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Leadership and

Public Relations
• For an organization or group to
exist, to survive and to function,
effective leadership plays a
crucial role.
Effective leadership

• The process of influencing

Many authors have various meanings to
Patricia D. Witherspoon
David J. Cherrington
For the purpose of this course, the
definition of leadership by Timothy J.
Stoner, Richard Austin Freeman and Paul
D. Gilbert Jr., is being adapted.
• Managerial
Leadership is
defined as “the
process of
directing and
influencing the
activities of group
Some of the important implications of
this definition are the following:
1. All leadership become irrelevant
without the people to lead.
2. Power distribution between leaders
and group members is unequal.
3. Leadership involves the use of
different forms of power to influence
the behavior of followers.
4. Leadership is about
Although leadership is highly
related to and vital to
management, leadership
and management are not
Slide Title
Nature of Leadership

• according to Richard M. Steers:

1. attribute of position
• Role model
• Inspirer
• Achiever
2. A Characteristic of a Person

1. Initiative
2. High Quality of Work
3. Persistence
3. A Category of Behavior

1. Good communicator
2. One that leads or guides
Need for Leadership
• Why is leadership necessary?
• “effective leaders inspire to pursue
excellence, to extend themselves, and
to go beyond their perfunctory job
requirements by generating great
ideas.”- Cherrington
• To get respect and acceptance of
the followers or group members.
Elements of Leadership
1. Power
2. Understanding of people
3. Inspire followers
4. Climate conducive
Leadership Theories
1. The Great Man Theory –leadership is learnable.
2. The Trait Theory of
Leadership- individual
characteristics leaders
should pursue to lead
3. The Skills Theory of Leadership- practical skills
rather than general qualities of a leader.
4.The Style Theory of Leadership
The Two Major Styles of Leadership are:
1. Task-oriented leadership – task performed
2. People- oriented leadership- interpersonal
Benevolent- Autocrat
Liberal or Free-rein Leader
5. The Situational Theory of Leadership
- the leader should change

6. The Contingency Theory of Leadership

- change the leader
7. The Transactional Theory of Leadership
-people will follow based on the incentives
(rewards and punishment)
8. The Transformational Theory of Leadership
-transforming the environment and
relationship. Cultivating followership rather than
paying for it or punishing for non-compliance.
9. The Leader-Member Theory of
-fair exchange between the leader
and the member that creates an in-
group and out-group with respect to
the leader.
10. The Servant- Leadership Theory
- serving rather than served. People
follow out of love and gratitude rather than
out of compulsion and fear.
Leadership Power
Three Types of Leadership Power

1. Coercive power
- Followers follow out of fear; they are
afraid of what might happen to them if they don’t
do what they are asked to do.
2. Utility power
-Followers follow because of the benefits
that come to them if they do. The power in the
relationship is based on the useful exchange of
goods and services.
Employer benefits:
1. Time
2. Money
3. Energy
4. Personal resources
5. Interest
6. Talent
7. Support
3. Principle- centered power
-“Leaders are leaders only as long as they
have the respect and loyalty of their followers.”-
Hans Selye, the author of Stress Without Distress.
Likerts’ Four System of Management

Professor Likert, studied the

patterns and styles of leaders.
System 1 management
- exploitative-authoritative
– Its leaders are highly autocratic; have little
trust in subordinates; motivate people
through fear and punishment.
System 2 management
- benevolent-authoritative
– Its leaders have a patronizing confidence and trust
in subordinates and motivate with rewards and some
fear and punishment.
System 3 management
– Leaders in this system have substantial but not
complete confidence and trust in subordinates and
usually try to make use of subordinates’ ideas and
System 4 management
- participative group
– Leaders have complete trust and confidence in
subordinates in all matters affecting the organization.
They always get ideas and opinions from subordinates
and constructively use them.
Trait Approach to Leadership
– identifying personal characteristics
of leaders.
Ralph Stogdill
Categorized leader characteristics as being:
1. Personality traits(integrity,
2. Task-related characteristics
(responsible, having needs for achievement,
task orientation)
3. Social characteristics (cooperative,
active, possessing good
interpersonal skills
Michael Maccoby
Leaders shared basic
personality trait (intelligence,
ambition, optimism,
competitiveness and sense of
Bennis and Nanus
Leaders possessed four traits
1. compelling vision
2. constant
3. good communication
4. skills
Peters and Waterman
leaders in
Good Leaders are Good Listener

