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MEEG 301 Fluid Mechanics 3Cr.

Hari Prasad Neopane,PhD


Associate Professor & EnPe-MPPOES
Coordinator
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Schedule:
Tuesday: 9-11
Thursday: 12-14
Course Syllabus
• Fluid Properties and Definitions: Definition of fluid, Scope of fluid mechanics, Basic
equations, Methods of analysis, Fluid as a continuum, Velocity field, Stress field, Fluid
viscosity. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid. Density. Surface
tension. Compressibility. Vapour pressure. Cohesion and adhesion, Classification of fluid
motions.
• Fluid Statics: Pressure at a point, Basic equation of fluid statics, pressure variation in a static
fluid, the standard atmosphere, Hydrostatic force on submerged plane and curved surfaces,
Buoyancy and Stability, Fluids in rigid body motion.
• Kinematics of Fluid Flow: Timelines, Streamlines, Streak lines, path lines, stream function,
velocity potential, acceleration of fluid particle in a velocity field, Irrotational flow, fluid rotation,
fluid deformation, circulation and vorticity in cylindrical and rectangular coordinates.
• Basic Equations of Fluid Flow: Basic laws for a system-Conservation of mass, Newton’s
Second Law, Principle of angular momentum, First law of thermodynamics. Reynolds
Transport theorem, Euler’s Equation, Bernoulli’s Equation, Bernoulli equation applied to
irrotational flow, Static, Stagnation and Dynamic Pressures, Pitot tube, Pitot-Static tube. Flow
measurement devices- venturi meter, orifice meter, nozzle meter. Forces due to fluid motion -
Elbow reaction, Jet Propulsion, forces on fixed and moving vanes.
• Viscous Flow: Boundary layer concept, Boundary layer thickness, flow over flat plates,
Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow, fully developed laminar flow between parallel
plates, laminar flow in pipes and ducts, Energy consideration in pipe flow, Calculation of head
loss, Fluid flow about immersed bodies-flow over flat plates, drag on immersed bodies.
• Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Nature of dimensional analysis, Buckingham Pi
theorem, Determining the Pi groups, Dimensionless groups, Flow similarity and model
studies.
• Introduction to Compressible flow: Propagation of sound waves, Stagnation properties,
Basic equations for Isentropic flow, Effect of area variation in Isentropic flow, Isentropic flow of
an ideal gas-Basic Equations, Reference conditions, Isentropic flow in converging nozzle,
Isentropic flow in Diverging nozzle.
References
• Fox, R.W., & McDonald, A.T., Introduction to Fluid
Mechanics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons
• Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, Fourth Edition.
• Kumar, K.L., Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Eurasia
Publishing House, New Delhi, 1995.
• Streeter & Wylie, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.,
Eighth Edition
• Dr. R. K. Bansal, A text book of Fluid Mechanics and
Hydraulic Machines (SI Unit)
• Dr. Jagadish Lal, A text book of fluid Mechanics
• Dr. D. S. Kumar, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power
Engineering (SI Unit) [Recommended to buy]
Evaluation
Fluid Mechanics
• Fluids essential to life
– Human body 65% water
– Earth’s surface is 2/3 water
– Atmosphere extends 17 km above the earth’s surface
• History shaped by fluid mechanics
– Geomorphology
– Human migration and civilization
– Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods
– Warfare
• Affects every part of our lives
History
Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes Newton Leibniz Bernoulli Euler


(C. 287-212 BC) (1642-1727) (1646-1716) (1667-1748) (1707-1783)

Navier Stokes Reynolds Prandtl Taylor


(1785-1836) (1819-1903) (1842-1912) (1875-1953) (1886-1975)
Significance
• Fluids omnipresent
– Weather & climate
– Vehicles: automobiles, trains, ships, and
planes, etc.
– Environment
– Physiology and medicine
– Sports & recreation
– Many other examples!
Weather & Climate
Tornadoes Thunderstorm

Global Climate Hurricane


s
Vehicles
Aircraft Surface ships

High-speed rail Submarines


Environment
Air pollution River hydraulics
Physiology and Medicine
Blood pump Ventricular assist device
Sports & Recreation
Water sports Cycling Offshore racing

