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Mechanics of Machines 12

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MCB3043

Lecture 14

Overview

Cam Motion

Cam in an Engine Valve

Categories of Cam & Cam Followers

Prescribed Follower Motion

Follower Motion Scheme

Cam Design: Graphical Method

Cam Design: Analytical Method

Pressure Angle

Follower Motion Scheme

Constant Velocity

Constant Acceleration

Harmonic Motion

Cycloidal Motion

Influence of Cam Shape

Shape of cam

Follower Follower

shape Follower acceleration position

Follower

Stress Force Vibration

Cam Shapes

Constant Velocity

s Constant velocity

throughout the

Rise distance H follower rise.

Impractical for

Time, t machines to

v Time period for rise T change velocity

ds H instantly (infinite

v

dt T acceleration) at

start and end of

rise.

t

Constant Velocity

H

v v

T

Infinite acceleration

implies infinite force.

Might be practical for

low cam speed

a applications where

the force magnitudes

in starting and ending

the rise do not affect

performance.

Constant Acceleration

Also called parabolic motion

Rise distance H

v 2H Constant acceleration

vmax to reach vmax and then

T

constant deceleration

to a stop.

Constant Acceleration

2 H2 H

Abrupt change in

vmaxvmax acceleration at the

T T

middle and end of rise.

vmax

2H These will cause

undesirable inertial force

T

4H

a 2 Only suitable for low cam

T

speed.

2H

vmax

T

4H

a

T2

Generating Displacement Diagram

Graphically

for Constant Acceleration Follower Motion Scheme

Example 9-4

A cam drive is required for a mechanism that feeds

papers into a printing press. The cam follower must

rise outwards 1.0 in. with constant acceleration for

1.7 s,dwell for 0.8 s, fall 0.5 in. with constant

acceleration in 0.8 s, dwell for 0.3 s, fall 0.5 in. with

constant acceleration in 0.8 s and then repeat the

sequence. Determine the required speed of the cam

and graphically plot a follower displacement diagram.

Follower Motion

Rise 1.0 in. 1.7 s 139.1° Constant Acceleration

Fall 0.5 in. 0.8 s 65.5° Constant Acceleration

Fall 0.5 in. 0.8 s 65.5° Constant Acceleration

Cam speed = 1 rev/4.4 s = 13.6 rpm

Constant Acceleration Rise

1.0

Follower displacement (in.)

0.5

0 0.85 1.7

Time (s)

Follower displacement (in.)

0.5

1.0

0

Time (s)

2.55

3.4

4.42

Harmonic Motion

s

H

v vmax

2T

Harmonic Motion

H

vmax

2T

2H

amax

2T 2

2H

amin

2T 2

Generating Displacement

Diagram Graphically

for Harmonic Follower Motion Scheme

Follower Motion (Q9-7)

Rise 2.0 in. 1.0 s 102.9° Harmonic Rise

Fall 2 in. 1s 102.9° Harmonic Fall

Dwell 1s 102.9°

One cycle 3.5 s 360°

Follower displacement (in.)

1.0

2.0

0

1.0

2.0

Time (s)

3.0

Follower displacement (in.)

1.0

2.0

0

1.0

2.0

Time (s)

3.0

Cycloidal Motion

2H

vmax

T

Cycloidal Motion

2H

vmax

T

2H

amax

T2 No sudden

change in

acceleration at

the end of cycle.

2H

amin

T2

Generating Displacement Diagram

Graphically

for Cycloidal Follower Motion Scheme

Displacement Curves

Con-Vel Con-Acc

Harmonic Cycloidal

Velocity Curves

Con-Vel Con-Acc

Harmonic Cycloidal

Acceleration Curves

Con-Vel Con-Acc

Harmonic Cycloidal

Comparison of Motion Schemes

Veloc Accel

Less forces on the follower

Smoother motion, less vibration

More suitable for higher cam speed

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