reservoirs Increases Tortuosity of Fluid Flow Heterogeneity May Result From: Depositional Features Diagenetic Features (Whole Core Photograph.

Misoa Sandstone. Venezuela) .Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone Heterogeneity Also May Result From: Faults Fractures Faults and Fractures may be Open (Conduits) or Closed (Barriers) to Fluid Flow (Whole Core Photograph.

USA . Utah.Geologic Reservoir Heterogeneity Bounding Surface Bounding Surface Eolian Sandstone. Entrada Formation.

1-10 km Interwell Area Well 100's m Interwell Field Wide Reservoir Sandstone 100's m 10's m Well-Bore 10-100's µm 10-100's mm 1-10's m Petrographic or Scanning Electron Microscope Hand Lens or Binocular Microscope Unaided Eye (modified from Weber. 1986) . Seismic Lines. etc. Statistical Modeling.Scales of Geological Reservoir Heterogeneity Well Determined From Well Logs.

1993) .Scales of Investigation Used in Reservoir Characterization 300 m Relative Volume 50 m Gigascopic 300 m Well Test 10 14 Megascopic 5m 2m 150 m Reservoir Model 12 2 x 10 Grid Cell Macroscopic 1m cm mm -µ m Wireline Log Interval Core Plug Geological Thin Section 3 x 10 5 x 10 1 7 2 Microscopic (modified from Hurst.

Stages In The Generation of An Integrated Geological Reservoir Model Geologic Activities Regional Geologic Framework Depositional Model (As Needed) Core Analysis Log Analysis Well Test Analysis Diagenetic Model Integrated Geologic Model Applications Studies Reserves Estimation Simulation Structural Model Fluid Model (As Needed) Model Testing And Revision .

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