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Associate Professor & EnPe-MPPOES

Coordinator

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Schedule:

Tuesday: 9-11

Thursday: 12-14

Course Syllabus

• Fluid Properties and Definitions: Definition of fluid, Scope of fluid mechanics, Basic

equations, Methods of analysis, Fluid as a continuum, Velocity field, Stress field, Fluid

viscosity. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid. Density. Surface

tension. Compressibility. Vapour pressure. Cohesion and adhesion, Classification of fluid

motions.

• Fluid Statics: Pressure at a point, Basic equation of fluid statics, pressure variation in a static

fluid, the standard atmosphere, Hydrostatic force on submerged plane and curved surfaces,

Buoyancy and Stability, Fluids in rigid body motion.

• Kinematics of Fluid Flow: Timelines, Streamlines, Streak lines, path lines, stream function,

velocity potential, acceleration of fluid particle in a velocity field, Irrotational flow, fluid rotation,

fluid deformation, circulation and vorticity in cylindrical and rectangular coordinates.

• Basic Equations of Fluid Flow: Basic laws for a system-Conservation of mass, Newton’s

Second Law, Principle of angular momentum, First law of thermodynamics. Reynolds

Transport theorem, Euler’s Equation, Bernoulli’s Equation, Bernoulli equation applied to

irrotational flow, Static, Stagnation and Dynamic Pressures, Pitot tube, Pitot-Static tube. Flow

measurement devices- venturi meter, orifice meter, nozzle meter. Forces due to fluid motion -

Elbow reaction, Jet Propulsion, forces on fixed and moving vanes.

• Viscous Flow: Boundary layer concept, Boundary layer thickness, flow over flat plates,

Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow, fully developed laminar flow between parallel

plates, laminar flow in pipes and ducts, Energy consideration in pipe flow, Calculation of head

loss, Fluid flow about immersed bodies-flow over flat plates, drag on immersed bodies.

• Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Nature of dimensional analysis, Buckingham Pi

theorem, Determining the Pi groups, Dimensionless groups, Flow similarity and model

studies.

• Introduction to Compressible flow: Propagation of sound waves, Stagnation properties,

Basic equations for Isentropic flow, Effect of area variation in Isentropic flow, Isentropic flow of

an ideal gas-Basic Equations, Reference conditions, Isentropic flow in converging nozzle,

Isentropic flow in Diverging nozzle.

References

• Fox, R.W., & McDonald, A.T., Introduction to Fluid

Mechanics, Fifth Edition, John Wiley & Sons

• Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, Fourth Edition.

• Kumar, K.L., Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Eurasia

Publishing House, New Delhi, 1995.

• Streeter & Wylie, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill Inc.,

Eighth Edition

• Dr. R. K. Bansal, A text book of Fluid Mechanics and

Hydraulic Machines (SI Unit)

• Dr. Jagadish Lal, A text book of fluid Mechanics

• Dr. D. S. Kumar, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power

Engineering (SI Unit) [Recommended to buy]

Evaluation

Fluid Mechanics

• Fluids essential to life

– Human body 65% water

– Earth’s surface is 2/3 water

– Atmosphere extends 17 km above the earth’s surface

• History shaped by fluid mechanics

– Geomorphology

– Human migration and civilization

– Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods

– Warfare

• Affects every part of our lives

History

Faces of Fluid Mechanics

(C. 287-212 BC) (1642-1727) (1646-1716) (1667-1748) (1707-1783)

(1785-1836) (1819-1903) (1842-1912) (1875-1953) (1886-1975)

Significance

• Fluids omnipresent

– Weather & climate

– Vehicles: automobiles, trains, ships, and

planes, etc.

– Environment

– Physiology and medicine

– Sports & recreation

– Many other examples!

Weather & Climate

Tornadoes Thunderstorm

s

Vehicles

Aircraft Surface ships

Environment

Air pollution River hydraulics

Physiology and Medicine

Blood pump Ventricular assist device

Sports & Recreation

Water sports Cycling Offshore racing

Fluid Mechanics

• First, what is a fluid?

– Three common states of matters are solid, liquid,

and gases

– A solid has volume and shape, liquid has volume

but no shape, and gas has neither

– A fluid is either a liquid or a gas

– If surface effects are not present, the flow

behaves similarly in all common fluids, whether

gases or liquids

• Formal definition of fluid

– A fluid is substance which deforms continuously

under the application of a shear stress

Fluid Mechanics contd..

• Definition of stress:

– A stress is defined as a force per unit area,

acting on an infinitesimal surface element

– Stresses have both magnitude (force per unit

area) and direction, and the direction is

relative to the surface on which the stress acts

Stress contd..

