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TRANSFORMERS

(BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION)

PRESENTED BY PROF. V.G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

OME TO ALL MY FRIEN
DERN TEMPLE OF LEAR

PROF. V. G. PATEL
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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

PRESENTATION FLOW
1) Introduction to Transformer
2) Definitions of Transformer
3) Invention of Transformer
4) Types of Transformer
5) Transformer for Special applications
6) Construction of Transformer
7) Transformer Material
8) Main parts of Transformer
9) Fittings and Accessories of Transformer
10) Types of Transformer Winding
11) Transformer Tappings
12) Types of Transformer Bushings
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

PRESENTATION FLOW
13) Buchholz Relay for Transformer
14) Emf equation of Transformer
15) Working of Transformer
16) Short circuit capacity
17) K-Factor of Transformer
18) Vector group of Transformers
19) Transformer Losses
20) Transformer Efficiency
21) Cooling of Transformer
22) Tests on Transformer
23) Failures in transformers and their causes
24) Country and supply frequency
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

1) Introduction to Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer

Need for transformer
Generation & Distribution
Power plant Transmission system Distribution system
Generator
GT 220 KV Distribution
Step down
transformer
11 KV

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer

 Transformer is an important link in power
system between generating station and
transmission sub station, between
transmission sub transmission and sub
transmission sub station, between sub
transmission sub station and primary
distribution sub station, finally between
primary distribution and the consumers.
 Capacity few KVA to hundreds of MVA.
 Variety of constructional and operating
features.

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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer
Transformers are ordered, designed
(as per I.S. 2026 & I.S. 1180),
manufactured, tested, transported,
installed, commissioned, operated &
maintained. The various activities are
inter-related and demand expertise
about different aspects of power
transformers. The knowledge about
the electrical power systems and
associated phenomena is useful.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer
 Electrical Transformer is a static piece of
apparatus used for transferring A.C. Electrical
power from one circuit to another without
changing the frequency.
 It can raise or lower the voltage with a correspon-
ding decrease or increase in current.
 In its simplest form, a transformer consist of two
conducting coils having a mutual inductance.
 The primary is the one which receive the power,
and the secondary is the one which may deliver.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer
Basically the transformer consists of Magnetic
Circuit (core), Electric Circuit (winding), Dielectric
Circuit (Insulation) and Cooling circuit.
• Core-type transformer: A transformer in which the
windings surround the limbs of the core.
• Shell-type transformer: A transformer in which the
core surrounds the major portion of the windings.
• Auto-transformer: A transformer in which the
primary and the secondary windings have a
common portion.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer
• Oil-immersed type transformer: A transformer
which has the core and windings immersed in oil (or
synthetic insulating liquid).
• Dry type transformer: The transformer which has
no oil or dielectric liquid.
• Single-phase transformer: It has a single phase
primary winding and a single phase secondary
winding (and may have a single phase third
winding).
• Three-phase Transformer: It has a set of three
phase primary winding and a three phase secondary
winding (and may have a three phase third winding).
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer
= = =An analogy = = =
A transformer can be likened to a mechanical gearbox, which
transfers mechanical energy from a high-speed, low torque
shaft to a lower-speed, higher-torque shaft, but which is not a
source of energy itself. A transformer transfers electrical
energy from a high-current, low-voltage circuit to a lower-
current, higher-voltage circuit.
The transformer may be considered as a simple two-wheel
‘gearbox’ for electrical voltage and current. The primary
winding is analogous to the input shaft and the secondary
winding to the output shaft. In this analogy, current is
equivalent to shaft speed, voltage to shaft torque. In a
gearbox, mechanical power (torque multiplied by speed) is
constant (neglecting losses) and is equivalent to electrical
power (voltage multiplied by current) which is also constant.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer
= = =An analogy = = =
The gear ratio is equivalent to the transformer step-up
or step-down ratio. A step-up transformer acts
analogously to a reduction gear (in which mechanical
power is transferred from a small, rapidly rotating gear
to a large, slowly rotating gear): it trades current
(speed) for voltage (torque), by transferring power from
a primary coil to a secondary coil having more turns. A
step-down transformer acts analogously to a multiplier
gear (in which mechanical power is transferred from a
large gear to a small gear): it trades voltage (torque)
for current (speed), by transferring power from a
primary coil to a secondary coil having fewer turns.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

oduction to Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

1) Introduction to Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

2) Definitions of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
1. A person or thing that transforms.
2. An electric device consisting essentially of two or more
windings wound on the same core, which by
electromagnetic induction (with an alternating current),
transforms electric energy from one set of one or more
circuits to another set of one or more circuits such that
the frequency of the energy remains unchanged while
the voltage and current usually change.
3. A device, with no moving parts, which transfers an
alternating current (AC) from one circuit (called the
primary winding) to one or more other circuits
(secondary winding) by electromagnetic induction,
usually with a change in voltage. There is no electrical
connection between two circuits.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
4. A transformer is an inductive stationary device which
transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another.
The transformer has two windings, primary and
secondary. A changing voltage applied to one of these,
usually the primary, induces a current to flow in the
other winding. A coupling transformer transfers energy
at the same voltage; a step-down transformer transfers
energy at a lower voltage, and a step-up transformer
transfers energy at a higher voltage.
5. A device used to change the voltage of an alternating
current in one circuit to a different voltage in a second
circuit, or to partially isolate two circuits from each
other. Transformers consist of two or more coils of
conducting material, such as wire, wrapped around a
core
8/15/18 (often made of iron). The magnetic field produced
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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
by an alternating current in one coil induces a similar
current in the other coils. If there are fewer turns on
the coil that carries the source of the power than there
are on a second coil, the second coil will provide the
same power but at a higher voltage. This is called a
step-up transformer. If there are fewer turns on the
second coil than on the source coil, the out going
power will have a lower voltage. This is called a step-
down transformer.
6. A device, with no moving parts, which transfers an
alternating current (AC) from one circuit (called the
primary winding) to one or more other circuits
(secondary winding) by electro-magnetic induction,
usually with a change in voltage. There is no electrical
connection
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
7. A Transformer, electrical device used to transfer
an alternating current or voltage from one electric
circuit to another by means of electromagnetic
induction. The simplest type of transformer
consists of two coils of wire, electrically insulated
from one another and arranged so that a change
in the current in one coil (the primary) will produce
a change in voltage in the other (the secondary).
In many transformers the coils are wound on a
core made of a material with high magnetic
permeability; this intensifies the magnetic field
induced by the current in the primary, increasing
the transformer's efficiency.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
Neglecting power losses (which are made small by
careful design), the ratio of primary voltage to
secondary voltage is the same as the ratio of the
number of turns in the primary coil to the number of
turns in the secondary coil. The primary and
secondary currents are in inverse proportion to the
number of turns in the coils.
The primary and secondary impedances are in the
same ratio as the squares of the numbers of turns in
the primary and secondary coils.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
Transformers are frequently classified according to
their uses; the details of construction depend on the
intended application. Power transformers are generally
used to transmit power at a constant frequency. Audio
transformers are designed to operate over a wide
range of frequencies with a nearly flat response, i.e., a
nearly constant ratio of input to output voltage. Radio
frequency (RF) transformers are designed to operate
efficiently within a narrow range of high frequencies.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
8. A transformer is a device that transfers electrical
energy from one circuit to another through inductively
coupled wires. A changing current in the first circuit
(the primary) creates a changing magnetic field; in
turn, this magnetic field induces a changing voltage in
the second circuit (the secondary). By adding a load
to the secondary circuit, one can make current flow in
the transformer, thus transferring energy from one
circuit to the other.
9. An induction apparatus for changing electrical energy
at one voltage and current to electrical energy at
another voltage and current, through the medium of
magnetic energy, without mechanical motion.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
10. A device with two or more coupled windings, used
to convert a supply of electric power at one voltage
to (usually) another voltage.
11. A device used to transfer electric energy from one
circuit to another, especially a pair of multiply
wound, inductively coupled wire coils that affect
such a transfer with a change in voltage, current,
phase, or other electric characteristic.
12. A device used to transfer electrical energy from one
circuit to another. With an alternating current, a
transformer will either raise or lower the voltage as
it makes the transfer.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
13. Device that transfers electric energy from one
alternating current circuit to one or more other
circuits, either increasing (stepping up) or reducing
(stepping down) the voltage. Uses for transformers
include reducing the line voltage to operate low -
voltage devices (doorbells or toy electric trains) and
raising the voltage from electric generators so that
electric power can be transmitted over long distances.
Transformers act through electro-magnetic induction;
current in the primary coil induces current in the
secondary coil. The secondary voltage is calculated
by multiplying the primary voltage by the ratio of the
number of turns in the secondary coil to that in the
primary.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
14. The transformer may be defined as static piece of
electrical apparatus which converts electrical power r
from one circuit to the other circuits of the same
frequency. It can increase or decrease the voltage
with corresponding decrease or increase of currents
keeping the power same. This transformation of
energy is done due to the Faraday’s laws of
Electromagnetic induction through two winding,
Primary and Secondary.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
SUMMARIZING
Transformer is static electrical
equipment which transforms A.C.
electrical power from (normally)
one voltage to another voltage at
the same frequency by induction.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
From this definitions
 Transformers are static equipment and do not have
‘rotor’.
 They transform electrical power from one circuit to
another circuit at the same frequency but
(usually) at different voltage.
 They operate on the principle of electro - magnetic
induction.
 They operate only with alternating current. They do
not function with DC supply. By the term DC, we
mean that frequency is zero. According to the
principle of Transformer operation, it doesn't work on
a DC supply since the rate of change of flux is zero.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Definitions of Transformer
Effect of frequency
The time-derivative term in Faraday's Law shows that the
flux in the core is the integral of the applied voltage. In
practice, the flux would rise to the point where magnetic
saturation of the core occurs, causing a huge increase in
the magnetizing current and overheating the transformer.
All practical transformers must therefore operate with
alternating (or pulsed) current.
Since a direct current by definition does not change, it
produces a steady MMF and so steady flux in the core; this
quantity does not change and so cannot induce a voltage in
the secondary winding. In a practical transformer, direct
current applied to the winding will create only heat.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

2) Definitions of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

3) Invention of Transformer

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Invention of Transformer
Michael Faraday
built the first transformer in 1831
with single solid iron core device.
He used it only to demonstrate the
principle of electromagnetic Induction
and did not foresee its practical uses.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer
Lucien Gaulard
and
John Gibs,
who first exhibited a device called a
'secondary generator' in London in
1881
and then sold the idea to American company
Westinghouse.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer
Russian engineer
Pavel Yablochkov
in 1883 invented a lighting system based on a
set of induction coils, where primary windings
were connected to a source of alternating
current and secondary windings were
connected to several
“Electric Candles”.
The induction coil in this system operated as a
transformer.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer

First single phase transformer
15 kVA 1500/300 V
Made by
Ganz Budapest in 1883
He first used the term
TRANSFORMER

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer
William Stanley,
an engineer for Westinghouse, who built
the practical device in 1885 after George
Westinghouse bought Gaulard and John
Gibbs' patents. The core was made from
interlocking E-shaped iron plates. This
design was first used commercially in
1886.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer

Russian engineer
Mikhail Dolivo
in 1889 developed the first
three - phase transformer.

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Invention of Transformer
Importance of Transformers
Transformers are highly reliable and efficient
equipment for transfer of bulk power between
two voltage levels.
They are important, costliest and vital link in
power system network.
Transformer is one of the costliest electrical
products.
Capacity few KVA to hundreds of MVA.
Variety of constructional and operating features.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer
As on today, the highest AC
voltage in the system is 1500 KV
and transformers have been
developed to meet the
requirements of highest system
voltages. The highest rating of
the transformer in the world is
2000 MVA, 1500 KV.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Invention of Transformer
In the year 1906,
Oil Immersed Transformer was born
IN INDIA
FIRST TIME
ELECTRICAL POWER
WAS GENERATED
ON COMMERCIAL BASE
IN THE YEAR 1896 (1900)
IN DARJILING
BY HYDRO-TURBINE
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

3) Invention of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

4) Types of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Types of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Types of Transformer

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According to transformer design 46
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Types of Transformer
A variety of specialized transformer designs has been created to
fulfill certain engineering applications. The numerous applications
to which transformers are adapted lead them to be classified in
many ways:
•By power level: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a
thousand MVA;
•By frequency range: power, audio or radio frequency;
•By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts;
•By cooling type: air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, or water cooled;
•By application function: such as power supply, impedance
matching, or circuit isolation;
•By end purpose: distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier
output;
•By winding turns ratio: step-up, step-down, isolating (near equal
ratio), variable.
•The special purpose transformers.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Types of Transformer
Types of Transformers (Power Transformers)
• Auto Transformers
• Generator Transformers
• Unit auxiliary Transformers
• Station Transformers
• Interconnecting Transformers
• Receiving sub-station Transformers
• Distribution Transformers
• Out door and Indoor Transformers

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Types of Transformer
Transformer Rating:
 Practical transformers are usually rated
based on:
 Voltage Ratio (V2/V1) which gives us the turns-
ratio
 Power Rating, small transformers are given in

Watts (real power) and Larger ones (Power
Transformers) are given in kVA/MVA (apparent
power).

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

4) Types of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

5) Transformer for Special applications

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
The special purpose transformers differ from the usual power
transformers with respect to specifications, design, construction
and applications. The special purpose transformers include:
 Voltage transformers and current transformers
 Furnace transformers
 Regulating transformers
 Converter transformers for HVDC
 Rectifier transformers
 Mining transformers
 Phase shifting transformers
 Phase changing transformers (e.g. 3 ph to 1 ph)
 Traction transformers
 High frequency transformers
 Welding transformers
 High voltage testing transformers
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
 Auto Transformers
 Phase shifting Transformers (for rectifier duty
and phase shifting for adjusting load flow).
 Earthing or grounding Transformers
 Hermetically sealed Transformers
 Reactors (Shunt & Series)
 Freight loco Transformers
 Transformer for Electrostatic Precipitator

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Large converter transformers are installed in conversion
substations of HVDC transmission links.
Dry type transformers are used for auxiliaries in generating
stations, industrial applications etc.
Reactors: Reactors are equipment of transformer family. A
reactor has a predominantly inductive coil.
Reactors are used in the power system network for current
limiting and for compensation of reactive power. There are
two types of reactors (1) Series reactors, connected in series
for current limiting and (2) Shunt reactors, connected in
shunt, for compensation of reactive power. Oil insulated
Reactors are similar to transformers in external appearance
and have some design features similar to those of power
transformers. Air-core dry type reactor looks like a large coil.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Reactors are necessary in following
applications:
Series Reactors are necessary for limiting short
circuit currents, for limiting inrush currents while
switching-in, for limiting current surges with
fluctuating loads, for smoothing the current
waveform, for giving stored energy for
satisfactory operation of converters, neutral
grounding reactors, etc.
Shunt Reactors are necessary for shunt
harmonic filters, and for providing reactive power
compensation for long EHV AC lines.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Furnace Transformers:
Furnace transformers are used to feed furnaces of
different types, such as arc furnace, reduction furnace,
induction furnace, etc., Base materials like Calcium
carbide, Silicon carbide, Ferro-chromium, base
Phosphorous, and various non-ferrous metals are
extracted primarily from electric reduction furnaces. Arc
furnace transformers are used generally in steel and
special alloy steel making industries of large and
medium size furnaces. Designing of furnace
transformer is an art by itself and it differs completely
from power transformers.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Furnace Transformers:
The important feature of a furnace transformer is that, it
has very low secondary voltage variations with high
currents. Secondary voltage variation of a furnace duty
transformer will be in the order of 1:2.5 or even more.
To meet this condition, HV winding has to be designed
with a separate tapped winding, which is connected in
series with the main winding. Off-circuit tap changer or
OLTC may be employed on the primary side to get
voltage variation on the secondary side. The number of
voltage steps can be doubled by introducing one more
winding called the coarse winding in series with the
main winding and the tapped winding.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Rectifier Transformers:
Rectifier transformers are used along with the
Rectifiers to convert ac power to dc power. In
chemical industries, rectifier transformers are very
much used for the production of chlorine and
aluminium by electrolysis process. Single-phase
rectifiers are used in large numbers in low power radio
and electronic equipments.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Earthing Transformer:
A transformer is a device which electro magnetically transforms ac voltage
from one level to another. An earthing transformer is a transformer primarily
to provide a neutral point for grounding purpose.
The sole duty of the grounding transformer is to pass ground current during
earth fault and it carries no useful load. Desirable qualities of earthing
transformer are low zero sequence impedance and low losses (no load
losses).
Function of Earthing Transformers
Apart from providing easy path to ground current during earth fault, the
following additional functions are also to be achieved:
 holding the neutral shift within limits;
 permitting the circulation of unbalanced load;
 to meet the current during line to earth fault;
 to earth the system;
 to provide single phase line to neutral load; and
 can be used with resistance / reactance / arc suppression coil.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Transformer for Special applications
Leakage Transformers
A leakage transformer, also called a stray-field transformer, has
a significantly higher leakage inductance than other transfor-
mers.
Resonant Transformers
A resonant transformer is a kind of the leakage transformer. It
uses the leakage inductance of its secondary windings in
combination with external capacitors, to create one or more
resonant circuits.
Current Transformers
Current transformers, designed to be looped around conductor.
A current transformer is a measurement device designed to
provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current
flowing in its primary.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

5) Transformer for Special applications

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

6) Construction of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Construction of Transformer

Constituents of transformer:
i. Magnetic Circuit
ii. Electric Circuit
iii. Dielectric Circuit
iv. Other accessories

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Construction of Transformer
Construction of Transformer
The transformer is very simple in construction.
It consists of magnetic circuit linking with two
windings.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Construction of Transformer
Core is made up of laminations to reduce the eddy current
losses.
The thickness of laminations for single phase is usually
0.4mm.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Construction of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Construction of Transformer
(I) Core Type Transformer
In core type transformer, windings are cylindrical former
wound, mounted on the core limbs as shown in the figure
above. The cylindrical coils have different layers and each
layer is insulated from each other. Materials like paper, cloth
or mica can be used for insulation. Low voltage windings are
placed nearer to the core, as they are easier to insulate.
(II) Shell Type Transformer
The coils are former wound and mounted in layers stacked
with insulation between them. A shell type transformer may
have simple rectangular form (as shown in above fig), or it
may have a distributed form.