Auto racing Surfing


Fluid Mechanics
• First, what is a fluid?
– Three common states of matters are solid, liquid,
and gases
– A solid has volume and shape, liquid has volume
but no shape, and gas has neither
– A fluid is either a liquid or a gas
– If surface effects are not present, the flow
behaves similarly in all common fluids, whether
gases or liquids
• Formal definition of fluid
– A fluid is substance which deforms continuously
under the application of a shear stress
Fluid Mechanics contd..
• Definition of stress:
– A stress is defined as a force per unit area,
acting on an infinitesimal surface element
– Stresses have both magnitude (force per unit
area) and direction, and the direction is
relative to the surface on which the stress acts
Stress contd..
Normal stresses and tangential stresses

Pressure is an example of a normal stress, and acts inwards,


towards the surface, and perpendicular to the surface

A shear stress is an example of a tangential stress, i.e. it acts


along the surface, parallel to the surface. Friction due to
viscosity is the primary source of shear stresses in a fluid
Stress contd..
One can construct a free body diagram of a little
particle to visualize both the normal and shear
stresses acting on the body
Stress contd..
• Fluids at rest cannot resist a shear stress
• When a shear stress is applied to a fluid at rest,
the fluid will not remain at rest, but will move
because of the shear stress

A fluid can easily be distinguished


from a solid by application of a
shear stress
Fluid Mechanics contd..
• Spacing and the latitude of the motion of
molecules is large in a gas, small in liquid
and extremely small in a solid
• Intermolecular bonds are very weak in a
gas, weak in liquid and very strong in solid
• Solid is very compact and rigid in form,
liquid accommodates itself to the shape of
its container, and gas fills up the whole of
the vessel containing it
Fluid Mechanics contd..
• Next, what is mechanics?
– Mechanics is essentially the application of the laws of force and
motion
• So putting it together,: Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids
either in motion(fluid dynamics) or at rest (fluid static) and the
subsequent effects of the fluid upon the boundaries, which
may be either solid surfaces or interfaces with other fluids
• Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The
main equation required for this in Newton’s second law for
non-accelerating bodies, i. e.,  F  0
• Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. The main
equation required for this is Newton’s second law for
accelerating bodies, i.e.
 F  ma
Fluid Mechanics contd..
• In other words: Fluid mechanics is that branch of
engineering science which deals with the behavior of
fluid under the conditions of rest and motion
• Divided in to three parts: Statics, Kinematics and
Dynamics
• Statics: study of incompressible fluids under static
conditions is called hydrostatics and that dealing with
the compressible static gases is termed as aerostatics
• Kinematics: deals with the velocities, accelerations
and the patterns of flow only. Forces or energy
causing velocity and acceleration are not dealt here
• Dynamics: deals with the relations between velocities,
accelerations of fluid with the forces or energy causing
them
Applications
• Breathing, Blood flow, Swimming, Pumps,
Fans, Turbines, Airplanes
• Ships, Rivers, Windmills, Pipes, Missiles,
Ice-bergs
• Engines, Filters, Jets, Sprinklers, to name
a few
Continuum of fluid
• Although fluids consists of discrete molecules, analysis of the
fluid flow problems is made by a concept that treats fluid as
continuous media
• All voids or cavities, microscopic or macroscopic , which may
occur in the fluids are ignored
• The physical properties of the fluids are then continuous from
point to point and can be expressed by continuous algebraic
functions of space and time coordinates
• In other words, the fluid properties are treated to be same at a
point and identical in all directions from specified point
• A continuous and homogeneous fluid medium is called
continuum
• From this view point, the overall properties and the behavior
of fluids can be studied without regard for its atomic and
molecular structure
Properties of Fluids
• Every fluid has certain characteristics by means of which its
physical condition may be described
• Such characteristics are called properties of the fluid
• System:
– a prescribed and identifiable quantity of matter, i.e., fluid whose
characteristics are under investigation
• Property:
– any characteristic of a system that can be used to defined its
state
• Intensive property:
– a property whose magnitude is independent of the amount of
matter like pressure, temperature, mass density etc.
• Extensive property:
– a property whose magnitude is related to the total mass of the
system like mass, weight, volume etc.
Density or mass density:
• Amount of fluid contained in a given volume
and is defined as the mass per unit volume
mass of fluid