Normal stresses and tangential stresses

towards the surface, and perpendicular to the surface

along the surface, parallel to the surface. Friction due to

viscosity is the primary source of shear stresses in a fluid

Stress contd..

One can construct a free body diagram of a little

particle to visualize both the normal and shear

stresses acting on the body

Stress contd..

• Fluids at rest cannot resist a shear stress

• When a shear stress is applied to a fluid at rest,

the fluid will not remain at rest, but will move

because of the shear stress

from a solid by application of a

shear stress

Fluid Mechanics contd..

• Spacing and the latitude of the motion of

molecules is large in a gas, small in liquid

and extremely small in a solid

• Intermolecular bonds are very weak in a

gas, weak in liquid and very strong in solid

• Solid is very compact and rigid in form,

liquid accommodates itself to the shape of

its container, and gas fills up the whole of

the vessel containing it

Fluid Mechanics contd..

• Next, what is mechanics?

– Mechanics is essentially the application of the laws of force and

motion

• So putting it together,: Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids

either in motion(fluid dynamics) or at rest (fluid static) and the

subsequent effects of the fluid upon the boundaries, which

may be either solid surfaces or interfaces with other fluids

• Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The

main equation required for this in Newton’s second law for

non-accelerating bodies, i. e., F 0

• Fluid dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. The main

equation required for this is Newton’s second law for

accelerating bodies, i.e.

F ma

Fluid Mechanics contd..

• In other words: Fluid mechanics is that branch of

engineering science which deals with the behavior of

fluid under the conditions of rest and motion

• Divided in to three parts: Statics, Kinematics and

Dynamics

• Statics: study of incompressible fluids under static

conditions is called hydrostatics and that dealing with

the compressible static gases is termed as aerostatics

• Kinematics: deals with the velocities, accelerations

and the patterns of flow only. Forces or energy

causing velocity and acceleration are not dealt here

• Dynamics: deals with the relations between velocities,

accelerations of fluid with the forces or energy causing

them

Applications

• Breathing, Blood flow, Swimming, Pumps,

Fans, Turbines, Airplanes

• Ships, Rivers, Windmills, Pipes, Missiles,

Ice-bergs

• Engines, Filters, Jets, Sprinklers, to name

a few

Continuum of fluid

• Although fluids consists of discrete molecules, analysis of the

fluid flow problems is made by a concept that treats fluid as

continuous media

• All voids or cavities, microscopic or macroscopic , which may

occur in the fluids are ignored

• The physical properties of the fluids are then continuous from

point to point and can be expressed by continuous algebraic

functions of space and time coordinates

• In other words, the fluid properties are treated to be same at a

point and identical in all directions from specified point

• A continuous and homogeneous fluid medium is called

continuum

• From this view point, the overall properties and the behavior

of fluids can be studied without regard for its atomic and

molecular structure

Properties of Fluids

• Every fluid has certain characteristics by means of which its

physical condition may be described

• Such characteristics are called properties of the fluid

• System:

– a prescribed and identifiable quantity of matter, i.e., fluid whose

characteristics are under investigation

• Property:

– any characteristic of a system that can be used to defined its

state

• Intensive property:

– a property whose magnitude is independent of the amount of

matter like pressure, temperature, mass density etc.

• Extensive property:

– a property whose magnitude is related to the total mass of the

system like mass, weight, volume etc.

Density or mass density:

• Amount of fluid contained in a given volume

and is defined as the mass per unit volume

mass of fluid

volume of fluid

• The density of a fluid diminishes with rise of

temperature, except for water which has a

maximum value at 4 °C

• The mass density of water at 15.5 °C is 1000

kg/m3, and for air at 20 °C and atm. pr. the

mass density is 1.24 kg/m3

Specific weight or weight density

• Specific weight of the fluid is its weight per unit volume

weight of fluid m g

w g

volume of fluid volume of fluid

• Unit of measurement of specific weight is N/m3

• For pure water under std. atm. pr. of 760 mm of mercury at

MSl and temp. of 4 °C, the sp. wt. is 9810 N/m3

• For sea level, the sp. wt. equal to 10000-10105 N/m3

• Air has sp. wt. of 11.9 N/m3 at 15 °C temp. and std. atm. pr.

