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Mapua Institute of Technology

Intramuros , Manila


 Kim Zamudio
 Adrian Villacorta
 Cherubim Villafuerte
 Don RysserTibon
 Eldridge Robert Tacud
 Gabriel Remolona
 KinnoTendero
 Marc Teodoro
 Aries Santua
 Terell John Visperas

EE100 / A9

 Alternative Sources Of Energy --------------------------------------------------- 1

 Wind Power -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
 Solar Power --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
 Geothermal Energy ---------------------------------------------------------------- 4
 Hydroelectric Energy --------------------------------------------------------------- 5
 Biomass -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
 Ocean Energy ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
 Human power and Fuel cells ------------------------------------------------------ 8
 References ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

 There are many reasons the world is looking toward alternative energy
sources in an effort to reduce pollutants and greenhouse gases.
Alternative, or renewable energy, sources show significant promise in
helping to reduce the amount of toxins that are by-products of energy use
and help preserve many of the natural resources that we currently use as
sources of energy.
 To understand how alternative energy use can help preserve the delicate
ecological balance of the planet, and help us conserve the non-renewable
energy sources like fossil fuels, it is important to know what type of
alternative energy is out there. Let's take a look at some of the most
common sources available.
 There are many types of alternative resources that will found in this world.
There are few kinds of alternative sources of energy here are some :
 Wind Power
 Solar Power
 Geothermal Energy
 Hydroelectric Energy
 Biomass Energy
 Ocean Energy
 Human Power
 Fuel cells

 Wind energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the
blades of wind turbines. The rotation of turbine blades is
converted into electrical current by means of an electrical
generator. In the older windmills, wind energy was used to
turn mechanical machinery to do physical work, like
crushing grain or pumping water. Wind towers are usually
built together on wind farms.

 Wind power produces no pollution that can contaminate

the environment, Since no chemical processes take
place, as in the burning of fossil fuels, there are no
harmful by-products left over.
 Since wind generation is a renewable source of energy,
we will never run out of it.

Wind power is intermittent. Consistent wind is

needed for continuous power generation. If wind
speed decreases, the turbine lingers and less
electricity is generated.
Large wind farms can have a negative effect on
the scenery.

 Solar is the first energy source in the world. It was in use

much earlier before humans even learn how to light a
fire. Many living things are dependent on solar energy
from plants, aquatic life and the animals. The solar
energy coming down to the planet is affected by the
orbital path of the sun and its variations within the
 Solar energy is used commonly for heating, cooking, the
production of electricity, and even in the desalination of
seawater. Solar power works by trapping the sun's rays
into solar cells where this sunlight is then converted into
electricity. Additionally, solar power uses sunlight that
hits solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat
water or air..

 Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun

exists, its energy will reach Earth.
 Solar power generation releases no water or air
pollution, because there is no chemical reaction from
the combustion of fuels.
 The benefits of solar power are seen frequently to heat
pools, spas, and water tanks all over.

 Solar power does not produce energy if the sun is not shining.
Night time and cloudy days seriously limit the amount of energy
 Solar power stations can be very expensive to build.

 Geothermal literally means "earth heat." Geothermal

energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath
the Earth. Hot rocks under the ground heat water to
produce steam. When holes are drilled in the region, the
steam that shoots up is purified and is used to drive
turbines, which power electric generators.

 If done correctly, geothermal energy produces no harmful by-

 Once a geothermal plant is built, it is generally self-sufficient
energy wise.
 Geothermal power plants are usually small and have little effect
on the natural landscape.

 If done incorrectly, geothermal energy can produce pollutants.

 Improper drilling into the earth can release hazardous minerals
and gases.
 Geothermal sites are prone to running out of steam

 Hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of

dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.
Another variation is to make use of water's kinetic
energy or undammed sources such as tidal power.
Hydro power works by harnessing the gravitational
descent of a river that is compressed from a long run to
a single location with a dam or a flume

 Water can be accumulated above the dam and released

to coincide with peaks in demand. So, unlike other types
of power stations, hydroelectric power stations can
promptly increase to full capacity.
 Electricity can be generated constantly, because there
are no outside forces, unlike other forms of alternative
energy, which affect the availability of water.

Dams can be very expensive to build.

There needs to be a sufficient and powerful
enough supply of water in the area to produce

 This is the process by which an alternative energy is

generated through conversion of biological. This is the
process by which an alternative energy is generated
through conversion of biological materials and wastes
into forms that can be used as energy for heating,
power generation and transportation. Those carbon
based substances or materials concerted over a long
period of time to fossil fuels are not regarded as

 No harmful Emissions, for the most part, creates no harmful carbon dioxide
 It does release carbon dioxide but captures carbon dioxide for its own growth.

 Expensive.
 Inefficient as compared to Fossil Fuels.
 Harmful to environment – using animals and hman waste to power engine may
save on carbon dioxide emissions but increases methane gases which are harmful
to the ozone layer
 Require more land.

 The ocean can produce two types of energy the Thermal and
Mechanical Energy
 Thermal energy that come from the heat of the sun.
 Mecahnical energy that come from the tides and waves of the
 Oceans cover more than 70% of earth’s surface, making them
the worlds largest solar collectors. The suns heat warms the
surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this
temperature difference creates thernak energy. Just a small
portion of the heat trapped in the ocean could power the world

 Environmental Friendly
 Abundant and widely available
 Variety of war and harness
 Easily predictable
 Less dependency on Foreign Oil Cost

 Effect on marine ecosystem

 Source of disturbance for private commercial vessels
 They require a consistent flow of powerful waves to generate a
significant amount of wave power
 Weak performance of rough weather
 Ocean energy sources generators may be unpleasant for some
who lives close to coastal regions

 Human kinetic energy can be transfered in a number of ways.

Human energy is most commonly used to propel bicycles, but
can also be used to generate electricity and power hand-crank
tools. Some third world organizations are implementing human
powered technologies to generate electricity to power
computers and other appliances. The articles on this page are
about human kinetic energy and its many uses.

Create electricity by reacting fuel on the anode

side and an oxidant on the cathode side in the
presence of an electrolyte. The fuel can be in the
form of hydrogen, hydrocarbons and alcohols.
Oxygen is the predominant oxidant and can be
taken directly from air. Air going into the fuel cell
needs to be compressed and precisely controlled.

 Basic fuel cells running on pure hydrogen are pollution

free, giving off only electricity, water, and heat. The
potential for fuel cells to provide zero or near-zero
emissions has been a significant force in the
development of the technology over the past 30 years,
and is drawing increasing attention to the technology

Fuel cells were large and extremely expensive to

manufacture, just as the first calculators and
computers were. But, just like these products, the
cost of fuel cells will quickly come down to
consumer-affordable levels with mass production.


 http://www.conserve-energy-