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Construction of Transformer

Core - type construction

Shell - type construction
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Construction of Transformer

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION

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Construction of Transformer
The coil windings are wound on the limbs and are
insulated from each other

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Construction of Transformer
Constructional Details

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Construction of Transformer
Stepped Core Construction

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Construction of Transformer
Laminated steel cores
 Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies
typically have cores made of high permeability
silicon steel.
 The steel has a permeability many times that of free
space, and the core thus serves to greatly reduce
the magnetizing current, and confine the flux to a
path which closely couples the windings.
 Early transformer developers soon realized that
cores constructed from solid iron resulted in
prohibitive eddy-current losses, and their designs
mitigated this effect with cores consisting of bundles
of insulated iron wires.
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Construction of Transformer
Laminated steel cores
 Later designs constructed the core by stacking layers
of thin steel laminations, a principle that has remained
in use.
 Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a
thin non-conducting layer of insulation.
 The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to
highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux, and so
reduce their magnitude.
 Thinner laminations reduce losses, but are more
laborious and expensive to construct.
 Thin laminations are generally used on high
frequency transformers, with some types of very thin
steel laminations able to operate up to 10 kHz.
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Construction of Transformer
Solid cores
Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as
switch-mode power supplies) that operate above
main frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz.
These materials combine high magnetic permeability
with high bulk electrical resistivity.
For frequencies extending beyond the VHF band,
cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic
materials called ferrites are common. Some radio-
frequency transformers also have movable cores
(sometimes called 'slugs') which allow adjustment of
the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned
radio-frequency circuits.
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6) Construction of Transformer

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7) Transformer Material

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Transformer Material
Properties of Materials:
The different properties of materials are divided into
three groups
• Technological properties
• Physical properties and
• Chemical properties.
Material of high conductivity is used for making conductors for
all kinds of windings required in electrical machines. These
materials should have the least electrical resistivity.
The basic material used for transformer windings is the
insulated copper or aluminium wire of round or rectangular
cross section and these can be employed in various forms,
depending on current and voltage requirements. Generally
copper conductors are used as it is having good electrical and
mechanical strength.
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Transformer Material

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Transformer Material
In general the following major important parameters
are of importance:
They include:
• Electrical conductivity
• Mechanical strength (ultimate tensile strength, proof stress,
elongation)
• Hardness and wear resistance
• Softening with rise in temperature
• Creep strength
• Fatigue strength
• Work hardening
• Heat treatment characteristics
• Machineability
• Corrosion resistance
• Compatibility with other materials
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Transformer Material
Essential properties:
• Mechanical strength
• It must ensure stiffness, static and cyclic strength (steel)
• Higher specific strength
• Weldability
• Machineability
• Corrosion resistance
• Compatibility with other materials

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Transformer Material
BASIC REQUIREMENTS
The basic requirements of the material used in transformer core
are:
•Low hysteresis loss
•Low eddy-current loss
•High saturation flux density
• Long life
•Easy to manufacture
•Low specific apparent -power input for low no-load current
•Low magnetostriction for low noise level
•High grade insulation
•Good mechanical processing properties
•Suitability for high flux densities

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Transformer Material
Item Materials
Magnetic CRGO of various types
Core Amorphous iron (Advantageous for distribution transformers)
Conductor Copper and aluminum in the form of wire, strip or sheet
Better quality of conducting materials are produced by
continuous casting and rolling (CCR process), which can
produce strip / sheet or wire in longer length, which avoids
welded or brazed joints. Completely transposed coils are
essential in certain cases
Availability of copper and aluminum in foil for high
dimensional accuracy is now replacing strip of LV windings
Coolant Transformer oil
Insulating Cellulose press-board, Kraft paper, synthetic, Self-bonding
materials paper.
Insulating materials are the combination of paper and its products and oil.
TYPES OF MAJOR MATERIALS
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Transformer Material
MATERIALS USED IN WINDING
•Paper Insulated Copper Conductor (PICC)
•Paper Insulated Continuous Transposed conductor (PICTC)
•Pre-compressed pressboard for making spacers and wedges
or runners
•Insulating tape for insulation
•Solution (glue) for covering insulating tape on the conductor

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Transformer Material
MATERIALS USED IN CORE ASSEMBLY
•Cold rolled grain oriented silicon steel sheets
•Two L.V core plates and two H.V core plates
•Fitch plates insulation plates
•Core clamp brackets
•Core belt(fiber glass, M.S belt)
•Core wedges (haldi wood)
•Bottom pad
•Pressure screw

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Transformer Material
MATERIALS USED IN CORE COIL ASSEMBLY
•Fiber glass tape
•Crepe paper
•Silver crepe paper
•Washers
•Asbestos
•Permalli ring
•Common block
•Leveling block
•Stretchable crepe paper

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Transformer Material
MATERIAL FOR TRANSFORMER CORE
The main problem with transformer core is, its hysteresis loss and eddy current
loss in transformer. Hysteresis loss in transformer mainly depends upon its
core materials. It is found that, a small quantity of silicon alloyed with low
carbon content steel produces material for transformer core, which has low
hysteresis loss and high permeability. Because of increasing demand of power,
it is required to further reduce the core losses and for that, another technique is
employed on steel, which is known as cold rolling. This technique arranges the
orientation of grain in ferromagnetic steel in the direction of rolling.
The core steel which has under gone through both the silicon alloying and cold
rolling treatments is commonly known as CRGOS or Cold Rolled Grain
Oriented Silicon Steel. This material is now universally used for manufacturing
transformer core.
Although this material has low specific iron loss but still; it has some disadvan-
tages, like, it is susceptible to increase loss due to flux flow in direction other
than grain orientation and it also susceptible to impaired performance due to
impact of bending and blanking the cutting CRGOS sheet. Both the surfaces of
the sheet are provided with an insulating of oxide coating.
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7) Transformer Material

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8) Main parts of Transformer

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ain parts of Transformer
Essential parts of the Transformer
1. Magnetic circuit - to carry mutual flux
2. Electric circuit - HV and LV windings
3. Supporting structure
4. Insulation system
5. Cooling system

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ain parts of Transformer

Function of Transformer Parts

Piece Function
Core Provides a path for the magnetic
flux
Primary Receives the energy from the AC
winding source
Secondary Receives energy from the primary
winding winding and delivers it to the load
Enclosure Protects the above components
from dirt, moisture, and damage

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ain parts of Transformer
Sr.No. Materials Components Function
Ferromagnetic Carry Magnetic
1. Core
(Electrical Steel) flux
Conductor Provide path for
2. (Copper/ conducting
Aluminum) electricity
Insulating Paper Winding
3. Insulation
and its derivative
Insulation and
4. Oil
coolant
As a container
Constructional Tank and other Frame Works,
5. and to provide
Steel (ferrous) cooling devices
cooling surface
6. Sealing Gaskets Prevent leakages
Fittings and accessories are used to Increase the usefulness of transformers.
Transformer Parts / Components
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8) Main parts of Transformer

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9) Fittings and Accessories of Transformer

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Fittings & Accessories of Transformer
1) Silica gel Breather
2) Prismatic Oil Level Gauge
3) M. O. G.
4) O. T. I. & W. T. I.
5) PRV / Explosion Vent
6) Heat Exchanger
7) Oil and Water Flow Indicator
8) Oil Surge Relay (Sudden Pressure Relay)
9) Off Circuit Tap Switch
10)Marshalling Box
11)RTCC Panel
12)Conservator tank

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Fittings & Accessories of Transformer
13) Oil Pump
14) Current Transformers
15) Under carriage with bidirectional rollers.
16) Filter valves.
17) Earthing terminals.
18) Air release device.
19) Rating and diagram plate.
20) Thermometer pocket.
21) Lifting lugs for lid.
22) Buchholz Relay with alarm and trip contact.
23) Radiators for cooling
24) Safety ladder.

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9) Fittings and Accessories of Transformer

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10) Types of Transformer Winding

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Transformer Windings
WINDING
Winding is an assembly of turns which constitutes an electrical
circuit. Turn is the formation of a conductor over the core in
which an emf is induced and it is enclosed by magnetic flux.
•The word conductor can be use in more abstract sense as
winding current carrier.
•When two conductors are connected with proper polarity, emf
induced in each conductor will be added and is known as
TURN.
•Many turns connected with proper polarity, emf induced in each
turn will be added and is known as COIL.
•Many coils connected with proper polarity, emf induced in each
coil will be added and is known as WINDING.
•Winding is the conducting part of the transformer.

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Transformer Windings
CONDUCTING SYSTEM OR WINDINGS
For designing winding or coil, the designer may
choose any arrangement by considering the following
aspects:
•Effective Die-electric strength against various types of
voltages, system fault, switching surges, lightning surges and
test voltages.
•Cooling of coil.
•Adequate mechanical strength & Minimum Cost.
•Good weldability, solderability and brazing which ensures high
reliability and low electrical resistance of the joints.

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Transformer Windings
•Material of high conductivity is used for making conductors for
all kinds of windings required in electrical machines. These
materials should have the least electrical resistivity.
•The basic material used for transformer windings is the
insulated copper or aluminium wire of round or rectangular
cross section and these can be employed in various forms,
depending on current and voltage requirements. Generally
Copper conductors are used as it is having good electrical and
mechanical strength.
The windings are manufactured with high level of techniques
after thoroughly examining insulation structure, cooling method
and mechanical strength.
The shape of the winding conductor in power transformers is
usually rectangular in order to utilize the available space
effectively.
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Transformer Windings
Types of Windings:
1. Cross-over Winding
2. Spiral winding: (i) Single layer
(ii) Double layer
(iii) Multi start
(iv) Edge winding
3. Helical winding: (i) Single Helical
(ii) Double Helical
(iii) Multistart Helical
4. Disc winding: (i) Continuous disc winding
(ii) Interleaved disc winding
5. Inter-Shield winding
6. CTC Winding
7. Eight shaped Winding
8. Foil winding
9. Composite winding
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Transformer Windings

CROSS OVER TYPE WINDING
Cross over type winding is same as cylindrical winding, mainly
used as high voltage winding, where current rating is up to 30
amperes and voltages up to 33 kV in distribution transformers.
It is wound with round wires with paper insulation or enamel
coating on conductors.
•The winding have high short circuit strength.
•The winding having good mechanical strength and also
economical in design has lower impulse strength.

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Transformer Windings
SPIRAL WINDING
•Spiral winding is mainly used for low voltage winding when the
current rating is up to 3500 amperes and voltage rating up to
3.6 kV.
•Spiral winding is also called cylindrical winding or layer type
winding.
•Winding using rectangular conductors may be wound with
one or more parallel conductors placed radially as well as
axially.
•Single and multi layer winding are used mainly for small and
medium size transformer.

For large transformers, this type is used for regulating winding.

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Transformer Windings
HELICAL WINDINGS
•The helical winding (Helix Winding) is suitable for high
currents, where the current is shared between several parallel
conductors. The dimensions of each conductor can be kept
reasonably small in order to keep the eddy current losses
low.
•It is said that helical windings have a high space factor, which
is beneficial for an overall total mass-total loss relation.
Moreover, it is mechanically robust and easy to manufacture,
particularly when continuously transposed conductor is used.
•Helix winding has three types of winding:
a) Single helical
b) Double helical
c) Multilayer helical

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Transformer Windings
HELICAL WINDINGS
• Single Helical windings are used for LOW VOLTAGE- MEDIUM and
HIGH CAPACITY transformer where the no. of winding turns are
small but the current is high.
• The current rating of Single helical winding is 1200 amperes
(maximum)
•The conductor is rectangular in cross section and is paper covered
• The double helical winding is used in low voltage winding of high
power ratings where the number of winding turns is small and a
single helical winding with normal width of oil ducts does not fill up
properly a window height, while the current and the no. of parallel
conductor required are very large. The current rating of the double
helical winding is twice that of single helical winding
Multilayer Helical Winding consists of several cylindrical layers
concentrically wound and connected in series. It is used for tapping.

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Transformer Windings
DISC TYPE WINDINGS
• Disc type windings are generally used in H.V. winding for Power and
Distribution transformers.
•Disc winding is generally of two types
a) Continuous disc winding.
b) Interleaved disc winding
• Continuous disc winding is primarily used in high capacity
transformer.
• The continuous disc winding is mainly used as high voltage from
6.6 to 66 kV
• To overcome the low series capacitance in continuous disc
winding, earlier electrostatic shield was provided till the approval of
the interleaved winding.
• It is generally used in high voltage winding having voltage class of
110 kV above. This winding also called high series capacitance
winding.
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Transformer Windings
SHIELDED DISC TYPE OR INTER-SHIELD
WINDING
•It is generally used in HV winding having voltage class above
110 kV.
•By shielded disc type winding, is improved series capaci-
tance and also less labour intensive as compared to as
interleaved winding.
There are some disadvantages:
•Decrease in winding space factor.
•Requirement of extra winding material used as shield.
•Possibility of disturbance in ampere turn balance per unit
height of LV and HV winding and extra eddy current loss in
shields.

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Transformer Windings
CTC (CONTINUOUSLY TRANSPOSED CON-
DU CTOR) WINDING
•There has been a tremendous increase in the demand for
electrical power, these days.
•This situation calls for a commensurate increase in the power
rating and operating voltage of electrical power system.
•The transformers used in power system are now required to
withstand higher electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses.
•The development of CTC has provided the transformer industry
a winding material that can be used for ever rising system.

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Transformer Windings
CTC (CONTINUOUSLY TRANSPOSED CON-
DUCTOR) WINDING
•The winding constructed with CTC have been found beneficial
for high voltage high power transformer.
•CTC used for transformer winding has high thermo-mechanical
strength, excellent insulation characteristics and low stray load
loss.
•The stray losses in the large transformer using conventional
configuration for the conductor tend to be high.
•Therefore a need arises to decrease these losses by suitably
designing the winding of transformer.

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Transformer Windings
ADVANTAGES OF CTC:
•The stray load loss is reduced, since CTC is manufactured
using large number of conductor strips which are continuously
transposed.
•The use of CTC reduces the overall size of transformer on
account of strands and consequent reduction in the weight of
core, winding, tank and oil.
•The winding time reduced due to use of assembled transposed
conductor in place of parallel strips.
•The winding has an improved mechanical strength due to
composite construction of the transposed conductor.
•The individual strips use thin enamel insulation, therefore
cooling of the conductor is improved on account of increased
heat dissipation.
•The conductors have an increased mechanical strength.
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Transformer Windings

EIGHT-SHAPED WINDING
We can say that by using eight-shaped winding we can have
following advantages:
•In a furnace transformer like this, we can use OLTC instead of
OCKT.
•We can get voltage in the regular steps of intervals.
•It reduces the overall size of the transformer, so as tank, oil etc.
•Stray losses is reduced by using CTC.