• Changes from place to place depending upon changes in ‘g’

Specific volume:

• Sp. vol. represents the volume per unit

mass of fluid

volume of fluid 1

Sp. volume

mass of fluid

• Concept of sp. vol. is found more useful in

the study of flow of compressible fluids

Specific gravity:

• Ratio of sp. weight (or mass density) of fluid to the

sp. weight (or mass density) of a standard fluid

weight density of liquid

sL

weight density of water

• For liquid standard fluid is water at 4 °C, and for

gas the standard fluid is air or hydrogen at 0 °C

• Sp. gravity of mercury is 13.6 implies that its

weight (or mass) is 13.6 times heavier than water

Gas Laws: Thermodynamic

relations

p

• Perfect gas pV mRT ; pv RT ; RT

• R is characteristic gas constant. R for air is 287 Nm/kg K

• A change in the density due to change in temperature or by

change in pressure

constitutes an isobaric or constant pr. process

• Charles law,

V v 1

const .; const.

T T T

Gas Laws: Thermodynamic rel.

contd..

• A change in the state of the fluid system at

constant temp. constitutes isothermal

process

• Boyle’s law, p

pV const .; pv const.

• When no heat is given or taken from the

fluid system during its change from one

state to another, the process is called

adiabatic p

pV const.; pv

const.

Compressibility and Bulk Modulus

• Compressibility of fluid characterizes ability to change its

volume under pressure

• Relative change of volume per unit pr. is given by coefficient

of compressibility

1 dV

c

V dp

• Where ‘dp’ is the small change in pr. applied to the fluid and

‘dV’ is the incremental volume change in the original volume

‘V’

• Negative sign implies that a positive pr. increment results in a

negative volume increment

• Compressibility of fluid is expressed by its bulk modulus of

elasticity ‘K’, which is the inverse of the coefficient of

compressibility 1 dp

K

c dV / V

Compressibility contd..

• The bulk modulus of elasticity measures the

compressive stress per unit volumetric strain

• For isothermal process;

pV const .

pdV Vdp 0

dp

or p ; Kp

dV / V

• For adiabatic process:

pV const.; pV 1dV V dp 0

dp

or p ; K p

dV / V

Compressibility contd..

• Bulk modulus of elasticity increases somewhat

with temp. and pr.

• At ordinary temp. and pr. K=20x108 N/m2 for

water and K=1.05x105 N/m2 for air

• That indicates that air is ~ 20,000 times more

compressible than water

• If 1 m3 of water is subjected to pr. of 10 bar.

What is a change in the volume of water ?

dV ;

V dp 1 10 105

1

m 3

K 20 108 2000

Viscosity (Dynamic & Kinematic)

• Property of fluid which offers

resistance to the movement of

one layer of fluid over another

adjacent layer of fluid

• The top layer causes a shear

stress on the adjacent lower

layer while the lower layer

causes a shear stress on the

du

adjacent top layer

• This shear stress is dy

proportional to the rate of du

change of velocity w. r .t. ‘y’

dy

Unit (SI): N-s/m2

Kinematic Viscosity

• It is ratio of dynamic viscosity and density of fluid (Unit: m2/s)

• Maximum shear stress

occur where the velocity

gradient is the largest and

shear stresses disappear

where the velocity gradient is

zero

distance from the boundary. This means that maximum value of shear

stress occurs at the boundary and progressively decreases with

distance from the boundary

Newton’s Law of viscosity

• It states that the shear stress on a fluid

layer is directly proportional to the rate of

shear strain, du

dy

• Newtonian fluid and Non-Newtonian fluids

• Fluids for which the viscosity is

independent of velocity gradient are called

Newtonian fluids and velocity gradient is

straight line passing through the origin

Newton’s Law of viscosity contd..

Slope of the line equal to the coefficient of viscosity

Example

Newtonian Non- Newtonian

• Air • Human blood

• Water • Milk

• Kerosene • Liquid cement

• Thin lubricating oil • Clay

• Concentration solution of

• Many more engineering sugar

fluids

• Thick lubricating oil

• Certain suspensions for

which the viscosity

coefficient depends upon

velocity gradient etc.

Viscosity for Non-Newtonian Fluids

• Prescribed by the power law

n

du

k

dy

• Where ‘k’ is consistency index and ‘n’ is a flow

behavior index

• For Newtonian fluid, the ‘k’ becomes the dynamic

viscosity coefficient and ‘n’ is unity value

• Fluids for which the ‘n’ is less than unity value are

called pseudo-plastic

• Fluids for which the ‘n’ is greater than unity value

are called dilatant

Types of the fluids

• Ideal Fluid: An incompressible &

inviscid fluid

• Real Fluid: Fluid with viscosity

• Newtonian Fluid: Curves (a) and

(b), where (a) is more viscous

• Non-Newtonian Fluid: A fluid in

which shear stress is not

proportional to rate of shear

strain

• Ideal plastic fluid: A fluid in

which shear stress is more than

the yield value and shear stress

is proportional to velocity gradient

Types of the fluids contd..