volume of fluid
• The density of a fluid diminishes with rise of
temperature, except for water which has a
maximum value at 4 °C
• The mass density of water at 15.5 °C is 1000
kg/m3, and for air at 20 °C and atm. pr. the
mass density is 1.24 kg/m3
Specific weight or weight density
• Specific weight of the fluid is its weight per unit volume
weight of fluid m g
w   g
volume of fluid volume of fluid

• Product of its mass and the local gravitational acceleration


• Unit of measurement of specific weight is N/m3
• For pure water under std. atm. pr. of 760 mm of mercury at
MSl and temp. of 4 °C, the sp. wt. is 9810 N/m3
• For sea level, the sp. wt. equal to 10000-10105 N/m3
• Air has sp. wt. of 11.9 N/m3 at 15 °C temp. and std. atm. pr.
• Changes from place to place depending upon changes in ‘g’
Specific volume:
• Sp. vol. represents the volume per unit
mass of fluid
volume of fluid 1
Sp. volume  
mass of fluid 

• reversed of the mass density


• Concept of sp. vol. is found more useful in
the study of flow of compressible fluids
Specific gravity:
• Ratio of sp. weight (or mass density) of fluid to the
sp. weight (or mass density) of a standard fluid
weight density of liquid
sL 
weight density of water

• Dimensionless and has no unit


• For liquid standard fluid is water at 4 °C, and for
gas the standard fluid is air or hydrogen at 0 °C
• Sp. gravity of mercury is 13.6 implies that its
weight (or mass) is 13.6 times heavier than water
Gas Laws: Thermodynamic
relations
p
• Perfect gas pV  mRT ; pv  RT ;  RT

• R is characteristic gas constant. R for air is 287 Nm/kg K
• A change in the density due to change in temperature or by
change in pressure

• A change in the state of fluid system at constant pressure


constitutes an isobaric or constant pr. process

• Charles law,
V v 1
 const .;   const.
T T T
Gas Laws: Thermodynamic rel.
contd..
• A change in the state of the fluid system at
constant temp. constitutes isothermal
process
• Boyle’s law, p
pV  const .; pv   const.

• When no heat is given or taken from the
fluid system during its change from one
state to another, the process is called
adiabatic   p
pV  const.; pv  
 const.

Compressibility and Bulk Modulus
• Compressibility of fluid characterizes ability to change its
volume under pressure
• Relative change of volume per unit pr. is given by coefficient
of compressibility
1  dV 
 c    
V  dp 
• Where ‘dp’ is the small change in pr. applied to the fluid and
‘dV’ is the incremental volume change in the original volume
‘V’
• Negative sign implies that a positive pr. increment results in a
negative volume increment
• Compressibility of fluid is expressed by its bulk modulus of
elasticity ‘K’, which is the inverse of the coefficient of
compressibility 1 dp
K 
c dV / V
Compressibility contd..
• The bulk modulus of elasticity measures the
compressive stress per unit volumetric strain
• For isothermal process;
pV  const .
pdV  Vdp  0
dp
or p ; Kp
dV / V
• For adiabatic process:
pV   const.; pV  1dV  V  dp  0
dp
or  p   ; K  p
dV / V
Compressibility contd..
• Bulk modulus of elasticity increases somewhat
with temp. and pr.
• At ordinary temp. and pr. K=20x108 N/m2 for
water and K=1.05x105 N/m2 for air
• That indicates that air is ~ 20,000 times more
compressible than water
• If 1 m3 of water is subjected to pr. of 10 bar.
What is a change in the volume of water ?
 dV  ;