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Transformer Windings
FOIL WINDING
•Foil windings are widely applied in low voltage winding of
distribution transformer.
•In this type of winding, aluminium or copper can be used as a
material for conductors.
•The main technical advantage is that axial mechanical forces
acting on the windings in the transformer during short circuit
currents become insignificant, because, inducted eddy currents
in the foil weaken the radial component of the magnetic
leakage field at the top and the bottom of the winding.

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Transformer Windings
COMPOSITE WINDING
Composite winding is the winding of LV, HV and Regulating
coils (or any two) done one - by - one on single former without
removing coil(s). i.e. first LV coil is wound and then HV coil is
wound after providing appropriate insulation in between LV &
HV coils. Also sometimes first HV coil is wound and then HV
Regulating coil is wound on the same former without removing
coil from the former.

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Transformer Windings
COMPOSITE WINDING
Advantages:
•Assembly time period is reduced.
•Crane availability increased.
•Former removal time reduced.
•No possibility of mistake of lead position.
•Saving in time for ovening and pressing (only 3 coils).
•Insulation between HV & LV is done on winding machine.
•Less space is occupied (own and shop-floor).
•Less man power.
Disadvantages:
•If lead position is wrong for LV, will be wrong for HV also.
•For LV fault, HV coil also will have to be removed.
•For wrong dia of LV, HV dia will also be wrong.
•Cycle time of winding will increase (2 or 3 m/cs will be engaged).
•Coil lifter jaws length would be more (500 / 600 mm), may bend.
•Good up to medium transformer (normally for Distribution Trans.).
• Weight, Radial thickness, Height, Diameter, Crane capacity – all to be
considered.
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10) Types of Transformer Winding

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11) Transformer Tappings

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Transformer Tappings
One of the main requirements of any electrical system
is that it should provide a voltage to the user which
remains within closely defined limits regard-less of the
loading on the system, despite the regulation occurring
within the many supply transformers and cables, which
will vary greatly from conditions of light load to full
load. Although in many industrial systems, in particular,
the supply voltage must be high enough to ensure
satisfactory starting of large motor drives; it must not
be so high when the system is unloaded as to give rise
to damaging over voltages, for example, on sensitive
electronic equipment.

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Transformer Tappings
TAPPINGS AND TAPCHANGERS
Almost all transformers incorporate some means of
adjusting their voltage ratio by means of the addition or
removal of tapping turns. This adjustment may be
made on-load, as is the case for many large
transformers, or off-load by means of an off-circuit
switch or by the selection of bolted link positions with
the transformer totally isolated. The degree of
sophistication of the system of tap selection depends
on the frequency with which it is required to change
taps and the size and importance of the transformer.

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Transformer Tappings
A tap-changer may be provided on primary or secondary
side. The tap-changer may be mounted on the tank either
internally or externally. The taps of the winding are
connected to the tap changer. Tap changers are either On-
load type or off-load type. Tap changing gives change in
secondary voltage for given primary voltage. Tap-changing
is the basic method for voltage control of AC Networks and
HVDC transmission system.
Tap changer is equipment which is fitted with the
transformer for adjusting transformer winding turns to suit
the HV / LV side voltages.
Generally the tap changer is fitted on the HV side and by
operating the tap changer i.e. by changing the no. of turns
in the circuit, we can change the HV/LV side voltage.
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Transformer Tappings
The generator transformer is used to connect the
generator whose voltage is probably maintained within
±5% of nominal, to a 400 kV system which normally
may vary independently by ±5% and up to +10%. This
cannot be achieved without the ability to change taps
on load. However, in addition to the requirement of the
generator to produce megawatts, there may also be a
requirement to generate or absorb VARs, according to
the system conditions, which will vary due to several
factors, for example time of day, system conditions
and required power transfer.

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Transformer Tappings
Transformer users require tappings for a number
of reasons:
•To compensate for changes in the applied voltage on
bulk supply and other system transformer.
•To compensate for regulation within the transformer
and maintain the output voltage constant on the
above types.
•On generator and inter-bus transformers to assist in
the control of system VAR flows.
•To allow for compensation for factors not accurately
known at the time of planning an electrical system.
•To allow for future changes in system conditions.

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Transformer Tappings
All the above represent sound reasons for the
provision of tappings and, indeed, the use of tappings
is so commonplace that most users are unlikely to
consider whether or not they could dispense with
them, or perhaps limit the extent of the tapping range
specified. However, transformers without taps are
simpler, cheaper and more reliable. The presence of
tappings increases the cost and complexity of the
transformer and also reduces the reliability. Whenever
possible, therefore, the use of tappings should be
avoided and, where this is not possible, the extent of
the tapping range and the number of taps should be
restricted to the minimum.
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Transformer Tappings
The following represent some of the disadvantages of the
use of tappings on transformers:
• Their use almost invariably leads to some variation of flux density in
operation so that the design flux density must be lower than the
optimum, to allow for the condition when it might be increased.
• The transformer impedance will vary with tap position so that system
design must allow for this.
• Losses will vary with tap position; hence the cooler provided must be
large enough to cater for maximum possible loss.
• There will inevitably be some conditions when parts of windings are
not in use, leading to less than ideal electromagnetic balance within
the transformer which in turn results in increased unbalanced forces
in the event of close-up faults.
• The increased number of leads within the transformer increases
complexity and possibility of internal faults.
• The tap-changer itself, particularly if of the on-load type, represents a
significant source of unreliability.
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Transformer Tappings
For the transformer tappings, two types of tap changers are provided.
One is “OFF CIRCUIT TAP CHANGER” and second is “ON LOAD TAP
CHANGER”. Tapping range is specified by the customer.
OFF CIRCUIT TAP SWITCH
The off circuit tap changer is used in Distribution transformers.
Tapping shall be carried out by means of an off circuit externally operated
self positioning tap switch when transformer is in denergized condition. In
off circuit tap changer different types are there, i.e. Bridge type,
Selector type. According to the current of HV side, off circuit tap changer
is provided. The tapping range is +5% to -5% @ 2.5%.
ON LOAD TAP CHANGER
On load tap changers can be operated, when the transformer is in on
load condition. When the high tapping ranges are there, this on load tap
changers are used. High tappings means it had 17 positions,21
positions,32 positions are there. In on load tap changers so much
different types are there. Like Corse-fine type, Line end type, Selector
type, In tank type, Externally mounted type, Flange mounted type,
Reversing type.
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Transformer Tappings
The tappings of the tap changer are generally provided on
the H.V. side due to the following reasons:
 The number of the turns in the winding is large and therefore
a fine voltage regulation is obtained. It may not be possible to
provide correct voltage regulation by using tappings on the
L.V. side because of the smaller number of turns.
 The current on the L.V. side of high capacity transmission
and generation transformers is very high. Therefore,
provision of tappings on the L.V. windings for this transformer
is impracticable on account of the difficulties encountered in
handling of high current.
 The L.V. winding is placed on the inner side nearer to the
core while the H.V. winding is placed on the outside.
Therefore, on account of the practical consideration, it is
simpler to provide tapings on the high voltage winding.
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Transformer Tappings
 There is an additional advantage of providing tapping on high voltage
winding of step-down transformer. The voltage on L.V. side of these
transformers increases on light loads. Therefore, in order to decrease this
voltage, the tappings on H.V. side are adjusted to such a position where
the number of turns is large. The more number of turns decreases the flux
and the flux density. This reduces the core loss which in turn increases
the efficiency of the transformer at low loads.
Out of few occasions where tappings are provided on L.V. side
of transformers, two more significant reasons are as follows:
For 400 kV and above transformers, tappings are provided on L.V. side to
make transformer economical. If it is provided on H.V. side and phased near
star point then tap changer should be designed for 400/_/3 kV insulation
and handling H.V. side current. On the other hand, if it is provided on L.V.
side then tap changer should be designed for _/3 times lesser insulation
than L.V. side voltage and handling L.V. side current which is transformation
ratio-times higher than H.V. side current. Looking to the prohibitively higher
cost of insulation, higher current tap changer design is economical
(Frequency of operation is comparatively less).

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Transformer Tappings
In general, tappings are provided as follows;
• For delta connected winding, in the middle portion of winding. Up to
132 KV winding, tappings can also be provided on line end of the
winding.
• For star connected winding, towards star end of the winding.
• For auto transformers, at common points of HV and LV windings
towards line end.
Now let the winding be tapped at the end and some of the turns are
cut out by the tap changer. In this condition some axial forces, in
addition to the radial forces, are also developed. Under short circuit
conditions, the axial forces become very large and may cause
irreparable damage to the transformer windings. To minimize the
axial forces, the physical position of the tapped coils should be in the
middle of the winding. Electrically, the tap changer is connected to
the turns, which have minimum voltage with respect to the neutral.

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Transformer Tappings

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11) Transformer Tappings

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12) Types of Transformer Bushings

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Transformer Bushings
Bushings used for power transformers
Bushing comprises a central conductor surrounded by graded
insulation. A bushing is necessary when a conductor is taken
out through metallic tank or a wall.
Simple porcelain insulator bushing can be used up to 20 kV
class. Such a bushing consists of a single porcelain housing
through which a single central conductor passes.
Oil filled bushing is used for 33 kV applications. For making the
bushing compact, synthetic resin bonded condenser bushings
(S.R.B.P. condenser bushing) is used for 33 kV and 66 kV
applications. For 132 kV and above oil impregnated paper
condenser bushing is used. (O.I.P. condenser bushings).

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Transformer Bushings

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Transformer Bushings

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Transformer Bushings

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Transformer Bushings
3 different type of Bushings
• Solid
• Oil filled
• Condenser
Condenser Bushings
• Synthetic Resin Bonded Paper Condenser
• Oil impregnated paper condenser
• Cast resin

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Transformer Bushings
condenser bushing:
The condenser bushing consists of a central conductor
surrounded by alternate layers of insulating paper and tin foil.
The capacitor formed by alternate layers of tin foil and paper
insulation results in uniform electric stress distribution between
conductor surface and the earthed flange.
The bushing core is coated with suitable resign. The assembly
is enclosed in hollow porcelain and is provided with support
flange and top hood. The porcelain is filled with dielectric oil.
One end of the bushing goes into transformer tank. The other
end is in the outside air.
In some cases there is a provision to mount current
transformers on the bushing.

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Transformer Bushings
Constructional Details of OIP Condenser Bushing:
The bushing is built up around a center tube on which the
condenser body is wound.
The upper porcelain, lower porcelain and fastening flange are
held between the end plates by the center tube and sealing, is
accomplished by oil-resistant rubber gaskets in grooves.
The annular space between the condenser body and the
porcelain is filled with transformer oil and a gas-filled expansion
space is left at the top. The oil level can be checked by means
of a dip-stick in the oil filling hole.
The outer conducting layer of the condenser body is connected
to an insulated test tap on the flange. During operation the test
tap is automatically earthed and protected by a screw on cap.

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Transformer Bushings
Constructional Details of OIP Condenser Bushing: contd…
The lower end-plate is enclosed by an epoxy resin insulated
aluminium shield. The inner terminal is attached to the center tube
by means of a through-going resilient pin which becomes locked
when the outer terminal is screwed on. The pin ensures effective
electrical contact between the inner and outer terminals.
The inner terminal can be chosen for connection to leads either by
brazing or crimping.
The outer terminal is available in aluminium or copper alloy and
can be supplemented by terminal plates of corresponding
material.
The upper porcelain is made in one piece of high quality electrical
porcelain. The fixing flange is manufactured of corrosion resistant
aluminium alloy and is available in straight or, for some types, also
inclined designs, the latter giving the bushing an inclination of
150.
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Transformer Bushings
Constructional Details of OIP Condenser Bushing: contd…
The flange as well as the other metal parts on the exterior side
of the bushing are protected by painting with two-component
primer and a grey-blue finishing cost of paint.
The bushings are delivered oil-filled and ready for use. They
can be stored in any position in warm dry storage.
If the bushing is mounted with an inclination of more than 450
from the vertical, special measures may have to be taken to
ensure sufficient filling of oil in the bushing.

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Transformer Bushings
Important tests on HV Bushings:
High voltage bushings are subjected to the following type tests:
- Measurement of D.C. resistance between terminals of
conductor.
- Temperature rise test (with one end placed in hot-oil
corresponding to the transformers oil temperature).
- Short-circuit test for one second: A current of the order of 25
times normal rated current is passed through the conductor
for one second. The test is followed by dielectric test.

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Transformer Bushings
- Dielectric test: These include the one minute power frequency
voltage withstand test (dry): One minute power frequency
voltage withstand test (wet) for outdoor bushings only.
Switching impulse voltage withstand test; Lightning impulse
voltage withstand tests.
- Partial Discharge Test.
The routine tests on the bushing include
- Measurement of Insulation Resistance
- Measurement of resistance
- Power frequency voltage withstand test for one minute.
After installing the bushing on the transformer, the tests are
conducted on the complete transformer.

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Transformer Bushings
Technical Particulars of HV transformer Bushing:
- Rated voltage
- Impulse withstand test level
- Rated current
- Rated short-circuit current and duration
- Oil-impregnated condenser body of high-voltage insulation paper
- Great adaptability-available with or without space for current transformers,
with straight or, for some types, also inclined flanges, alternative connection
details, normal or anti-fog porcelain in brown or light grey colour.
- Free from partial discharges in the insulation.
- Thermal stability-withstands system voltage to earth for unlimited time.
- Equipped with test tap for tan  measurement and measurement of partial
discharges in the transformer.
- Maintenance free and non-susceptible to ageing.
- Hermetically sealed with own oil system.
- The technical data fulfill the requirements for insulation according to the
following standards:
IEC, IS, ANSI, BS, DIN.
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12) Types of Transformer Bushings

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13) Buchholz Relay for Transformer

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Buchholz relay
Incipient faults in Transformers
Fault which are not significant in the beginning but which slowly
develop into serious faults are known as incipient faults.
Buchholz relay provides protection against such incipient faults.
A Buchholz relay is a gas operated device installed in the pipe
work between the top of the transformer main tank and
conservator. It is used to protect inside fault of the trans. tank.
It is first developed by Max Buchholz in 1921.
Buchholz relay can be used only for oil cooled transformer.
 Buchholz relays have been applied to large power
transformers at least since the 1940's.

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Buchholz relay

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Buchholz relay
THEORY:
A modern transformer is extremely reliable equipment. There are
certain incipient or minor faults in the transformer, which can not be
detected by current operated relays such as differential and R.E.F.
schemes. Such typical faults are given below:
(a) Core bolt insulation failure.
(b) Short circuited core laminations
(c) Bad electrical contacts.
(d) Local overheating.
(e) Loss of oil due to leakage.
(f ) Ingress of air into the oil system.
It can be noted that all the faults listed above involve gas or oil and a
relay dependent upon the presence of these will detect the faults in
the incipient stages. Such a relay is Buchholz relay. So, in other
words Buchholz relay is used for the protection of transformer and is
based upon the principle of a gas operated relay installed in oil
immersed transformer.
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Buchholz relay

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Buchholz relay

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Buchholz relay

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Buchholz relay

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Buchholz relay
CONSTRUCTION:
Figure shows the constructional details of the Buchholz relay. It
takes the form of a dome shaped vessel placed in the connecting
pipe between the main tank and the conservator. The device has
two elements. The upper element consists of a mercury switch
attached to a float. The lower element contains a mercury switch
mounted on a hinged type flap located in the direct path of the
flow of oil from the transformer to the conservator.
The upper element when operates, will initiate the alarm, the
lower element when operates, will initiate the tripping.

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Buchholz relay

Generally, the following serious faults operate the lower
float and trip the Transformer;
(a) Short circuit between phases.
(b) Winding earth fault.
(c) Winding short circuit.
(d) Puncture of bushing.

ADVANTAGES:
1. It is the simplest form of transformer protection.
2. It detects the incipient faults much earlier than is possible
with other forms of protection.