• Viscosity coefficient is smaller at greater rates of

velocity gradient and the curves becomes flatter

as the shear stress increases, curve (c)

• Example of pseudo-plastic fluids are, milk, blood,

clay and liquid cement etc

• Fluids for which the index ‘n’ is greater than unity

are called dilatant. Viscosity coefficient is more at

greater rates of viscosity gradient and the flow

curve steeps with increasing shear rate (curve d)

• Concentrated solution of sugar and aqueous

suspension of rice starch are examples

Types of the fluids contd..

• An ideal plastic substance indicates no deformation

when stressed up to a certain point (yield stress) and

beyond that it behaves like a Newtonian fluid (line e)

• For a certain substances, there is finite deformation for

a given load, i.e. rate of deformation is zero, called

elastic material or ideal solids (line f). Actual solid

deform slightly when subjected to shear stress of

larger magnitude (line g)

• A fluid which shear stress is zero (even if there is

velocity gradient) is the ideal fluid (line h)

• Non -Newtonian fluid study is under the science called

Rheology

Summary of Relations

du

0 Ideal Fluids, Newtonian Fluids (Air, water, kerosene etc.)

dy

n

du du Thixotropic fluids

const Ideal Plastics, const

dy dy (eg. Printer’s ink)

n

du

Non-Newtonian fluids

dy

If n < 1,Pseudo-plastics (eg. Bood, milk, liquid cement, clay, paper pulp, rubber

suspension paints etc.)

If n > 1, Dilatents (eg. Butter, sugar solution, aqueous suspension, printing ink etc.)

If n = 1, Bingham fluid or ideal plastics (eg. Drilling mud, sewage sludge, water

suspension of clay and fly ash etc.)

Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian

• Newtonian fluids: water, (Pa)

air.

Newtonian

• Pseudoplastic fluids: Bingham-plastic

(high μ)

milk, blood, yogurt, clay

and liquid cement.

• Dilatant fluids:

concentration solution of

0

sugar, aqueous Pseudo-plastic

suspension and, printing (shear-thinning)

ink.

• Bingham fluids:

toothpaste, clay, sewage Newtonian

sludge (low μ)

• Visco-elastic fluids:

polymers (not shown in Dilatant (shear-thickening)

graph because viscosity

is not isotropic). Strain rate (1/s)

Assignment 1

• The general relation between shear stress and

velocity gradient of a fluid can be written as

n

du

A B

dy

• Where A, B, and n are constants that depend upon

the type of fluid and conditions imposed on the

flow. Comment on the value of these constants so

that the fluid may behave as:

– An ideal fluid

– A Newtonian fluid

– A non- Newtonian fluid

How viscosity of fluid varies with

temperature?

• Liquids:

– Cohesive force are larger than molecular

momentum transfer

– Increase in temperature decreases cohesive

force thus viscosity decreases

• Gases:

– Cohesive force are smaller than molecular

momentum transfer

– Increase in temperature increases the molecular

momentum thus viscosity increases

Empirical Relations for variation of

viscosity with Temp.& Pressure

0

For liquids t

1 At Bt 2

For gases t 0 t t 2

5

Ns/m2

Surface tension and Capillarity

• Cohesion and adhesion

• Force between like molecules are

cohesive and force between unlike

molecules are adhesive

• What happen if mercury is spilled on a

smooth horizontal surface?

• What will happen if water instead of

mercury?

Cohesion and adhesion

Illustrates the liquid gas interface with a solid surface

and in water adhesive force is dominating

• Mercury tends to gather in to droplets and to stay

away from the surface, known as non-wetting liquid

• Water spread out and wet the horizontal surface

Cohesion and adhesion contd..

• The wetting and non wetting of the surface is dictated

by angle of contact between the liquid and the surface

material

• Liquid would wet the surface when / 2

• Degree of wetting is increases as θ is decreases to

zero

• For non wetting liquid / 2

• The contact angle is dependent on the nature and type

of liquid, the solid surface and its cleanliness

• For pure water in contact with a clean glass surface θ

is 0 °

• Even when water is slightly contaminated θ >25 °

• For mercury (non -wetting liquid) θ between 130 to

150 °

Surface tension

• The tensile force per unit length of the free

surface is called as surface tension, unit

N/m

Surface tension contd..

gas or at the interface of two liquids, and is essentially

due to inter-molecular force of cohesion

• Generally negligible in comparison with the pr. and

gravitational forces, but important in model analysis

Surface tension contd..