– “You must learn the science of

holding your tongue; then you can
learn the science of using it
correctly.”- Socrates
The traits of a leader
–Traits of a good leader can be
explained simply and more
comprehensively by an acronym,
which can be termed as the
“building blocks” of a leader. It is
called: I am S T R O N G…
– A good leader must be steadfast, strong in
character, able to withstand difficulties that
may come along his way, disposed to defend
what is right at all times, firm in matters of
principle and humble enough to give in on
matters of opinion.
– A good leader is true to his word,
consistent in deeds, reliable in the
commitments he makes, prudent in his
speech, and capable of keeping the trust
and confidence of others. The root of
trustworthiness is honesty.
– A good leader must be mindful of
feelings and sentiments, able to accept
in individual differences, and sensitive
to the refinements of various people
Open- Minded
– Being open-minded means considering
the opinions of other people and
seeing these opinions as guides in
becoming a better leader.
– Concerned about his followers to the
extent of self-forgetfulness and
transparent in everything he does. He
means what he says and says what he
means. The spirit of service must be his
prime goal as a leader.
– A good leader must be firm in his
convictions, stable in his actions, willing
to take risks and determined to do what
he has to do without qualms.
Traits of a Leader

1. Knowledge
- knows the capabilities and limitations
of his subordinates. He should endowed
with superior intelligence and have the
necessary professional know-how of the
2. bearing- dignified
3. courage-act decisively
4. endurance- physical and mental endurance to
continue relentlessly.
5. enthusiasm- higher degree of interest
6. integrity- good moral character
7. decisiveness- decide promptly and correctly
8. dependability- being initiative even with or
without supervision
9. force- efficacious power
10. humility- reasonably modest
11. humor- a good sense of humor
12. initiative- to start or originate idea
13. judgment- power of mind to weigh intervening
14. justice- to understand and to share the feeling of
15. empathy- intellectual and emotional attitude
16. tact- observes prudence to avoid giving
17. unselfishness- shows degree of
18. Wit- amusing words and ideas.
Functions of Leadership
1. Human Leadership
-This refers to the extent to which the school
leader can be supportive, fosters
participation, enhances staff commitment and
satisfaction, and encourages positive
interpersonal relationship among the staff.
2. Structural leadership
– This refers to the extent to which the
school leader thinks clearly and
logically, develops clear school goals
and policies, hold school members
accountable for results, and provides
technical support to plan, organize,
coordinate, and implement policies in
the school.
3. Management of trust
– Educational leaders should behave in a
such way that others strongly believe
them and their styles of leadership do
not become controversial or debatable
4. Management of self
– Effective educational leaders should
have an accurate inventory of their own
strengths and weakness.
On Public Relations
– Public relations are needed not only in
employment, but in in the family, in the
school, in the church, all aspects of life-
in the community, and in all places
where there are people.
– The essence of public relations is getting
along with people. Perhaps we can
assume that one of the indicators of
good public relations is good character.
– One must also possess desirable socially
accepted values so that he can live
harmoniously with others.
– As long as people live and interact with
people in any kind of society, they have
to maintain some kind of relationship
in order to carry on their daily activities
cooperatively and harmoniously.
The Ten Commandments of
Human Relations
1. Speak graciously to people
2. Smile to people
3. Call people by name
4. Be friendly and cheerful
5. Be cordial
6. Be genuinely interested in people
7. Be generous with praise, be cautious with
8. Be considerate with the feelings of the others.
9. Be thoughtful of the opinion of others.
10. Be alert to give service to others.
Other related techniques of
human relations:
1. Be fair and frank always.
2. Keep secrets
3. Do not gossip
4. Criticize and argue politely
5. Admit your mistakes
6. Recognize the merits and valid arguments of
7. Be honest
8. Be humble
9. Respect the convictions, beliefs and practices of
10. Be grateful all the time.
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