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Buchholz relay
LIMITATIONS:
 It can only be used for oil immersed transformers equipped with
conservator tanks.
 Possibility of involved gases being trapped in the transformer cover
without reaching the Buchholz relay.
The device can detect faults only below oil levels.
 Setting of the mercury switch can not be too sensitive otherwise
there can be a false operation by vibrations, earthquakes,
mechanical shocks to the pipe, sitting of birds etc.
 The relay is slow, minimum operating time is 0.1 second and
average time is 0.2 second. Such a slow relay is unsatisfactory.
 Buchholz relays are not provided for transformers below 500 kVA.
This is for economical considerations.
 A separate Buchholz relay has to be provided with the tap changer
to detect the incipient faults in the tap changer. This does not
respond to a small arcing.
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13) Buchholz Relay for Transformer

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14) Emf equation of Transformer

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Emf equation of Transformer
Transformer works on the principle of mutual
induction action, i.e. if the two coils be placed near to
each other and if one is connected to the A.C. supply, the
e.m.f. will be induced in the other coil. The e.m.f. induced will
be according to the turns in the secondary coil.
Coupling by mutual induction
The principles of the transformer are illustrated by
consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer. In this case,
the core requires negligible magnetomotive force to sustain
flux, and all flux linking the primary winding also links the
secondary winding. The hypothetical ideal transformer has no
resistance in its coils.

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Emf equation of Transformer
EMF Equation of transformer can be established in a very
easy way. Actually in electrical power transformer, one
alternating electrical source is applied to the primary
winding and due to this, magnetizing current flowing
through the primary winding which produces alternating
flux in the core of transformer. This flux links with both
primary and secondary windings. As this flux is alternating
in nature, there must be a rate of change of flux. According
to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction if any coil or
conductor links with any changing flux, there must be an
induced emf in it. As the current source to primary is
sinusoidal, the flux induced by it will be also sinusoidal.
Hence, the function of flux may be considered as a sine
function.
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Emf equation of Transformer

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Emf equation of Transformer

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Emf equation of Transformer

SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER

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Emf equation of Transformer
A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called
the primary winding and the secondary winding. Energy is
coupled between the windings by the time varying magnetic flux
that passes through (links) both primary and secondary windings.
Whenever the amount of current in a coil changes, a voltage is
induced in the neighboring coil. The effect, called mutual
inductance, is an example of electromagnetic induction.
If a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of Np
turns, a current will flow in it producing a magnetomotive force
(MMF). Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current
around an electric circuit, so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux
through a magnetic circuit. The primary MMF produces a varying
magnetic flux Φp in the core, and, with an open circuit secondary
winding, induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in opposition
to Vp.
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Emf equation of Transformer
The universal electromotive force (EMF) equation:
If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either
winding between its number of turns, voltage, magnetic flux
density and core cross-sectional area is given by the universal
emf equation (from Faraday's law):

where
-E is the sinusoidal rms or root mean square voltage of the winding,
-f is the frequency in hertz,
-N is the number of turns of wire on the winding,
-a is the cross-sectional area of the core in square metres
-B is the peak magnetic flux density in teslas,
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Emf equation of Transformer

emf = turns x rate of change

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Emf equation of Transformer
Let
Np = No. of turns on the primary
Ns = No. of turns on the secondary
m = maximum core flux in wb
= Bmax X Ai
where
Bmax = Flux density and
Ai = Area of core
f = supply frequency in c/s

We know that when A.C. supply is given to any core, flux gets
its maximum value in ¼ cycle, i.e. 1/4f sec.
Average change of flux = [ m] / [1/4f] = 4f m sec.

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Emf equation of Transformer

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Emf equation of Transformer
Consider that flux  is changing sinusoidally, then e.m.f.
induced will be sinusoidal.
Then for sin wave,
Form factor = R.M.S = 1.11
Average
or R.MS. = 1.11 X Average
per turn induced e.m.f. = 1.11x 4 m f volts.
e.m.f. induced in the primary winding having NP turns = EP
EP = 4.44 m f NP volts
= 4.44 Bmax Ai f NP volts
Similarly
e.m.f. induced in the secondary winding having NS turns = ES
Es = 4.44 m f Ns volts
= 4.44 X Bmax X Ai X f X Ns volts
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Emf equation of Transformer

Errespective of Primary or
Secondary,
e.m.f. induced per turn = Et
Et = 4.44 X Bmax X Ai X f volts

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Emf equation of Transformer

Since, A= (/4)D2, E is proportional to D2.
Therefore voltage per turn is increased with increase in diameter
of transformer core.
Again if voltage across the winding of transformer is V.
Then, V = eN, where N is the number of turns in winding.
If V is constant, e is inversely proportional to N. And hence, D2 is
inversely proportional to N. So, diameter of the core is
increased, the number of turns in the transformer winding
reduced. Reduction of number of turns, reduction in height of the
core legs. Inspite of reduction of core legs height increased in
core diameter, results increase in overall diameter of magnetic
core of transformer. This increased steel weight ultimately leads
to increased core losses in transformer.

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Emf equation of Transformer
Increased diameter of the core leads to increase in the main
diameter on the winding. Inspite of increased diameter of the
winding turns, reduced number of turns in the windings, leads to
less copper loss in transformer.
So, we go on increasing diameter of the transformer core, losses
in the transformer core will be increased but at the same time,
load loss or copper loss in transformer is reduced. On the other
hand, if diameter of the core is decreased, the weight of the
steel in the core is reduced; which leads to less core loss of
transformer, but in the same time, this leads to increase in
number of turns in the winding, means increase in copper
weight, which leads to extra copper loss in transformer. So,
diameter of the core must be optimized during designing of
transformer core, considering both these aspects.

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Emf equation of Transformer
Transformer universal EMF equation
If the flux in the core is sinusoidal, the relationship for either
winding between its rms Voltage of the winding E, and the
supply frequency f, number of turns N, core cross-sectional area
a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal
EMF equation:
The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with
frequency. By operating at higher frequencies, transformers can
be physically more compact because a given core is able to
transfer more power without reaching saturation, and fewer turns
are needed to achieve the same impedance. However
properties such as core loss and conductor skin effect also
increase with frequency.
Aircraft and military equipment employ 400 Hz power supplies
which reduce core and winding weight.
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Emf equation of Transformer
 Operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a
higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced
magnetizing current; at lower frequency, the magnetizing
current will increase.
 Operation of a transformer at other than its design frequency
may require assessment of voltages, losses, and cooling to
establish if safe operation is practical.
 For example, transformers may need to be equipped with
"volts per hertz" over-excitation relays to protect the
transformer from over voltage at higher than rated frequency.
 Knowledge of natural frequencies of transformer windings is
of importance for the determination of the transient response
of the windings to impulse and switching surge voltages.
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14) Emf equation of Transformer

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15) Working of Transformer

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Working of Transformer

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Working of Transformer

SINGLE PHASE

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Working of Transformer

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Working of Transformer Working Principle
A transformer has a closed magnetic circuit called the core. Two or
more windings are placed on the core. One of the winding (called
the primary winding) is supplied with alternating voltage of power
frequency (50 Hz). The primary winding takes no-load current (I 0)
from the supply and sets-up alternating magnetic flux of 50 Hz in
the core. As the secondary winding is also placed on the same
core, the magnetic flux linking with the secondary winding also
changes continuously at a rate of 50 Hz. Thereby, e.m.f. is induced
in the secondary winding by induction principle. The e.m.f. induced
in the secondary winding has the same frequency as that of the
magnetic flux and primary exciting current. However, the e.m.f. has
a direction opposite to applied voltage.
The transformer works on the mutual induction action, i.e. if
the two coils be placed near to each other and if one is connected
to the A.C. supply, the e.m.f. will be induced in the other coil. The
e.m.f. induced will be according to the turns in the secondary coil.
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Working of Transformer Working Principle
 The primary is the winding which receives electric power and the
secondary is the one which may deliver it. The coils are wound
on a laminated core of magnetic material.
 The physical basis of a transformer is mutual inductance
between two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux through
a path of low reluctance as shown in figure.
 The two coils posses high mutual inductance. If one coil is
connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux
is set up in the laminated core, most of which is linked up with
the other coil in which it produces mutually induced emf
(Electromotive Force)according to Faraday’s law of electro-
magnetic induction. i.e.
e=M di/dt
where, e=induced emf
M=mutual inductance
If the second circuit is closed, a current flows in it and so electric
energy is transferred(entirely magnetically) from the first coil
(primary winding) to the second coil(secondary winding).
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Working of Transformer

Principle of operation
1. When current in the primary coil
changes being alternating in
nature, a changing magnetic field
is produced
2. This changing magnetic field
gets associated with the secondary
through the soft iron core
3. Hence magnetic flux linked with
the secondary coil changes.
4. Which induces e.m.f. in the
secondary.

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Working of Transformer Principle of operation
Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
According to these Faraday's laws, "Rate of change of flux linkage
with respect to time is directly proportional to the induced EMF in a
conductor or coil".
Basic Theory of Transformer
Say you have one winding which is supplied by an alternating
electrical source. The alternating current through the winding
produces a continually changing flux or alternating flux that surrounds
the winding. If any other winding is brought nearer to the previous
one, obviously some portion of this flux will link with the second. As
this flux is continually changing in its amplitude and direction, there
must be a change in flux linkage in the second winding or coil.
According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, there must
be an EMF induced in the second. If the circuit of the later winding is
closed, there must be an current flowing through it. This is the
simplest form of electrical power transformer and this is the most
basic of working principle of transformer.
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Working of Transformer
Principle of operation

The rms value of the induced voltages are

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
Principle of operation
For ideal transformer E1=V1 and E2= V2

The power in ideal transformer
Then

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
A Transformer changes the voltage level (or current
level) on its input winding to another value on its output
winding using a magnetic field. A transformer consists of
two electrically isolated coils and operates on Faraday’s
principal of “mutual induction”, in which an EMF is
induced in the transformers secondary coil by the
magnetic flux generated by the voltages and currents
flowing in the primary coil winding.
Both the primary and secondary coil windings are
wrapped around a common soft iron core made of
individual laminations to reduce eddy current and power
losses. The primary winding of the transformer is
connected to the AC power source which must be
sinusoidal in nature, while the secondary winding supplies
power
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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates
a time-varying magnetic flux in the core, which
induces a voltage in the other windings. Varying the
relative number of turns between primary and
secondary windings determines the ratio of the input
and output voltages, thus transforming the voltage by
stepping it up or down between circuits.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
The EMF in the secondary winding will cause current to
flow in a secondary circuit. The MMF produced by
current in the secondary winding opposes the MMF of
the primary winding and so tends to cancel the flux in
the core. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF
induced in the primary winding, increased current flows
in the primary circuit. The resulting increase in MMF
due to the primary current offsets the effect of the
opposing secondary MMF. In this way, the electrical
energy fed into the primary winding is delivered to the
secondary winding. In addition, the flux density will
always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is
steady.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
When a load is connected to the secondary output terminals of a
transformer as shown in Figure, a current I2 flows into the load and
into transformer secondary winding N2. The current I2 which flowing
in N2 produces flux Φ2 which opposes - by Lenz’s law - to the main
magnetic flux Φ in the transformer core. This will weaken or slightly
reduce the main flux Φ to Φ’.
The reduction of main flux Φ - by Faraday’s law - could also reduce
the induced voltage in primary winding E1. Consequently E1 is now
smaller than the supply voltage V1, then the primary current would
be increased due to that potential differences. Therefore on loaded
transformer, the primary current has an additional current of I1’.
The extra current I1’ which flowing in the primary winding N1
produces flux Φ1 which naturally react according to Lenz’s law,
demagnetize the flux Φ2. Therefore the net magnetic flux in the core
is always maintained at original value, it is the main flux Φ (the flux
which produced by the magnetizing current).
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer

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Working principle of Transformer 194
PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
The basic principle behind working of a transformer is
the phenomenon of mutual induction between two windings
linked by common magnetic flux. The figure in previous
slide shows the simplest form of a transformer. Basically a
transformer consists of two inductive coils; primary winding
and secondary winding. The coils are electrically separated
but magnetically linked to each other. When, primary
winding is connected to a source of alternating voltage,
alternating magnetic flux is produced around the winding.
The core provides magnetic path for the flux, to get linked
with the secondary winding. Most of the flux gets linked
with the secondary winding which is called as 'useful flux'
or main 'flux', and the flux which does not get linked with
secondary winding is called as 'leakage flux'.
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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Working of Transformer
As the flux produced is alternating (the direction of it is
continuously changing), EMF gets induced in the
secondary winding according to Faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction. This emf is called “mutually
induced emf”, and the frequency of mutually induced emf is
same as that of supplied emf. If the secondary winding is
closed circuit, then mutually induced current flows through
it, and hence the electrical energy is transferred from one
circuit (primary) to another circuit (secondary).

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

15) Working of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

16) Short circuit capacity

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
What is meant by Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer?
Short-circuit capacity of a transformer means the maximum current
at a particular time instant that can flow in the transformer windings
when the primary side is energized with full rated voltage and the
secondary side is short circuited. This type of energization is also
known as dead short-circuit condition.
Here the particular time instant indicates the time instant when the
applied voltage is near to its zero value. Usually the resistance of
the transformer windings is very small in comparison to its leakage
reactance. Therefore if we neglect the resistance of the windings,
then the impedance is just equal to its leakage reactance. And we
know that when a purely inductive device is switched on at an
instant when the applied voltage wave is zero the current is not
equal to its steady state value but it is more than that, and we
name it as full asymmetrical current. Therefore in a transformer,
maximum value of the short-circuit current occurs at the first peak
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is given by the following expression; 199
PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer

1.8 2 MVA �106
I asym _ peak = ---- (1)
3 Vline Z p.u .
where 1.8 is the asymmetry factor; this factor depends on the
ratio of R/X of a transformer. Here 1.8 is corresponding to the
ratio 0.07, and square root of 2 indicates the peak value of the
current wave. Zp.u. is per unit impedance of the transformer.
After one or two cycles the current will come to its steady state
value (because small value of winding resistance plays the role
of damp out the transient component of current) but still its
magnitude is very high.

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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
IS 2026 part 5, SC test is a special test.
Symmetrical SC current = Isc

Isc = U/√3*(Zt+Zs) kA

Zs is short circuit impedance of system
= (kV2/Fault MVA) ….. Ohm/phase

Zt is short circuit impedance of transformer
= (%Z x kV2/MVA x 100) ….. Ohm/phase

U is Line voltage of transformer in kV
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer

Short circuit current – contd…..

•The rms value depends on impedance
– Impedance of the transformer
– Impedance of the system

• The peak value depends on
– The instance of short circuit
– The X / R ratio of the trans. + system

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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
What is its Significance?
Transformers will see more severe SC duty than before as more
in-feeds like wind, solar are added.
The significance is now very clear. From equation (1), we know
the maximum value of current that can flow in the windings of a
transformer under the dead short-circuit condition. If this
condition persists for a long time then two things will happen:
a) the high value of current will increase the temperature of
the transformer and damage it due to the accumulated heat
inside it. This takes some time.
b) the windings of the transformer may fail mechanically due
to the generation of large electromagnetic forces (radial as
well as axial) on the windings which is proportional to
squire of the current. This is instantaneous and usually
occurs at the first peak of the current wave.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
How much it should be?
Maximum symmetrical current flowing is equal to [(rated current*
100) / percentage Impedance)]. As when a short circuit occurs,
energy stored in capacitor and inductors in system will discharge
energy into fault. This creates an additional peak on current.
Therefore peak value of current will be approx. 1.8*(rated current*
100) / percentage Impedance).
An AC Power system is built up with capacitors, inductors and
resisters. Capacitors and inductors store energy while in operation.
When terminals are short circuited, this energy is discharged into
fault. This results in asymmetric current. This current is
unidirectional decaying current.
As obvious from the above points the value of short-circuit current
under the dead short-circuit should be low. But due to the preferred
low value of impedance in the design of a transformer, due to good
voltage regulation and high efficiency, the current is very high.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
If it is not as per required value, how transformer will fail /
affected during operation?
The instantaneous effect is the generation of large radial and
axial electromagnetic forces on the windings, and these forces
may damage the windings. There are some modes of failure
occurs due to each force.
The modes of failure due to radial electromagnetic force:
a) Buckling of the innermost winding due to the compressive
radial force
b) Stretching of the outer winding due to the tensile radial
force
The modes of failure due to axial electromagnetic force:
a) Bending of the conductors between the radial insulation
spacers
b) Tilting of the conductors
c) Collapse of the clamping rings
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
When the inner winding is wound helically, then in addition to radial
and axial forces, torsional force is also generated which may spiral
the end conductors of the inner winding. This phenomenon is
known as spiraling.
The main threat arises from all these failure mechanisms is the
damage of the insulation provided in the transformer.
The transformer may also fail if it comes under the mechanical
resonance condition during the short-circuit event. The electro-
magnetic forces exerted on the windings have twice the frequency
of the input electric supply (say 50 Hz). If the mechanical natural
frequency of the transformer windings becomes equal to the
frequency of the axial short-circuit electromagnetic force i.e, 100
Hz, then the axial displacement of the windings is dangerously high
and transformer would fail. Therefore at the design stage care
should be taken to ensure that the natural frequency of the
transformers should be sufficiently far away from the 100 Hz.
8/15/18 206
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
Short Circuit Forces in Transformer
It is well known that parallel conductors repel or attract each other according
to whether the current they carry are in the opposite or in the same direction.
Mechanical forces exist in the transformers on account of the interaction of
the current in the winding with the leakage field surrounding them (winding). It
should be noted that the two windings carry current in the opposite direction.
The leakage field in the core type transformer is shown in figure.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
Improved Short-Circuit Strength
Earlier generation of power transformers were weak
in short - circuit strengths. The improved design of
insulation systems and windings, based on repeated
short-circuit performance has resulted in stronger
windings and transformers of higher short-circuit
strengths.