• The value of surface tension depends upon

– Nature of the liquid

– Nature of the surrounding matter which may be a

solid, liquid or gas

– Kinetic energy and hence the temperature of

liquid molecules

• Rises in temperature results in a reduction of

the inter-molecular cohesive forces and

hence reduction of the surface tension force

Physics of surface tension

• Capillary rise or depression

• Break-up of liquids jets

• Formation of dew drops on grass early

morning

• Dust particles collecting on water surface

• Formation of large soap bubbles with

gentle blowing

• Spherical shape of a droplet of liquid

Surface tension of gases

• Intermolecular distance among the gas

molecules is very large and consequently

there is no appreciable force of cohesion

• Why are small drops of mercury always

spherical, but larger ones are somewhat

flattened?

• Surface tension and force of gravity

Pressure inside a liquid droplet

• Due to surface tension acting at the interface, the pr.

inside a small droplet or bubble becomes greater than

ambient pr.

• Consider a small spherical droplet of liquid of diameter

‘d’ and let it be cut into two halves

d2

1) Pressure force pi po

4

2) Tensile force due to surface tension acts around the

circumference and equal circumference d

Pressure inside a liquid droplet

contd..

• Under equilibrium conditions, these two

force equal and opposite

d2

pi po d

4

d 4

pi po

d 2

d

4

• This means that pressure within a liquid

droplet varies inversely as its diameter

For soap bubble

• A soap bubble has two surfaces in contact

with air, one inside and other outside

• Surface tension will act on both the

surfaces and accordingly,

4

pi po d 2 d

2

2 d 8

pi po

d 2

d

4

For liquid jet

• Consider a cylindrical liquid jet of diameter

‘d’ and length ‘l’

• Pressure force pi po l d

• Surface tension force 2 l

• Equating,

pi po l d 2 l

2 l

2

pi po

ld d

Capillary or meniscus effect

• The phenomenon of liquid rise or fall in a

capillary tube is called the capillary or

meniscus effect

• Capillary is a surface tension effect that

depends upon the relative inter-molecular

attraction between different substances

• It is due to both cohesion and adhesion

• Let consider glass tube dipped into water

and mercury container

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

• Adhesion between glass and water

molecules is greater than cohesion between

water molecules

• Water molecules spread over the glass

surface and form a concave meniscus with

small angle of contact

• Opposite is hold good for mercury. This

means that mercury displays a convex

meniscus with angle of contact greater than

90 °C

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

• Knowing surface tension, angle of contact, tube

diameter, sp. wt. of liquid, the rise (water) or

depression (mercury) of the liquid in the capillary

tube can be worked out

• Weight of the liquid raised or lowered in the tube

= (area of tube x rise or fall) sp. wt.

2

d h w

4

• Vertical component of surface tension

force cos circumference

cos d d cos

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

• When in equilibrium, the downward weight of the liquid

column ‘h’ is balanced by the vertical component of the

force of the surface tension

d 2 h w d cos

4

4 cos

h

w d

0 90 0 ‘h’ is positive (concave meniscus and capillary

rise)

Capillary or meniscus effect contd..

• Capillary action is inversely proportional to

the tube diameter

• For precise work, the small diameter tube

are to be avoided

• Recommended minimum tube diameter for

water and mercury is 6 mm

Vapor pressure

• Vapor pressure is defined as the pressure at which

a liquid will boil (vaporize)

• Vapor pressure rises as temperature rises

• Vapor pressure is important to fluid flows because,

in general, pressure in a flow decreases as

velocity increases

• This can lead to cavitation, which is generally

destructive and undesirable

• In particular, at high speeds the local pressure of a

liquid sometimes drops below the vapor pressure

of the liquid. In such a case, cavitation occurs

Vapor pressure contd..

• Cavitation is not desirable for several reasons

– it causes noise (as the cavitation bubbles

collapse when they migrate into regions of higher

pressure)

– it can lead to inefficiencies and reduction of heat

transfer in pumps and turbines (turbo-machines)

– the collapse of these cavitation bubbles causes

pitting and corrosion of blades and other surfaces

nearby

Vapor pressure contd..

• To overcome cavitation, the pressure at any

point in the fluid phenomenon should not be

allowed to fall bellow the saturated vapor

pressure at the local temperature

• Vapor pressure of water is 0.235 N/cm2 and

mercury is 1.72x10-5 N/cm2 at 20 °C

• Mercury has the lowest value of vapor

pressure and this combined with high density

makes it most suitable for use in

thermometers and manometers

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