V  dp 1 10 105
1
m 3

K 20 108 2000
Viscosity (Dynamic & Kinematic)
• Property of fluid which offers
resistance to the movement of
one layer of fluid over another
adjacent layer of fluid
• The top layer causes a shear
stress on the adjacent lower
layer while the lower layer
causes a shear stress on the
du
adjacent top layer 
• This shear stress is dy
proportional to the rate of du
change of velocity w. r .t. ‘y’  
dy
Unit (SI): N-s/m2
Kinematic Viscosity
• It is ratio of dynamic viscosity and density of fluid (Unit: m2/s)



• Maximum shear stress
occur where the velocity
gradient is the largest and
shear stresses disappear
where the velocity gradient is
zero

• Velocity gradient at the solid boundary has a finite value

• Velocity gradient becomes less steep (du/dy becomes small) with


distance from the boundary. This means that maximum value of shear
stress occurs at the boundary and progressively decreases with
distance from the boundary
Newton’s Law of viscosity
• It states that the shear stress on a fluid
layer is directly proportional to the rate of
shear strain, du
 
dy
• Newtonian fluid and Non-Newtonian fluids
• Fluids for which the viscosity is
independent of velocity gradient are called
Newtonian fluids and velocity gradient is
straight line passing through the origin
Newton’s Law of viscosity contd..
Slope of the line equal to the coefficient of viscosity

Newtonian Fluids Non- Newtonian Fluids


Example
Newtonian Non- Newtonian
• Air • Human blood
• Water • Milk
• Kerosene • Liquid cement
• Thin lubricating oil • Clay
• Concentration solution of
• Many more engineering sugar
fluids
• Thick lubricating oil
• Certain suspensions for
which the viscosity
coefficient depends upon
velocity gradient etc.
Viscosity for Non-Newtonian Fluids
• Prescribed by the power law
n
 du 
  k  
 dy 
• Where ‘k’ is consistency index and ‘n’ is a flow
behavior index
• For Newtonian fluid, the ‘k’ becomes the dynamic
viscosity coefficient and ‘n’ is unity value
• Fluids for which the ‘n’ is less than unity value are
called pseudo-plastic
• Fluids for which the ‘n’ is greater than unity value
are called dilatant
Types of the fluids
• Ideal Fluid: An incompressible &
inviscid fluid
• Real Fluid: Fluid with viscosity
• Newtonian Fluid: Curves (a) and
(b), where (a) is more viscous
• Non-Newtonian Fluid: A fluid in
which shear stress is not
proportional to rate of shear
strain
• Ideal plastic fluid: A fluid in
which shear stress is more than
the yield value and shear stress
is proportional to velocity gradient
Types of the fluids contd..
• Viscosity coefficient is smaller at greater rates of
velocity gradient and the curves becomes flatter
as the shear stress increases, curve (c)
• Example of pseudo-plastic fluids are, milk, blood,
clay and liquid cement etc
• Fluids for which the index ‘n’ is greater than unity
are called dilatant. Viscosity coefficient is more at
greater rates of viscosity gradient and the flow
curve steeps with increasing shear rate (curve d)
• Concentrated solution of sugar and aqueous
suspension of rice starch are examples
Types of the fluids contd..
• An ideal plastic substance indicates no deformation
when stressed up to a certain point (yield stress) and
beyond that it behaves like a Newtonian fluid (line e)
• For a certain substances, there is finite deformation for
a given load, i.e. rate of deformation is zero, called
elastic material or ideal solids (line f). Actual solid
deform slightly when subjected to shear stress of
larger magnitude (line g)
• A fluid which shear stress is zero (even if there is
velocity gradient) is the ideal fluid (line h)
• Non -Newtonian fluid study is under the science called
Rheology
Summary of Relations
du
 0 Ideal Fluids,    Newtonian Fluids (Air, water, kerosene etc.)
dy
n
du  du  Thixotropic fluids
  const    Ideal Plastics,   const     
dy  dy  (eg. Printer’s ink)
n
 du 
      Non-Newtonian fluids
 dy 
If n < 1,Pseudo-plastics (eg. Bood, milk, liquid cement, clay, paper pulp, rubber
suspension paints etc.)