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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
Which are the factors affecting Short Circuit Capacity of
Transformer?
From equation (1), the factors which affect the short circuit
capacity of a transformer are: per unit impedance, voltage rating
and the MVA rating. But all these factors are fixed by the design.
Therefore occurrence of high value of current is sure.
All of the above discussion is related to the dead short circuit
condition. This condition is imposed during the short - circuit
withstand capability of the transformer windings at the high
power laboratories like KEMA in The Netherlands and CPRI at
Bangalore and Bhopal in India.

8/15/18 209
PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
In the actual power systems, the occurrence of a fault at
the terminals of a transformer is very rare. Now if a three
phase fault (usually it is also rare, the frequency of line to
ground fault is high) occurs at a point in the system, then
the magnitude of current flowing in the transformer
windings is comparatively low due to the addition of
impedance of the transmission line from the fault point up
to the transformer location.
Some important points which should be taken into
consideration to ensure the mechanical rigidity of the
transformer windings during the short-circuit condition are
mechanical strength of copper and clamping members,
and perfect ampere turn balance between windings.

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PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
OVER-VIEW
Though, in general, expenses of “Dynamic short circuit testing
of Transformer” is beared by client, the recent scenario is
almost all clients opt for this test for the following reasons;
In olden days (before 35-40 years), comparatively
•Generating units were less,
•Electrical network (system) was small,
•Fault level was low,
•Occurrence of faults/disturbances were less
•Short circuit test facility was available at rare places, taking
long waiting period.
•For process/production, automation was limited, and
Electrical Engineers themselves were preparing “Purchase
specification” of transformer based on their past experience and
from existing transformer name-plate.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
Short Circuit Capacity of Transformer
OVER-VIEW
In recent time, comparatively
• Generating units are increased (transformers will see more severe short
circuit forces than before as more in-feeds like wind, solar are added).
•Electrical network (system) become huge,
• Fault level has gone up as in a huge system, when a short circuit occurs,
energy stored in capacitor and inductors in system will discharge energy
into fault,
• Occurrence of no. of faults/disturbances are increased because of huge
system,
• Availability of more short circuit laboratories in recent times with lesser
waiting period.
• For process/production, automation and precise controls are increased, and
Therefore, reliability of electrical network has become of utmost importance.
As a result, all users/industries engage consultant for purchase/install
electrical equipments. Consultants, in view to increase reliability, insist for
this test, so that transformer can withstand severe short circuit without
causing any damage.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

16) Short circuit capacity

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

17) K-Factor of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
Modern industrial and commercial networks are increasingly
influenced by significant amounts of harmonic currents produced
by ever increasing applications of power electronic devices, i.e.
a variety of nonlinear loads like variable speed drives, electric
and induction furnaces, fluorescent lighting, static power conver-
ters, uninterruptible power supplies and massive numbers of
home entertaining devices including personal computers.
All of these currents are sourced through service transformers. A
particular aspect of transformers is that, under saturation
conditions, they become a source of harmonics.
In general, harmonics losses occur from increased heat
dissipation in the windings and skin effect; both are a function of
the square of the RMS current, as well as from eddy currents
and core losses. This extra heat can have a significant impact in
reducing the operating life of the transformer insulation.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
Transformers are a particular case of power equipment that has
experienced an evolution that allows them to operate in
electrical environments with considerable harmonic distortion. In
industry applications in which transformers are primarily loaded
with nonlinear loads, continuous operation at or above rated
power can impose a high operating temperature, which can
have a significant impact on their lifetime.
The K-Factor rating assigned to a transformer and marked on
the transformer case in accordance with the listing of
Underwriters Laboratories, is an index of the transformer's ability
to supply harmonic content in its load current while remaining
within its operating temperature limits. A specific K-factor rating
indicates that a transformer can supply its rated KVA load output
to a load of specified amount of harmonic content.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
At present, industry literature and commentary refers to a limited
number of K-factor ratings: K-1, K-4, K-9, K-13, K-20, K-30, K-
40. In theory, a transformer could be designed for other K-factor
ratings in-between those values, as well as for higher values.
The commonly referenced ratings calculated according to
ANSI/IEEE C57.110-1986 are as follows:
K-1: This is the rating of any conventional transformer that has
been designed to handle only the heating effects of eddy
currents and other losses resulting from 50 Hertz, sine-wave
current loading on the transformer. Such a unit may or may not
be designed to handle the increased heating of harmonics in its
load current.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
K-4: A transformer with this rating has been designed to supply
rated KVA, without overheating, to a load made-up of 100% of
the normal 50 Hertz, sine-wave, fundamental current plus: 16%
of the fundamental as 3rd harmonic current; 10% of the
fundamental as 5th; 7% of the fundamental as 7th; 5.5% of the
fundamental as 9th; and smaller percentages through the 25th
harmonic. The "4" indicates its ability to accommodate four
times the eddy current losses of a K-1 transformer.
K-9: A K-9 transformer can accommodate 163% of the
harmonic loading of a K-4 rated transformer.
K-13: A K-13 transformer can accommodate 200% of the
harmonic loading of a K-4 rated transformer.
K-20, K-30, K-40: The higher number of each of these K-factor
ratings indicates ability to handle successively larger amounts of
harmonic load content without overheating.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
Triplen harmonic currents are phase currents which flow from
each of the phases into the fourth wire neutral and have
frequencies in integer multiples of three times the 50 hertz base
frequency (150Hz, 300Hz, 450Hz, etc). At each of these third
multiple triplen frequencies, these triplen phase currents are in
phase with each other and when flowing in the neutral as zero
sequence currents, are equal to three times their RMS phase
values. See figure.

In a 3-phase, 4-wire system, single-phase line-to-neutral
currents flow in each phase conductor and return in the common
neutral. Since the three 50 hertz currents are separated by 1200,
when balanced they cancel each other. The measured resultant
current is equal to zero. See figure.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
Theory also states that for even harmonics, starting with the
second order, when balanced the even harmonic will cancel in
the common neutral.

Other odd harmonics add in the common neutral, but their
magnitude is considerably less than triplens. The RMS value of
the total current is the square root of the RMS value of the
individual currents squared.

At any given instant, the 50 Hertz currents on the three-phase
legs have a vector resultant of zero and cancel in the neutral.
But, the third (and other odd triplen harmonics) on the phase
legs are in phase and become additive in the neutral.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
Load K-Factor ILK
Incandescent Lighting K-1 0.00
Electric Resistance Heating K-1 0.00
Moors (without solid state drives) K-1 0.00
Control Transformers/Electromagnetic Control Devices K-1 0.00
Motor-Generators (without solid stale drives) K-1 0.00
Distribution Transformers K-1 0.00
Electric-Discharge Lighting K-4 25.82
UPS with Optional Input Filter K-4 25.82
Welders K-4 25.82
Induction Heating Equipment K-4 25.82
PLCs and Solid State Controls K-4 25.82

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION
K - Factor of Transformer
Load K-Factor ILK
Telecommunications Equipment (e.g. PBX) K-13 57.74
UPS without Input Filtering K-13 57.74
Multi-wire receptacle circuits in general care areas of K-13 57.74
health care facilities, classrooms of schools. Etc
Multi-wire receptacle circuits supplying inspection or K-13 57.74
testing equipment on an assembly or production line
Main-Frame computer loads K-20 80.94
Solid State motor drives (variable speed drives) K-20 80.94
Multi-wire receptacle circuits in critical care operating K-20 80.94
and recovery room areas in hospitals
Multi-wire receptacle circuits in industrial, medical and K-30 123.54
educational laboratories
Multi-wire receptacle circuits in commercial office spaces K-30 123.54
Small main Frames (mini and micro) K-30 123.54
Other loads identified as producing very high amounts of K-40 208.17
harmonics

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17) K-Factor of Transformer

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

18) Vector group of Transformers

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
Vector Group of Transformers
The three phase transformer windings can be connected several
ways. Based on the windings’ connection, the vector group of the
transformer is determined.
The transformer vector group is indicated on the Name Plate of
transformer by the manufacturer. The vector group indicates the
phase difference between the HV and LV sides, introduced due to
that particular configuration of transformer windings connection.
The determination of vector group of transformers is very important
before connecting two or more transformers in parallel. When two
transformers are connected in parallel, their phase shifts must be
identical; if not, then phase difference exist between the secondary
of the transformers a short circuit will occur and large circulating
current flows between the two transformers when the transformers
are energized.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers

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Six Ways to wire Star Winding 228
PROF. V. G. PATEL
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers

Six Ways to wire Delta Winding
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
When Pair of Coil of Transformer have same direction, then
voltage induced in both coil are in same direction from one end
to other end. When two coil have opposite winding direction,
then Voltage induced in both coil are in opposite direction.

Winding connection designations
• First Symbol: for High Voltage: Always capital letters.
D=Delta, S=Star, Z=Interconnected star, N=Neutral
• Second Symbol: for Low voltage: Always Small letters.
d=Delta, s=Star, z=Interconnected star, n=Neutral.
• Third Symbol: Phase displacement expressed as the
clock hour number (1,6,11)

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
The phase-bushings on a three phase transformer are marked
either ABC, UVW or 123 (HV-side capital, LV-side small letters).
Two winding, three phase transformers can be divided into four
main categories:

Group O’clock TC
Group I 0 o’clock, 00 delta/delta, star/star
Group II 6 o’clock, 1800 delta/delta, star/star
Group III 1 o’clock, -300 star/delta, delta/star
Group IV 11 o’clock, +300 star/delta, delta/star
Minus indicates LV lagging HV, plus indicates LV leading HV

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
We know that, the primary and secondary coils on any one limb have
induced emfs that are in time-phase. Let's consider two transformers
of same number primary turns and the primary windings are
connected in star. The secondary number of turns per phase in both
transformers are also same. But the first transformer has star
connected secondary and other transformer has delta connected
secondary. If same voltages are applied in primary of both
transformers, the secondary induced emf in each phase will be in
same time-phase with that of respective primary phase, as because
the primary and secondary coils of same phase are wound on the
same limb in the core of transformer. In first transformer, as the
secondary is star connected, the secondary line voltage is √3 times of
induced voltage per secondary phase coil. But in case of second
transformer, where secondary is delta connected, the line voltage is
equal to induced voltage per secondary phase coil.

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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
If we go through the vector diagram of secondary line voltages of both
transformers, we will easily find that there will be a clear 30o angular
difference between the line voltages of these transformers. Now, if we
try to run these transformers in parallel then there will be circulating
current flowing between the transformers as because there is a phase
angle difference between their secondary line voltages. This phase
difference cannot be compensated. Thus two sets of connections
giving secondary voltages with a phase displacement cannot be
intended for parallel operation of transformers.
The following table gives the connections for which from the view point
of phase sequence and angular divergences, transformer can be
operated parallel. According to their vector relation, all three phase
transformers are divided into different vector group of transformers.
All electrical power transformers of a particular vector group can easily
be operated in parallel if they fulfill other condition for parallel
operation of transformers.
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TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
CONSIDERING ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION
GROUP CONNECTION CONNECTION

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Dd0 234
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
CONSIDERING ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION
GROUP CONNECTION CONNECTION

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Dd6 235
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
CONSIDERING ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION
GROUP CONNECTION CONNECTION

8/15/18
Yd1 PROF. V. G. PATEL
Dy1 236
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
CONSIDERING ANTICLOCKWISE ROTATION
GROUP CONNECTION CONNECTION

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Dy11 237
TRANSFORMER - BASICS AND GENERAL INFORMATION

Vector group of Transformers
Transformer vector group depends upon:
1. Removing harmonics: Dy connection – y winding nullifies 3rd
harmonics, preventing it to be reflected on delta side.
2. Parallel operations: All the transformers should have same
vector group & polarity of the winding.
3. Earth fault Relay: A Dd transformer does not have neutral. to
restrict the earth faults in such systems, we may use zig zag
wound transformer to create a neutral along with the earth
fault relay.
4. Type of Non Liner Load: systems having different types of
harmonics & non linear Types of loads e.g. furnace heaters,
VFDS etc for that we may use Dyn11, Dyn21, Dyn31
configuration, wherein, 30 deg. shifts of voltages nullifies the
3rd harmonics to zero in the supply system.

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Vector group of Transformers
5. Type of Transformer Application: Generally for Power export
transformer i.e. generator side is connected in delta and load
side is connected in star. For Power export import
transformers i.e. in Transmission Purpose Transformer star
star connection may be preferred by some since this avoids
a grounding transformer on generator side and perhaps save
on neutral insulation. Most of systems are running in this
configuration. May be less harmful than operating delta
system incorrectly. Yd or Dy connection is standard for all
unit connected generators.
There are a number of factors associated with transformer
connections and may be useful in designing a system, and
the application of the factors therefore determines the best
selection of transformers.
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Vector group of Transformers
For example:
For selecting Star Connection:
A star connection presents a neutral. If the transformer also
includes a delta winding, that neutral will be stable and can be
grounded to become a reference for the system. A transformer with
a star winding that does NOT include a delta does not present a
stable neutral.
Star-star transformers are used if there is a requirement to avoid a
30 deg phase shift, if there is a desire to construct the three-phase
transformer bank from single-phase transformers, or if the
transformer is going to be switched on a single-pole basis (i.e. one
phase at a time), perhaps using manual switches.
Star-star transformers are typically found in distribution applica-
tions, or in large sizes interconnecting high-voltage transmission
systems. Some star-star transformers are equipped with a third
winding connected in delta to stabilize the neutral.
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Vector group of Transformers
For selecting Delta Connection:
• A delta connection introduces a 30 electrical degree phase
shift.
• A delta connection ‘traps’ the flow of zero sequence currents.
For selecting Delta-Star Connection:
• Delta-star transformers are the most common and most
generally useful transformers.
• Delta-delta transformers may be chosen if there is no need for
a stable neutral, or if there is a requirement to avoid a 30
electrical degree phase shift. The most common application of
a delta-delta transformer is as tan isolation transformer for a
power converter.

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Vector group of Transformers
For selecting Zig zag Connection:
The Zig Zag winding reduces voltage unbalance in systems
where the load is not equally distributed between phases, and
permits neutral current loading with inherently low zero-sequence
impedance. It is therefore often used for earthing transformers.
Provision of a neutral earth point or points, where the neutral is
referred to earth either directly or through impedance.
Transformers are used to give the neutral point in the majority of
systems. The star or interconnected star (Z) winding configura-
tions give a neutral location.
If for various reasons, only delta windings are used at a particular
voltage level on a particular system, a neutral point can still be
provided by a purpose-made transformer called a ‘neutral
earthing’.

