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# Mechanics of Machines

MCB3043

Lecture 14
Overview
 Cam Motion
 Cam in an Engine Valve
 Categories of Cam & Cam Followers
 Prescribed Follower Motion
 Follower Motion Scheme
 Cam Design: Graphical Method
 Cam Design: Analytical Method
 Pressure Angle
Follower Motion Scheme
 Constant Velocity
 Constant Acceleration
 Harmonic Motion
 Cycloidal Motion
Influence of Cam Shape
Shape of cam

Follower Follower
shape Follower acceleration position

Follower
Stress Force Vibration
Cam Shapes
Constant Velocity
s Constant velocity
throughout the
Rise distance H follower rise.
Impractical for
Time, t machines to
v Time period for rise T change velocity
ds H instantly (infinite
v 
dt T acceleration) at
start and end of
rise.
t
Constant Velocity
H
v v
T
Infinite acceleration
implies infinite force.
Might be practical for
low cam speed
a applications where
the force magnitudes
in starting and ending
the rise do not affect
performance.
Constant Acceleration
Also called parabolic motion

Rise distance H

v 2H Constant acceleration
vmax  to reach vmax and then
T
constant deceleration
to a stop.
Constant Acceleration
2 H2 H
Abrupt change in
 
vmaxvmax acceleration at the
T T
middle and end of rise.
vmax 
2H These will cause
undesirable inertial force
T

## and thus vibration.

4H
a 2 Only suitable for low cam
T
speed.
2H
vmax 
T

 4H
a
T2
Generating Displacement Diagram
Graphically
for Constant Acceleration Follower Motion Scheme
Example 9-4
A cam drive is required for a mechanism that feeds
papers into a printing press. The cam follower must
rise outwards 1.0 in. with constant acceleration for
1.7 s,dwell for 0.8 s, fall 0.5 in. with constant
acceleration in 0.8 s, dwell for 0.3 s, fall 0.5 in. with
constant acceleration in 0.8 s and then repeat the
sequence. Determine the required speed of the cam
and graphically plot a follower displacement diagram.
Follower Motion
Rise 1.0 in. 1.7 s 139.1° Constant Acceleration

## Dwell 0.8 s 65.5°

Fall 0.5 in. 0.8 s 65.5° Constant Acceleration

## Dwell 0.3 s 24.5°

Fall 0.5 in. 0.8 s 65.5° Constant Acceleration

## One cycle 4.4 s 360°

Cam speed = 1 rev/4.4 s = 13.6 rpm
Constant Acceleration Rise

1.0
Follower displacement (in.)

0.5

0 0.85 1.7
Time (s)
Follower displacement (in.)

0.5
1.0

0
Time (s)
2.55

3.4

4.42
Harmonic Motion
s

H
v vmax 
2T
Harmonic Motion
H
vmax 
2T

 2H
amax 
2T 2

 2H
amin 
2T 2
Generating Displacement
Diagram Graphically
for Harmonic Follower Motion Scheme
Follower Motion (Q9-7)
Rise 2.0 in. 1.0 s 102.9° Harmonic Rise

## Dwell 0.5 s 51.4°

Fall 2 in. 1s 102.9° Harmonic Fall

Dwell 1s 102.9°
One cycle 3.5 s 360°

## Cam speed = 1 rev/3.5 s = 17.1 rpm

Follower displacement (in.)

1.0
2.0

0
1.0

2.0

Time (s)
3.0
Follower displacement (in.)

1.0
2.0

0
1.0

2.0

Time (s)
3.0
Cycloidal Motion

2H
vmax 
T
Cycloidal Motion
2H
vmax 
T

2H
amax 
T2 No sudden
change in
acceleration at
the end of cycle.

 2H
amin 
T2
Generating Displacement Diagram
Graphically
for Cycloidal Follower Motion Scheme
Displacement Curves
Con-Vel Con-Acc

Harmonic Cycloidal
Velocity Curves
Con-Vel Con-Acc

Harmonic Cycloidal
Acceleration Curves
Con-Vel Con-Acc

Harmonic Cycloidal
Comparison of Motion Schemes

Veloc Accel

## Likely to be more difficult and costlier cam design & manufacturing

Less forces on the follower
Smoother motion, less vibration
More suitable for higher cam speed