If n > 1, Dilatents (eg. Butter, sugar solution, aqueous suspension, printing ink etc.)

If n = 1, Bingham fluid or ideal plastics (eg. Drilling mud, sewage sludge, water
suspension of clay and fly ash etc.)
Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian
• Newtonian fluids: water,  (Pa)
air.
Newtonian
• Pseudoplastic fluids: Bingham-plastic
(high μ)
milk, blood, yogurt, clay
and liquid cement.
• Dilatant fluids:
concentration solution of
0
sugar, aqueous Pseudo-plastic
suspension and, printing (shear-thinning)
ink.
• Bingham fluids:
toothpaste, clay, sewage Newtonian
sludge (low μ)
• Visco-elastic fluids:
polymers (not shown in Dilatant (shear-thickening)
graph because viscosity
is not isotropic). Strain rate (1/s)
Assignment 1
• The general relation between shear stress and
velocity gradient of a fluid can be written as
n
 du 
  A     B
 dy 
• Where A, B, and n are constants that depend upon
the type of fluid and conditions imposed on the
flow. Comment on the value of these constants so
that the fluid may behave as:
– An ideal fluid
– A Newtonian fluid
– A non- Newtonian fluid
How viscosity of fluid varies with
temperature?
• Liquids:
– Cohesive force are larger than molecular
momentum transfer
– Increase in temperature decreases cohesive
force thus viscosity decreases

• Gases:
– Cohesive force are smaller than molecular
momentum transfer
– Increase in temperature increases the molecular
momentum thus viscosity increases
Empirical Relations for variation of
viscosity with Temp.& Pressure
0
For liquids t 
1  At  Bt 2

Where 0  0.00179 Ns/m2 A = 0.03368 and B = 0.000221

 p  0 exp[ K ( p  p0 )] Where, K is a constant

For gases t   0    t    t 2

For air 0  1.7 10


5
Ns/m2

  0.056 107   0.1189 109


Surface tension and Capillarity
• Cohesion and adhesion
• Force between like molecules are
cohesive and force between unlike
molecules are adhesive
• What happen if mercury is spilled on a
smooth horizontal surface?
• What will happen if water instead of
mercury?
Cohesion and adhesion
Illustrates the liquid gas interface with a solid surface

• In mercury, cohesive molecular force is dominating


and in water adhesive force is dominating
• Mercury tends to gather in to droplets and to stay
away from the surface, known as non-wetting liquid
• Water spread out and wet the horizontal surface
Cohesion and adhesion contd..
• The wetting and non wetting of the surface is dictated
by angle of contact between the liquid and the surface
material
• Liquid would wet the surface when    / 2
• Degree of wetting is increases as θ is decreases to
zero
• For non wetting liquid    / 2
• The contact angle is dependent on the nature and type
of liquid, the solid surface and its cleanliness
• For pure water in contact with a clean glass surface θ
is 0 °
• Even when water is slightly contaminated θ >25 °
• For mercury (non -wetting liquid) θ between 130 to
150 °
Surface tension
• The tensile force per unit length of the free
surface is called as surface tension, unit
N/m
Surface tension contd..

• Surface tension occurs at the interface of liquid and a


gas or at the interface of two liquids, and is essentially
due to inter-molecular force of cohesion
• Generally negligible in comparison with the pr. and
gravitational forces, but important in model analysis
Surface tension contd..
• The value of surface tension depends upon
– Nature of the liquid
– Nature of the surrounding matter which may be a
solid, liquid or gas
– Kinetic energy and hence the temperature of
liquid molecules
• Rises in temperature results in a reduction of
the inter-molecular cohesive forces and
hence reduction of the surface tension force
Physics of surface tension
• Capillary rise or depression
• Break-up of liquids jets
• Formation of dew drops on grass early
morning
• Dust particles collecting on water surface
• Formation of large soap bubbles with
gentle blowing
• Spherical shape of a droplet of liquid
Surface tension of gases
• Intermolecular distance among the gas
molecules is very large and consequently
there is no appreciable force of cohesion
• Why are small drops of mercury always
spherical, but larger ones are somewhat
flattened?
• Surface tension and force of gravity
Pressure inside a liquid droplet
• Due to surface tension acting at the interface, the pr.
inside a small droplet or bubble becomes greater than
ambient pr.
• Consider a small spherical droplet of liquid of diameter
‘d’ and let it be cut into two halves