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Vector group of Transformers
For selecting Distribution Transformer:
The criterion to consider in choosing a vector group for a distribution
transformer for a facility is to know whether we want a delta-star or star-star.
Utilities often prefer star-star transformers, but these require 4-wire input
feeders and 4-wire output feeders (i.e. incoming and outgoing neutral
conductors).
For distribution transformers within a facility, often delta-star are chosen
because these transformers do not require 4-wire input; a 3-wire primary
feeder circuit suffices to supply a 4-wire secondary circuit. That is because
any zero sequence current required by the secondary to supply earth faults
or unbalanced loads is supplied by the delta primary winding, and is not
required from the upstream power source. The method of earthing on the
secondary is independent of the primary for delta-star transformers.
There is no technical difference between the one vector groups (i.e. Dy1) or
another vector group (i.e. Dy11) in terms of performance. The only factor
affecting the choice between one or the other is system phasing, i.e whether
parts of the network fed from the transformer need to operate in parallel with
another source.
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Vector group of Transformers
Application of Transformer according to Vector Group
1) Dyn11, Dyn1, YNd1, YNd11
Common for distribution transformers.
• Normally Dyn11 vector group using at distribution system. Because
Generating Transformer are YNd1 for neutralizing the load angle between
11 and 1.
• We can use Dyn1 at distribution system, when we are using Generator
Transformer are YNd11.
• In some industries 6 pulse electric drives are using due to this
5thharmonics will generate if we use Dyn1 it will be suppress the 5th
harmonics.
• Star point facilitates mixed loading of three phase and single phase
consumer connections.
• The delta winding carry third harmonics and stabilizes star point potential.
• A delta-Star connection is used for step-up generating stations. If HV
winding is star connected there will be saving in cost of insulation.
• But delta connected HV winding is common in distribution network, for
feeding motors and lighting loads from LV side.
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Vector group of Transformers
2) Star-Star (Yy0 or Yy6)
• Mainly used for large system tie-up transformer.
• Most economical connection in HV power system to interconnect between
two delta systems and to provide neutral for grounding both of them.
• Tertiary winding stabilizes the neutral conditions. In star connected
transformers, load can be connected between line and neutral, only if
(a) the source side transformers is delta connected or
(b) the source side is star connected with neutral connected back to the
source neutral.
• In this transformers. Insulation cost is highly reduced. Neutral wire can
permit mixed loading.
• Triple harmonics are absent in the lines. These triple harmonic currents
cannot flow, unless there is a neutral wire. This connection produces
oscillating neutral.
• Three phase shell type units have large triple harmonic phase voltage.
However three phase core type transformers work satisfactorily.
• A tertiary mesh connected winding may be required to stabilize the
oscillating neutral due to third harmonics in three phase banks.
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Vector group of Transformers
3) Delta – Delta (Dd0 or Dd6)
• This is an economical connection for large low voltage
transformers.
• Large unbalance of load can be met without difficulty.
• Delta permits a circulating path for triple harmonics thus
attenuates the same.
• It is possible to operate with one transformer removed in open
delta or” V” connection meeting 58 percent of the balanced load.
• Three phase units cannot have this facility. Mixed single phase
loading is not possible due to the absence of neutral.
4) Star-Zig-zag or Delta-Zig-zag (Yz or Dz)
• These connections are employed where delta connections are
weak. Interconnection of phases in zigzag winding effects a
reduction of third harmonic voltages and at the same time permits
unbalanced loading.
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Vector group of Transformers
• This connection may be used with either delta connected or
star connected winding either for step-up or step-down
transformers. In either case, the zigzag winding produces the
same angular displacement as a delta winding, and at the
same time provides a neutral for earthing purposes.
• The amount of copper required from a zigzag winding in 15%
more than a corresponding star or delta winding. This is
extensively used for earthing transformer.
• Due to zig-zag connection (interconnection between phases),
third harmonic voltages are reduced. It also allows unbalan-ced
loading. The zigzag connection is employed for LV winding. For
a given total voltage per phase, the zigzag side requires 15%
more turns as compared to normal phase connection. In cases
where delta connections are weak due to large number of turns
and small cross sections, then zigzag star connection is
preferred.
8/15/18
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Vector group of Transformers
5) Zig-zag/ star (ZY1 or Zy11)
• Zigzag connection is obtained by inter connection of phases.4-
wire system is possible on both sides. Unbalanced loading is also
possible. Oscillating neutral problem is absent in this connection.
• This connection requires 15% more turns for the same voltage on
the zigzag side and hence costs more. Hence a bank of three
single phase transformers cost about 15% more than their 3-
phase counterpart. Also, they occupy more space. But the spare
capacity cost will be less and single phase units are easier to
transport.
• Unbalanced operation of the transformer with large zero
sequence fundamental mmf content also does not affect its
performance. Even with Yy type of poly phase connection without
neutral connection the oscillating neutral does not occur with
these cores. Finally, three phase cores themselves cost less than
three single phase units due to compactness.
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Vector group of Transformers
6) Yd5
• Mainly used for machine and main Transformer in large Power
Station and Transmission Substation.
• The Neutral point can be loaded with rated Current.

7) Yz5
• For Distribution Transformer up to 250 KVA for local distribu-
tion system.
• The Neutral point can be loaded with rated Current.

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Vector group of Transformers
Application of Transformer according to Uses
Step up Transformer It should be Yd1 or Yd11.
Step down Transformer It should be Dy1 or Dy11.
Grounding purpose It should be Yz1 or Dz11.
Transformer
Distribution We can consider vector group of
Transformer Dzn0 which reduce the 75% of
harmonics in secondary side.
Power Transformer Vector group depend on application,
eg:
Generating Transformer: Dyn1,
Furnace Transformer: Ynyn0.

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Vector group of Transformers
Convert One Group of Transformer to Other Group
by Channing External Connection
Group I: Example: Dd0 (no phase displacement
between HV & LV)
The conventional method is to connect the red phase on A/a,
Yellow phase on B/b, and the Blue phase on C/c.
Other phase displacements are possible with unconventional
connections (for instance red on b, yellow on c and blue on a)
By doing some unconventional connections externally on one
side of the Transformer, an internal connected Dd0 transformer
can be changed either to a Dd4(-1200) or Dd8(+1200) conne-
ction. The same is true for internal connected Dd4 or Dd8
transformers.

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Vector group of Transformers
Group II: Example: Dd6 (1800 displacement between HV
& LV)
By doing some unconventional connections externally on one side
of the Transformer, an internal connected Dd6 transformer can be
changed either to a Dd2(-600) or Dd10(+600) connection.
Group III: Example: Dyn1 (-300 displacement between
HV & LV)
By doing some unconventional connections externally on one side
of the Transformer, an internal connected Dyn1 transformer can be
changed either to a Dyn5(-1500) or Dyn9(+900) connection.
Group IV: Example: Dyn11 (+300 displacement between
HV & LV)
By doing some unconventional connections externally on one side
of the Transformer, an internal connected Dyn11 transformer can
be changed either to a Dyn7(+1500) or Dyn3(-900) connection.
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Vector group of Transformers
Points to be remembered
• For Group-III & Group-IV: By doing some unconventional
connections externally on both sides of the Transformer, an
internal connected Group-III or Group-IV transformer can be
changed to any of these two groups.
• Thus by doing external changes on both sides of the
Transformer an internal connected Dyn1 transformer can be
changed to either a: Dyn3, Dyn5, Dyn7, Dyn9 or Dyn11
transformer, This is just true for star/delta or delta/star
connections.
• For Group-I & Group-II: Changes for delta/delta or star/star
transformers between Group-I and Group-III can just be done
internally.

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Vector group of Transformers
VECTOR GROUP CHECK TEST
Connect terminals 1U, 2U
together.
Apply three phase 415 V, 50
HZ, AC to HV terminals
1U,1V,1W.
Measure voltages between
terminals 1V-2V, 1V-2W,
1W-2V, 1W-2W & 1V-2n, 2n-
1U, 1V-1U.
1V-2V & 1V-2W will be equal, while 1W-2V will be greater
than 1W-2W and 1V-2n plus 2n-1U will be equal to 1V-1U
for Dyn11 vector group.
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Vector group of Transformers VECTOR GROUP CHECK TEST

Let’s have a YNd11 transformer.
Connect neutral point of star connected winding with earth. Join 1U of HV
and 2W of LV together. Apply 415 V, three phase supply to HV terminals.
Measure voltages between terminals 2U-1N, 2V-1N, 2W-1N, that means
voltages between each LV terminal and HV neutral.
Also measure voltages between terminals 2V-1V, 2W-1W and 2V-1W.
For YNd11 transformer, we will find,
2U-1N > 2V-1N > 2W-1N ; 2V-1W > 2V-1V or 2W-1W.
The vector group check test of transformer for other groups can also
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Vector group of Transformers

For parallel operation of
transformers, vector group
of both the transformers
should be the same.
Q - Can Dy1 and Yd11 vector
group transformers be
paralleled?
If answer is NO, why?
If answer is YES, how?
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Vector group of Transformers

Please answer
the Question.
Unless you speak answer
before computer screen, you
can not move to next slide.
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Vector group of Transformers
Answer: In order to have zero relative phase
displacement of LV side line voltages, the transformers
belonging to the same group can be paralleled. For
example, two transformers with Yd1 and Dy1
connections can be paralleled.

The transformers with different groups (+30 0 & -300
----11 & 1) can be paralleled by reversing the phase
sequence of one of them. For example, A transformer
with Yd11 connection can be paralleled with that
having Dy1 connection by reversing the phase
sequence of both primary and secondary terminals of
the Dy1 transformer.
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18) Vector group of Transformers

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19) Transformer Losses

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Transformer Losses

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Transformer Losses
Types of losses incurred in a transformer:
1 - Copper I2R losses
2 - Core losses (hysteresis losses and eddy
current losses)

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Transformer Losses
Energy losses
Transformer losses are produced by the electrical current flowing
in the coils and the magnetic field alternating in the core. The
losses associated with the coils (winding resistance) are called the
load losses, while the losses produced in the core are called no-
load losses. Hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to
over 99% of the no-load loss.
An ideal transformer would have no losses, and would therefore
be 100% efficient. In practice, energy is dissipated due both to the
resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I 2R loss, and
to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as
iron loss). Transformers are, in general, highly efficient: large
power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain efficiency as high
as 99.75%. Small transformers, such as a plug-in "power brick"
used to power small consumer electronics, may be less than 85%
efficient.
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Transformer Losses
Winding resistance
Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of
the conductors (I2R loss). At higher frequencies, skin effect and
proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.
Eddy currents
Induced eddy currents circulate within the core, causing resistive
heating. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy
currents. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping aging
of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago.
Hysteresis losses
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of
energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. The amount
of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material.

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Transformer Losses
Magnetostriction
Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract
slightly with the alternating magnetic field (producing a buzzing
sound), an effect known as magnetostriction. This in turn causes
losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.
Mechanical losses
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes
fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and
secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork,
creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise, and consuming a small
amount of power.
Cooling system
Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans, oil
pumps or water-cooled heat exchangers designed to remove the heat
caused by copper and iron losses. The power used to operate the
cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the
transformer.
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Transformer Losses
Stray losses
Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted
by the secondary. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy
currents within nearby conductive objects, such as the
transformer's support structure, and be converted to heat. Stray
Loss are occurring in the Mechanical Structure and winding due
to Leakage Flux.
STRAY LOSS HAS TWO COMPONENTS:
• Eddy current loss
• Circulating current loss
Eddy current loss within each strand can be reduced by using
thinner insulated conductor while the circulating current loss
between strands can be reduced through frequent transposition
of conductors.

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Transformer Losses
Core losses are caused by two factors: hysteresis and
eddy current losses. Hysteresis loss is that energy lost by
reversing field in the core as the magnetizing AC rises
and falls and reverses direction. Eddy current is a result
of induced currents circulating in the core.
Copper losses, also known as I2R loss is the electrical
power which is lost in heat as a result of circulating the
currents around the transformers copper windings, hence
the name. Copper losses represents the greatest loss in
the operation of a transformer. The actual watts of power
lost can be determined (in each winding) by squaring the
amperes and multiplying by the resistance in ohms of the
winding (I2R).
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Transformer Losses
Losses:
(a) No Load Losses: The losses occurring in a transformer
when the secondary is not loaded and the primary is
supplied with rated voltage at rated frequency. No-load
losses are also called Core Losses or Iron Losses and are
equal to the sum of hysteresis loss and eddy current loss.
(b) Load Losses or Short-Circuit Losses: These are also
called copper losses. The load loss (short-circuit loss) is
equal to the active power absorbed by the transformer
while carrying rated current in primary and secondary
windings under loaded short circuited condition.
(c) Total Losses: It is the sum of No-load Loss and Load
Loss. It is also the sum of Iron Loss and Copper Loss.
Most of the loss energy is released as heat,
although very small may appear as sound ("hum").
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Transformer Losses
Load Losses
Load losses vary according to the loading on the transformer.
They include heat losses and eddy currents in the primary and
secondary conductors of the transformer.
Heat losses, or I2R losses, in the winding materials contribute
the largest part of the load losses. They are created by
resistance of the conductor to the flow of current or electrons.
The electron motion causes the conductor molecules to move
and produce friction and heat. The energy generated by this
motion can be calculated using the formula:
Watts = (volts)(amperes) or VI.

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Transformer Losses
Load Losses
According to Ohm's law, V=RI, or the voltage drop across a
resistor equals the amount of resistance in the resistor, R,
multiplied by the current, I, flowing in the resistor. Hence, heat
losses equal (I)(RI) or I2R.
Transformer designers cannot change I, or the current portion
of the I2R losses, which are determined by the load require-
ments. They can only change the resistance or R part of the
I2R by using a material that has a low resistance per cross-
sectional area without adding significantly to the cost of the
transformer. Most transformer designers have found copper
the best conductor considering the weight, size, cost and
resistance of the conductor. Designers can also reduce the
resistance of the conductor by increasing the cross-sectional
area of the conductor.
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Transformer Losses
No-load Losses
Iron losses, also known as hysteresis is the lagging of the
magnetic molecules within the core, in response to the
alternating magnetic flux. This lagging (or out-of-phase)
condition is due to the fact that it requires power to reverse
magnetic molecules; they do not reverse until the flux has
attained sufficient force to reverse them.
Their reversal results in friction, and friction produces heat in
the core which is a form of power loss. Hysteresis within the
transformer can be reduced by making the core from special
steel alloys.
The intensity of power loss in a transformer determines its
efficiency.

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Transformer Losses
No-load Losses
No-load losses are caused by the magnetizing current needed to
energize the core of the transformer, and do not vary according
to the loading on the transformer. They are constant and occur
24 hours a day, 365 days a year, regardless of the load, hence
the term no-load losses. They can be categorized into five
components: hysteresis losses in the core laminations, eddy
current losses in the core laminations, I2R losses due to no-load
current, stray eddy current losses in core clamps, bolts and
other core components, and dielectric losses. Hysteresis losses
and eddy current losses contribute over 99% of the no-load
losses, while stray eddy current, dielectric losses, and I2R losses
due to no-load current are small and consequently often
neglected. Thinner lamination of the core steel reduces eddy
current losses.
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Transformer Losses
No-load Losses
The biggest contributor to no-load losses is hysteresis losses.
Hysteresis losses come from the molecules in the core
laminations resisting being magnetized and demagnetized by
the alternating magnetic field. This resistance by the molecules
causes friction that results in heat. The Greek word, hysteresis,
means "to lag" and refers to the fact that the magnetic flux lags
behind the magnetic force. Choice of size and type of core
material reduces hysteresis losses.
As the core flux in transformer remains practically constant at all
loads, the core loss are constant at all loads.
Hysteresis Loss Wh = KhfBm1.6 Watts
Eddy Current Loss We = Kef2Kf2Bm2 Watts

Where, Kh = Hysteresis Constant ,
Ke = Eddy Current Constant.
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Transformer Losses
Eddy Current Loss
In transformer, we supply alternating current in the primary, this
alternating current produces alternating magnetizing flux in the
core and as this flux links with secondary winding, there will be
induced voltage in secondary, resulting current to flow through
the load connected with it. Some of the alternating fluxes of
transformer; may also link with other conducting parts like steel
core or iron body of transformer etc. As alternating flux links
with these parts of transformer, there would be a locally induced
emf. Due to these emfs, there would be currents which will
circulate locally at that parts of the transformer. These
circulating current will not contribute in output of the transformer
and dissipated as heat. This type of energy loss is called eddy
current loss of transformer.

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Transformer Losses
Hysteresis Loss
The magnetic core of transformer is made of ′Cold Rolled Grain
Oriented Silicon Steel′. Steel is very good ferromagnetic mate-
rial. This kind of materials are very sensitive to be magnetized.
That means, whenever magnetic flux would pass through, it will
behave like magnet. Ferromagnetic substances have numbers
of domains in their structure. Domains are very small regions in
the material structure, where all the dipoles are paralleled to
same direction. In other words, the domains are like small per-
manent magnets situated randomly in the structure of substa-
nce. These domains are arranged inside the material structure in
such a random manner, that net resultant magnetic field of the
said material is zero.

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Transformer Losses
Hysteresis Loss
Whenever external magnetic field or mmf is applied to that
substance, these randomly directed domains get arranged
themselves in parallel to the axis of applied mmf. After removing
this external mmf, maximum numbers of domains again come
to random positions, but some of them still remain in their
changed position. Because of these unchanged domains, the
substance becomes slightly magnetized permanently. This
magnetism is called "Spontaneous Magnetism". To neutralize
this magnetism, some opposite mmf is required to be applied.
The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer
core is alternating. For every cycle due to this domain reversal,
there will be extra work done. For this reason, there will be a
consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis
loss of transformer.
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Transformer Losses
Core Loss ….. Summarizing
Hysteresis Loss
•Frictional loss caused by the constant change in magnetic field
polarity in the core.
•Increases with an increasing voltage or frequency applied to
the transformer windings.