 d2
1) Pressure force  pi  po 
4
2) Tensile force due to surface tension acts around the
circumference and equal   circumference     d
Pressure inside a liquid droplet
contd..
• Under equilibrium conditions, these two
force equal and opposite
 d2
 pi  po     d
4
   d 4
 pi  po   
d 2
d
4
• This means that pressure within a liquid
droplet varies inversely as its diameter
For soap bubble
• A soap bubble has two surfaces in contact
with air, one inside and other outside
• Surface tension will act on both the
surfaces and accordingly,
4
 pi  po    d  2   d 
2

2   d  8
 pi  po   
d 2
d
4
For liquid jet
• Consider a cylindrical liquid jet of diameter
‘d’ and length ‘l’
• Pressure force   pi  po  l d
• Surface tension force    2 l
• Equating,
 pi  po  l d    2 l
 2 l
2
 pi  po   
ld d
Capillary or meniscus effect
• The phenomenon of liquid rise or fall in a
capillary tube is called the capillary or
meniscus effect
• Capillary is a surface tension effect that
depends upon the relative inter-molecular
attraction between different substances
• It is due to both cohesion and adhesion
• Let consider glass tube dipped into water
and mercury container
Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
• Adhesion between glass and water
molecules is greater than cohesion between
water molecules
• Water molecules spread over the glass
surface and form a concave meniscus with
small angle of contact
• Opposite is hold good for mercury. This
means that mercury displays a convex
meniscus with angle of contact greater than
90 °C
Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
• Knowing surface tension, angle of contact, tube
diameter, sp. wt. of liquid, the rise (water) or
depression (mercury) of the liquid in the capillary
tube can be worked out
• Weight of the liquid raised or lowered in the tube
= (area of tube x rise or fall) sp. wt.
 2 
  d h w
4 
• Vertical component of surface tension
force   cos   circumference
  cos    d   d   cos 
Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
• When in equilibrium, the downward weight of the liquid
column ‘h’ is balanced by the vertical component of the
force of the surface tension

d 2  h  w    d   cos 
4
4  cos 
h
w d
0    90 0 ‘h’ is positive (concave meniscus and capillary
rise)

90    1800 ‘h’ is negative (convex meniscus and capillary fall)


Capillary or meniscus effect contd..
• Capillary action is inversely proportional to
the tube diameter
• For precise work, the small diameter tube
are to be avoided
• Recommended minimum tube diameter for
water and mercury is 6 mm
Vapor pressure
• Vapor pressure is defined as the pressure at which
a liquid will boil (vaporize)
• Vapor pressure rises as temperature rises
• Vapor pressure is important to fluid flows because,
in general, pressure in a flow decreases as
velocity increases
• This can lead to cavitation, which is generally
destructive and undesirable
• In particular, at high speeds the local pressure of a
liquid sometimes drops below the vapor pressure
of the liquid. In such a case, cavitation occurs
Vapor pressure contd..
• Cavitation is not desirable for several reasons
– it causes noise (as the cavitation bubbles
collapse when they migrate into regions of higher
pressure)
– it can lead to inefficiencies and reduction of heat
transfer in pumps and turbines (turbo-machines)
– the collapse of these cavitation bubbles causes
pitting and corrosion of blades and other surfaces
nearby
Vapor pressure contd..
• To overcome cavitation, the pressure at any
point in the fluid phenomenon should not be
allowed to fall bellow the saturated vapor
pressure at the local temperature
• Vapor pressure of water is 0.235 N/cm2 and
mercury is 1.72x10-5 N/cm2 at 20 °C
• Mercury has the lowest value of vapor
pressure and this combined with high density
makes it most suitable for use in
thermometers and manometers