Eddy Current Loss
•I2R loss in the material caused by circulating induced currents
in the core.
•Proportional to the square of the voltage and the square of the
frequency applied to the transformer windings.
•Minimized by laminating the core.

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Transformer Losses
Values of Transformer Losses (A and B Values)
The values of transformer losses are important to the purchaser
of a transformer who wants to select the most cost-effective
transformer for their application. The use of A and B factors is a
method followed by most electric utilities and many large
industrial customers to capitalize the future value of no-load
losses (which relate to the cost to supply system capacity) and
load losses (which relate to the cost of incremental energy). Put
another way, A values provide an estimate of the equivalent
present cost of future no-load losses, while B values provide an
estimate of the equivalent present cost of future load losses.
Most utilities regularly update their avoided cost of capacity and
energy (typically on an annual basis), and use A and B values
when specifying a transformer.

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Transformer Losses
Values of Transformer Losses (A and B Values)
When evaluating various transformer designs, the assumed
value of transformer losses (A and B values) will contribute to
determining the efficiency of transformer to be purchased.
Assuming a high value for transformer losses will generally
result in purchase of a more efficient unit; assuming a lower
value of losses will result in purchase of a less efficient unit.
The total owning cost (TOC) method provides an effective way
to evaluate various transformer initial purchase prices and cost
of losses. The goal is to choose a transformer that meets
specifications and simultaneously has the lowest TOC.

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Transformer Losses
The A and B values include the cost of no-load and load
losses in the TOC formula:
TOC = NLL x A + LL x B + C
Where,

TOC = capitalized total owning cost,
NLL = no-load loss in watts,
A = capitalized cost per rated watt of NLL (A value),
LL = load loss in watts at the transformer's rated load,
B = capitalized cost per rated watt of LL (B value),
C = the initial cost of the transformer including
transportation, sales tax, and other costs to prepare
it for service.

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Transformer Losses
The A Value
The A value is an estimate of the present value of future capital
cost (nonload- dependent) items at a given point in time. It can
vary over time as utilities re-evaluate their costs on a periodic
basis. (In other words, the A value is the answer to the
question, what is a watt of no-load loss over the life of the
transformer worth to me today?) Even if there is no load, there
is capital that is devoted to fixed capacity to generate, transmit
and distribute electricity, which contribute to the A value. The
loading that may change daily on the transformer does not
affect the no-load loss value.

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Transformer Losses
The B Value
Similar to the way the A value is determined, the B value is an
estimate of the present value of future variable, or load-
dependent, cost items at a given point in time. (In other words,
the B value is the answer to the question, what is a watt of load
loss over the life of the transformer worth to me today?) The B
value can also change over time as utilities revaluate their
costs on a periodic basis, but once determined, it is a constant
value for a given transformer purchase.

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Transformer Losses
Specifying A and B Values
For custom-designed transformers, manufacturers optimize
the design of the unit to the specified A and B values resulting
in a transformer designed to the lowest total owning cost,
rather than one designed for cheapest first cost.
In situations where A and B values have not been determined
(or the end user does not utilize or specify them), such as
occur in commercial or small industrial applications, the
suggested technique to maximize transformer efficiency is to
obtain the no-load and full-load loss values of a specific
transformer, in watts.

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Transformer Losses

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Transformer Losses

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19) Transformer Losses

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20) Transformer Efficiency

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Transformer Efficiency

EFFICIENCY

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Transformer Efficiency
What is Efficiency?
Efficiency of any operation is a measure of useful work output
compared to the work input.
The losses in a transformer are essentially very small and the
efficiency of large transformers is over 99%. Even with small
transformers, efficiencies of 97% or 98% are usual. There are
two main losses in a transformer, namely, the iron losses and
the load losses. The iron loss is normally taken as constant at
all loads, whereas the load loss is proportional to the square of
the load.
Transformer efficiency will be maximum when
Load Losses = Iron Losses.

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Transformer Efficiency
What is Efficiency?
Efficiency of any operation is a measure of useful work output
compared to the work input.
Efficiency = Useful electrical energy output
Total electrical energy input
%η = (Output / Input) x 100
= [Output / (Output + Losses)] x 100
= [(Input – losses) / (Input)] x 100
Useful Output Power ( KW )
% x100
Input Power ( KW )
η=

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Transformer Efficiency
Transformer efficiency may be defined as the ratio between
Output and Input.
On specified Power factor and load, the Transformer efficiency
can be found by dividing its output on Input. But the values of
both input and Output should be same in unites (i.e. in Watts,
kilowatts, megawatts etc)
Efficiency = η= Output / Input
Efficiency = η= Output / (Output + Losses)
Efficiency = η= Output / (Output +Cupper Losses + Iron Losses)
Efficiency = η = 1 – (Losses /Input)
As we know that the rating of Transform is expressed in kVA not
in kW. But the efficiency doesn’t depend on VA i.e. it would be
expressed in Power Watts (kW) not in kVA. Although, the
Losses are directly proportional to VA (Volt-Amperes), thus,
efficiency depends on Power factor on every kind of VA load.
And the efficiency would be maximum on unity (1) Power factor.
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Transformer Efficiency
The intensity of power loss in a transformer determines its
efficiency. The efficiency of a transformer is reflected in power
(wattage) loss between the primary (input) and secondary
(output) windings. Then the resulting efficiency of a transformer
is equal to the ratio of the power output of the secondary
winding, PS to the power input of the primary winding, PP and is
therefore high.
An ideal transformer is 100% efficient because it delivers all the
energy it receives. Real transformers on the other hand are not
100% efficient and at full load, the efficiency of a transformer is
between 94% to 96% which is quiet good. For a transformer
operating with a constant voltage and frequency with a very
high capacity, the efficiency may be as high as 98%. The
efficiency, η of a transformer is given as:

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Transformer Efficiency
The losses in a transformer are essentially very small and the
efficiency of large transformers is over 99%. Even with small
transformers, efficiencies of 97% or 98% are usual. There are
two main losses in a transformer, namely, the iron losses and
the load losses OR I2R losses. The iron losses are normally
taken as constant at all loads, whereas the I2R loss is
proportional to the square of the load.
The efficiency losses occur in the primary and secondary coils
of the transformer, the component of loss is called coil loss or
load loss. Coil loss or load loss is a function of the resistance of
the winding materials and varies with the load on the
transformer.

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Transformer Efficiency
The efficiency of a transformer changes with the load (and load factor). The
efficiency reaches its maximum value when the copper losses (a 2 Psc)
become equal to the iron losses (Po). [In other words, when the short-circuit
losses (a2 Psc) become equal to no-load losses Po]. This condition is the
guiding factor for
-designing the transformer for maximum efficiency at most average load
factor.
-for economical loading of transformers in sub-station for operation at
maximum efficiency.
The efficiency of a transformer reduces rapidly at lower loads than the load
for maximum efficiency.
While designing a transformer, the weights of iron and copper are selected
such that copper loss is equal to iron loss for average transformer load
factor. This ensures high efficiency during the operation.

For maximum efficiency,
Iron loss
Load at which two losses are equal = Full load x
Load loss( Full load)
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Transformer Efficiency
If a transformer is designed for full load I2R losses equal to four
times iron losses, the efficiency is maximum at load factor 0.5.
The efficiency of a transformer reduces rapidly at lower loads
than the load for maximum efficiency.
While designing a transformer, the weights of iron and copper
are selected such that load loss is equal to iron loss for
average transformer load factor. This ensures high efficiency
during the operation.
The maximum efficiency of a transformer occurs at a load factor
at which the iron losses are equal to the load losses.
This is the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer.
In other words, for maximum efficiency,
Core Loss = Short-circuit Loss.
Iron Loss = Load loss.

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Transformer Efficiency
Percent Efficiency
As with any other energy conversion device, the efficiency of a
transformer is the ratio of energy delivered to the load divided
by the total energy drawn from the source. Percent efficiency is
expressed as:
%efficiency = L·kVA·cosθ·105

L·kVA·cosθ·103+NLL(w)+ L 2.LL(w)
where cosθ is again the power factor of the load, therefore kVA
cosθ is real energy delivered to the load. NL is the no-load loss,
and LL is the load loss of the transformer. Most distribution
transformers serving residential or light industrial loads are not
fully loaded all the time. Since a typical transformer will have
no-load loss of around 25% of load loss at 100% load, then at L
= 0.5, the no-load loss will equal the load loss and the
efficiency will be at a maximum.
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Transformer Efficiency
Transformer efficiency may be calculated using
the following:

Ideal transformer will have maximum
efficiency at a load such that
copper losses = iron losses
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Transformer Efficiency
Efficiency = Useful electrical energy output
Total electrical energy input

where: Input, Output and Losses are all
expressed in units of power.
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Transformer Efficiency

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Transformer Efficiency
Percentage Efficiency
As with any other energy conversion device, the
efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of energy
delivered to the load divided by the total energy
drawn from the source.

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Transformer Efficiency

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Transformer Efficiency

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Transformer Efficiency
All Day Efficiency of Transformer
As we know that the commercial or typical efficiency of a
transformer is the ratio of Output and Input in watts
Efficiency = Output (in Watts)/Input (in Watts)
But there are number of transformers whose performance can’t
be monitored according the above general efficiency.
Those distribution transformers which supply electrical energy
to lighting and other general circuits, their primary energize for
24 hours, but the secondary windings does not energize all the
time. In other words, Secondary windings only energize at the
night time when they supply electrical energy to lighting circuits.
I.e. secondary windings supply eclectic power for very small
load or no load for maximum time in 24 hours. It means that
core loss occurs for 24 hours regularly but copper loss occurs
only when transformer is on loaded.
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Transformer Efficiency
Therefore it realizes the necessity to design a transformer in
which the core loss should be low. As copper loss depends on
load, therefore, they should be neglected. In this type of
transformers, we can track their performance only by all day
efficiency. All day efficiency may be also called “Operational
efficiency”. On the base of usable energy, we estimate the all
day efficiency for a specific time (During the 24 hours =one
day). And we can find it by the following formula
All Day Efficiency = Output (in kWh)/Input (in kWh)
To understand about the all day efficiency, we must know about
the load cycle i.e. how much load is connected, and for how
much time (in 24 hours).

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20) Transformer Efficiency

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21) Cooling of Transformer

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Cooling of Transformer
Transformers are valuable assets in power systems. It appears
worthwhile to pay special attention to this key component to ensure
stability in power systems. Cellulose insulation is used in most
power transformers until yet. The ageing rate of the paper-oil
insulation in transformers strongly depends on the temperature.
There is a strong interest to determine the winding hottest spot
temperature which is also the limiting factor for transformer loading.
This temperature can be determined by the load conditions, the
winding design and the ambient oil temperature given by the
cooling equipment. The heat transfer phenomena inside transfor-
mer windings are complex and presently there is no universal
thermal winding model available. Changing boundary conditions
and manufacturing tolerances influence analytic and numeric heat
transfer calculations strongly. Many winding types, each with
different cooling duct designs, are in use to meet customer requi-
rements and to reach competitive design solutions.
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Cooling of Transformer
Thermal aspects affect transformer design. Therefore precise
temperature calculations ensure good quality and long life expect-
ancy of transformers.
The temperature gradient between conductor and oil consists of a
gradient inside the solid winding insulation and a gradient inside
the boundary layer at the winding surface. The gradient inside the
solid insulation depends on the thickness of the enamel, paper
insulation and oil pockets between conductor and paper wrapping.
The heat transfer at the winding surface is determined by the
cooling conditions.
Another important thermal design aspect is the longitudinal tempe-
rature gradient inside ON-cooled windings. This value results from
a balance of the natural convective oil driving forces accelerating
the oil flow and hydraulic resistances in the oil circuit slowing down
the oil flow. Further hydraulic resistances outside the winding are
able to reduce the oil flow through ON-cooled windings additionally.
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Cooling of Transformer
• The insulating materials have limited thermal withstand
capacity. Hence, their temperature needs to be restricted.

• Effect of high altitude

– Reduction in air density
– i. e. reduced No. of air molecules per unit volume

• At 1000 m above MSL, this effect is predominant

• Standards suggest reduction in temperature rise limits.

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Cooling of Transformer
Cooling Class Letter Description
Code Letter Description
Internal First Letter O Liquid with flash point less than or equal to
(Cooling 3000C
Medium) K Liquid with flash point greater than 3000C
L Liquid with no measurable flash point
Second N Natural convection through cooling
Letter equipment and windings
(Cooling F Forced circulation through cooling
Mechanism) equipment, natural convection in windings
D Forced circulation through cooling
equipment, directed flow in main windings
External Third letter A Air
(Cooling W Water
medium)
Fourth letter N Natural convection
(Cooling F Forced circulation
Mechanism)

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Cooling of Transformer
According to cooling
A) Air Cooling For Dry Type Transformers:
It is used for transformers that use voltages below 25KV
1) Air natural Type (A.N.)
• This type of Transformer Cooling method applies to dry
type transformer of small rating.
• As power ratings increase, transformers are often cooled
by forced-air cooling
2) Air Forced type (A.F.)
• The air is forced on to the tank surface to increase the rate
of heat dissipation.
• The fans are switched on when the temperature of the
winding increases above permissible level.

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Cooling of Transformer
B) Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:
1) Oil Natural Air Natural Type (O.N.A.N.)
• This type of Transformer cooling is widely used for oil filled
transformers up to about 30MVA.
• Heat is transferred from transformer windings and core to the oil and
the heated oil is cooled by the natural air.
• Cooling area is increased by providing the cooling tubes.
This is the simplest transformer cooling system. Here, natural convectional
flow of hot oil is utilized for cooling. In convectional circulation of oil, the hot
oil flows to the upper portion of the transformer tank and the vacant place is
occupied by cold oil. This hot oil which comes to upper side, will dissipate
heat in the atmosphere by natural conduction, convection & radiation in air
and will become cold. In this way the oil in the transformer tank continually
circulate when the transformer put into load. As the rate of dissipation of heat
in air depends upon dissipating surface of the oil tank, it is essential to
increase the effective surface area of the tank. So additional dissipating
surface in the form of tubes or radiators connected to the transformer tank.
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Cooling of Transformer
B) Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:
2) Oil Natural Air Forced Type (O.N.A.F.)
• In higher rating transformers where the heat dissipation is
difficult, this type of cooling is used.
• Fans are used to forced and air blast on radiators.
Heat dissipation can obviously be increased, if dissipating
surface is increased, but it can be made further faster by
applying forced air flow on that dissipating surface. Fans
blowing air on cooling surface is employed. Forced air takes
away the heat from the surface of radiator and provides better
cooling than natural air. As the heat dissipation rate is faster and
more in ONAF transformer cooling method than ONAN cooling
system, electrical power transformer can be put into more load
without crossing the permissible temperature limits.

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Cooling of Transformer
3) Oil Forced Air Forced Type (O.F.A.F.)
• Oil Natural Air Forced type of cooling is not adequate
to remove the heat caused by the losses.
• Transformers above 60 MVA employ a combination of
Forced Oil and Forced Air Cooling.
In oil forced air natural cooling system of transformer, the heat dissipation is
accelerated by using forced air on the dissipating surface but circulation of
the hot oil in transformer tank is natural convectional flow.
The heat dissipation rate can be still increased further if this oil circulation is
accelerated by applying some force. In OFAF cooling system the oil is forced
to circulate within the closed loop of transformer tank by means of oil pumps.
The main advantage of this system is that it is compact system and for same
cooling capacity OFAF occupies much less space than farmer two systems
of transformer cooling. Actually in oil natural cooling system, the heat comes
out from conducting part of the transformer is displaced from its position, in
slower rate due to convectional flow of oil but in forced oil cooling system the
heat is displaced from its origin as soon as it comes out in the oil, hence rate
of cooling becomes faster.
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Cooling of Transformer
4) Oil Forced Water Forced (O.F.W.F.)
• This type of cooling Is provided for very large
transformers which have ratings of some hundreds of
MVA .
• This type of transformers is used in large substations
and power plants.
We know that ambient temperature of water is much less than
the atmospheric air in same weather condition. So water may
be used as better heat exchanger media than air. In OFWF
cooling system of transformer, the hot oil is sent to oil to water
heat exchanger by means of oil pump and there the oil is
cooled by applying showers of cold water on the heat
exchanger's oil pipes.

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Cooling of Transformer
5) Oil Directed Air Forced (O.D.A.F.)
ODAF or cooling of transformer can be considered as the improved
version of OFAF. Here forced circulation of oil directed to flow through
predetermined paths in transformer winding. The cool oil entering the
transformer tank from cooler or radiator is passed through the winding
where gaps for oil flow or pre-decided oil flowing paths between insulated
conductor are provided for ensuring faster rate of heat transfer. ODAF or
oil directed air forced cooling of transformer is generally used in very high
rating transformer.

6) Oil Directed Water Forced (O.D.W.F.)
ODWF or oil directed water forced cooling of transformer is just like ODAF
only difference is that here the hot oil is cooled in cooler by means of
forced water instead of air. Both of these transformer cooling methods are
called forced directed oil cooling of transformer.

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21) Cooling of Transformer

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22) Tests on Transformer

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Tests on Transformer
Transformer being an inherent part of any kind of
electrical industry, forms one of the most important
equipment. Before a transformer can be connected to
the external circuits, the internal connections within
the transformer must be known so that the
compatibility of the transformer with respect to the
external circuit is checked and ensured. From a series
of tests at factory site, which might at most be spread
over a few days, it is necessary to ascertain that the
transformer will be suitable for 30 years or more in
service.

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Tests on Transformer
Testing of Transformers
Tests are conducted for verifying the capabilities of a
transformer to withstand
Thermal stresses
Dielectric stresses
Short-circuit electro-dynamic stresses
Environmental stresses, etc.
The tests are conducted as per std. specifications and
also as per agreement between the manufacturer and the
user.
The various checks and the tests enable the purchaser to
ensure the correct functioning of the transformer and
compliance with the guarantees in accordance with the
technical specifications.
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Tests on Transformer
All Transformers are to be tested in accordance with IS
2026 (Part I to Part V).

The final testing of completely assembled transformers
is classified into three categories as below:-

 ROUTINE TESTS
 TYPE TESTS
 SPECIAL TESTS

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Tests on Transformer
ROUTINE TESTS

The routine tests are conducted to
ensure the particular transformer
is free from manufacturing defects.

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Tests on Transformer
ROUTINE TESTS
 Measurement of insulation resistance
 Measurement of winding resistance
 Measurement of voltage ratio
 Verification of polarity and vector group
 No-load loss and excitation current measurement
 Load loss and impedance voltage measurement
 Separate source voltage withstand test
 Induced over voltage tests
 Testing of transformer oil BDV
 Magnetic balance & measurement of magnetizing current.

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Tests on Transformer
ROUTINE TESTS:
 Measurement of Insulation Resistance (To make sure the
transformer can withstand high voltage tests):
 Measurement of winding resistance (Measurement of winding
resistance for each tap position to confirm correct material
and size is used for winding):
 Ratio test (The purpose of this test is to find out ratio of HV to
LV):
 Checking polarity and vector group (To check the conformity
of the transformer connection arrangement - as stated):
 No-load loss (Checking the characteristics - the no load
losses and the no - load current of the transformer - are in
conformity with the standards):
 Load loss & Impedance voltage measurement (Measurement
of the transformer’s load loss and the impedance voltage):
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Tests on Transformer
 Separate source voltage with stand test (The purpose or this
test is to check the adequacy of the major insulation to ground
and to all other windings being tested i.e. to ensure the
insulation between the windings to core, tank and all other
earthed components can withstand the specified power
frequency test voltage. This test is usually done after
conducting open circuit test or no load losses to minimize time
consumed in wiring connections):
 Induced over voltage test (To ensure that the insulation
between the phases, turns, coils and bushing can withstand
the required test voltages i.e. This test highlights whether any
fault exists between the turn of winding or if there is any fault
between phases):
 BDV of Transformer oil (B.D.V. should not be les than is 50
KV / min. for cold oil):
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Tests on Transformer

TYPE TESTS
The type tests are conducted
to check the particular design
parameters.

 Temperature rise test

 Impulse voltage withstand test
This test is a routine test for transformers
whose voltage rating is 132 kV and above.

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Tests on Transformer
TYPE TESTS:
 Temperature rise test (The maximum allowable average and
hottest spot temperature rise of the windings over ambient
temperature and the maximum allowable temperature rise of
the tap oil of the transformer are specified in standards and
guaranteed by the manufacturer. The purpose of temperature
rise tests is to demonstrate that the transformer will deliver
rated load without exceeding the guaranteed values of the
temperature rises of the windings and oil. These tests shall
be performed at the minimum and maximum load ratings of a
transformer):
 Lightning impulse test (To make sure that the transformer can
withstand expected transient induced by lightning in the
lines):

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Tests on Transformer
SPECIAL TESTS
The special tests are conducted depending upon the
need for particular test - as per site conditions.

The transformer shall pass the appropriate dielectric
tests specified in IS 2026 Part III of 1977. The
dielectric test may be type test, routine test or special
test.

NOTE:- The special tests have to be agreed between
the purchaser and supplier. Hence purchaser
should clearly specify conducting special
tests in the P.O.

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Tests on Transformer
SPECIAL TESTS
 Dynamic short circuit test
 Measurement of Zero sequence impedance
 Measurement of harmonics
 Partial discharge measurement
 Measurement of tan delta
 Measurement of noise level

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Tests on Transformer
SPECIAL TESTS:
 Dynamic short circuit test (To confirm that the transformer can
withstand short circuit currents specified in the standards):
 Zero sequence Impedance measurement (The purpose of this
test is it shall be ensured that the current in the neutral is
compatible with its current carrying capacity):
 Noise level Measurement (The purpose of this test is to verify
whether the manufacturer has used best methods of core
clamping and has taken steps to minimize loose
connections i.e. comparing the sound level of transformer with
that of standards):
 Harmonic analyzing (To find out harmonic content in the
exciting current):
 Partial discharge measurement (To determine the overall
dielectric condition of the transformer):
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Tests on Transformer
 Capacitance & Tan Delta Measurement (Capacitance and
dissipation factor - tan delta measurement system is used for
monitoring and analyzing insulation condition and quality of
high voltage equipments like bushing, transformers, motor,
generators, power cables, power capacitors, and other high
voltage equipments. The variation of capacitance and tan
delta with the applied voltage provides useful information
about the deterioration in insulation).
Measurement will be done with a direct reading of capacitance
in micro / pico farads and tan-delta in percentage under UST
and GST mode to measure the capacitance between the
windings and capacitance with respect to ground.
The capacitance values are taken for future reference only.

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Tests on Transformer
LATEST DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS IN FAULT DETECTION --
“Frequency Response Analysis (FRA)”,
“Sweep frequency Response Analysis” &
“Impulse frequency Response Analysis”
Following detects in power Transformer windings
can be detected using F. R. A.:
• Coil deformation – axial and radial
• Faulty core grounds
• Partial winding collapse
• Hoop buckling
• Broken or loosened clamps
• Shorted turns and open windings

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Tests on Transformer
Over and above all these tests, in all the categories, there
are few other tests also. They are not so common.
Routine tests:
 Tests on ON-LOAD Tap changer.
 Pressure test for oil leakage
Type tests:
 Vacuum Test on Tank for deflection measurement (as per
CBIP specifications)
 Oil pressure Test on Tank for deflection measurement (as per
CBIP specifications)
 Ability to with stand short circuit test
Special tests:
 Measurement of auxiliary losses like losses at cooling fans.
 Jacking test

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22) Tests on Transformer

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23) Failures in transformers and their causes

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Transformer - Failures and causes
The transformer is one item of electrical equipment
which is least subject to breakdown. However, faults
do occur from time to time due to various causes.
The faults that frequently occur in a transformer can
be broadly classified as follows:
(a) Failures in the magnetic circuit.
(b) Failures in the windings.
(c) Failures in the oil and major insulation.
(d) Structural and other failures.

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Transformer - Failures and causes
(a)Magnetic Circuit Failures: Failure of the insulation
around the clamping bolts inserted through the cores and yokes
causes local short circuits between the laminations which
produce intense local eddy currents. Failure of the insulation
between laminations and of the insulation between the yokes
and yoke clamping plates also produce large circulating eddy
currents. The amount of heat generated by failures of this type
is sometimes sufficient to distort the whole core and the heat
generated may also damage the coil insulation resulting in a
short-circuit between turns of the adjacent winding.
Intense local eddy currents are also produced due to the
blurring of the edges of the core and yoke laminations during
manufacture and also due to the presence of metallic filings or
small turnings between the laminations.

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Transformer - Failures and causes
High flux density in the magnetic circuit very often causes large
magnetizing in-rushes when a transformer is switched into a
circuit on no-load. Although the current in-rushes die down
rapidly, large electromagnetic forces are developed which
considerably strain the windings mechanically. Repeated
switching in of a transformer, particularly the transformers
located nearer the genera-ting station, may ultimately cause
mechanical distortion of the windings.
High flux density in the magnetic circuit also produces higher
harmonics of voltage and current of appreciable magnitudes
which cause considerable increase in core losses. This
overheating of the core will in time cause deterioration of the
coil and core insulation and, if allowed to continue, will produce
severe sludging of the transformer oil.

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Transformer - Failures and causes
In the case of the transformers providing a mid-wire or neutral for
use as a D.C. neutral, if the windings are not carefully balanced,
the core becomes saturated during one half cycle and
correspondingly less magnetized in the next half cycle due to the
D.C. ampere-turns. This causes overheating of the core and this
extra heating in time would adversely affect the coil insulation
and would also cause sludging of the coil.
(b) Winding Failures: If moisture penetrates the insulation of
the coils, turn to turn short circuit will occur sooner or later. The
coils which are insufficiently impregnated are prone to this type of
faults. Again, if the dry out operation of a transformer is unduly
shortened and, if normal voltage is applied while the insulation
resistance of the windings is still low, turn to turn short circuit may
occur due to the presence of the moisture vapour.

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Transformer - Failures and causes
Turn to turn or winding to earth faults may occur due to transient
over voltages such as lightning surges, switching surges, current
chopping, dynamic over voltages etc. Often faults occur at the
open-ended tappings due to the excessive voltages set up by the
surges at these points.
Badly made joints between coils may overheat on load causing
local carbonization of the oil. The heat generated at the joint may
partially carbonize the insulation around the conductors resulting
in an eventual turn to turn short circuit. Sustained heavy overload
causes large temperature rise throughout the transformer. This
makes the coil insulation brittle which in time may flake off the
conductors in places producing short circuits between turns.
Sludging of the oil aggravates these problems.

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Transformer - Failures and causes
If a transformer vibrates on load due to looseness of core-bolts
or if it receives repeated heavy electromagnetic shocks, then
breakdown may occur due to two reasons. Firstly, the sharp
edges on the copper conductors, if present, may cut through the
insulation causing turn to turn fault. Secondly, abrasion of the
insulation between turns which are dislodged either by heavy
external short-circuit or by excessive pressure applied to the
adjustable coil clamping may cause a short circuit between
turns.
The mechanical pressure on the insulation between turns
alternately increases and decreases, if a transformer is
subjected to rapidly fluctuating loads. As a result, the windings
become more susceptible to failure because the dielectric
strength of most solid insulation material decreases with
increasing mechanical pressure.
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Transformer - Failures and causes
(c) Insulation Failures: Due to improper breathing action
moisture may enter the oil which greatly reduces its dielectric
strength. Prolonged overloading of the transformer also causes
deterioration of the dielectric strength of oil due to the formation
of sludge, water and acids. These may cause breakdowns from
coils to core or terminal leads to tank. Flashovers between
terminal leads or from terminal leads to tank or core often take
place due to the presence of suspended conducting particles
which have a tendency to line up between two metallic parts
having a potential difference between them. The oil level of the
transformer may fall during operation. If the oil is not filled up to
the correct working level then there is every possibility of
insulation failure.
Corona discharges often take place from sharp edges present
in the conducting parts as the electric stresses at these edges
become
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Transformer - Failures and causes
These corona discharges may ultimately lead to insulation
failure. In a transformer two or more dielectrics having different
permittivity are used in series and, unless their thicknesses are
correctly designed, they may be subjected to abnormally high
electric stresses. If the electric stress in any one dielectric
exceeds the maximum permissible limit, then that dielectric
followed by the others will fail resulting in complete breakdown.
Short circuits between the phases may occur due to insufficient
clearance between the phases. Insulating parts, such as
cylinders, tubes and terminal boards or the coil insub1ions may
have their surfaces contaminated during the manufacturing
process which is often responsible for the surface flash - over of
these insulations. Depending on the configuration of the high
voltage and the low voltage windings, some-times large amounts
of surge voltage are transferred to the low voltage winding from
the high voltage winding through capacitive coupling
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Transformer - Failures and causes
which may cause insulation failure of the low voltage winding.
(d) Failures Due to Structural and Other Imperfections:
Flashovers of the bushing insulators are often caused by ordi-
nary dust, industrial dust or salt spray deposited on the exposed
surfaces of the bushings. Poor quality dielectric materials used
in condenser bushing result in very high dielectric loss which
generates sufficient heat to char the dielectric which in time may
cause complete breakdown of the bushings. If the transformer
tank has porous welding or leaky fittings, there will be oil
leakage and consequent overheating and breakdown of the
transformer if not taken care of properly.
Excessive temperature rise of the forced cooled oil immersed
transformers may occur due to some failure in the auxiliary
cooling equipment resulting in stoppage of oil circulation.

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Transformer - Failures and causes
In water cooled transformers the water tubes may become clogged
due to lime and other deposits. The tubes should be cleaned
periodically to maintain proper water flow which will keep the
temperature rise within safe limits. In water cooled transformers,
sometimes failures may occur due to the leakage of water into the oil
caused by either leaky tubes or the corrosion of the cooling tubes.
While housing the transformer sufficient space around the transformer
should be left for proper dissipation of losses. A transformer should not
be placed too near to another unit or to the walls which will cause
excessive temperature rise of the transformer endangering the coil
insulation and the condition of the oil.
The vapour at the top of the tank of oil immersed transformers may be
of an explosive nature; hence, a naked light must not be used for the
purpose of examination of connections etc. Malfunctioning of the
Buchholz relay will result if the oil level falls below the relay level
during operation. In such an event a fault within the transformer will
not be protected by the Buchholz relay.
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Transformer - Failures and causes
Over and above four abnormalities discussed in previous slides,
transformer may get damage due to
• Natural calamities like Flooding, Earth-quack, etc. – transformer can
be protected from damage to some extent by providing appropriate
means.
• Mechanical damage and fire because of bursting of near-by
equipment/apparatus.
Large transformers in sub-station which are open to sky, following
may be considered as remedial action; As per IS/IEC guide-lines, if
the center to center distance between transformers in sub-station is
 15 Mt or more, baffle wall is not mandatory (for transformers
having 20000 litres or more oil).
 8 Mt or more, baffle wall is not mandatory (for transformers having
less than 20000 litres oil).
For any voltage rating of switch-yard, maintaining the safe
distance between equipments as per IS/IEC guide-lines, is
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23) Failures in transformers and their causes

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24) Country and supply frequency

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Country and supply frequency
IN THE WORLD, VARIOUS COUNTRIES GENERATE
AND UTILIZE ELECTRICAL POWER AT
FREQUENCIES AS MENTIONED BELOW
Country Frequency Country Frequency
(Hz) (Hz)
Argentina 50 France 50
Australia 50 Germany 50
Argentina 50 Hong Kong 50
Australia 50 India 50
Brazil 60 Indonesia 50
Canada 60 Ireland 50
China 50 Israel 50

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Country and supply frequency
IN THE WORLD, VARIOUS COUNTRIES GENERATE
AND UTILIZE ELECTRICAL POWER AT
FREQUENCIES AS MENTIONED BELOW
Country Frequency Country Frequency
(Hz) (Hz)
Italy 50 Singapore 50
Japan (East) 50 Spain 50
Japan (West) 60 Sweden 50
Korea 60 Switzerland 50
Malaysia 50 Taiwan 60
Mexico 60 Thailand 50
Philippines 60 United Kingdom 50
Scotland 50 USA 60

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24) Country and supply frequency

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References / Bibliography
Service Handbook of Transformers – ABB, Switzerland
Karsai book for Large Power Transformers
Book on Transformers by BHEL
Principle, Operation and Design of Power Transformer by S. B.
Vasutinsky
Westinghouse training manual on Transformer
The J & P Transformer Book
Transformer Engineering by Dr. S. V. Kulkarni and Dr. Kharpade
CBIP manuals
Information from Internet
EEE Power Tech '99 Conference
Technical Bulletins
Lecture note of eminent speakers
Various seminar write-ups

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