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SEDIMENTARY BASINS OF INDIA,

CATEGORIZATION AND HYDROCARBON


POTENTIAL

BY
N.S.RANA
CG, KDMIPE, ONGC
DEHRADUN

--/--/2013
The Indian scenario of Sedimentary Basins

 India is having
vast Onland and
Offshore area
covered with
sedimentary
rocks.

 (Total: 3.14 million


Sq Km, ie. 4.07% of
the world’s total
sedimentary area)
WHAT IS SEDIMENTARY BASIN ?

Sedimentary basins are Geosynclines,


creating accommodation space for
infilling the sediments.

Sedimentary basins occur in diverse


geological settings usually associated
with plate tectonic activity.
TILL 1960, THE SEDIMENTARY BASINS
WORLD WIDE - EXPLAINED IN TERMS OF
GEOSYNCLINAL THEORY.

 WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLATE


TECTONICS, UNDERSTANDING ON THE
EVOLUTION OF THE BASINS, THEIR
STRUCTURAL STYLES AND ASSOCIATED
LITHOFACIES HAVE BECOME MUCH
CLEARER.
Sedimentation pattern in half graben set up
Sedimentary Depositional
Environments (Clastics)
 The figure shows
schematic
representation
of sedimentary
environments
which can be
grouped as:

 Continental
 Transitional
 Marine

7
7
Sedimentary Depositional System in Offshore
Indian Sedimentary Basins
Explored / Unexplored Basin Area
Exploration Unexplored Including
Initiated Unexplored Deep Waters.
26% Including Moderate to Well
Deep Waters. Explored .498
41% Poorly explored
Poorly
explored Moderate to
Exploration Initiated
17% Well Explored
.498
16%
EVOLUTION OF A SEDIMENTARY BASIN

FOUR INDEPENDENT FACTS (DICKINSON, 1976)

 GEOMETRIC SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE BASIN

 NATURE OF THE SEDIMENTARY FILL

 THE STRUCTURAL STYLES

 AND THE THERMAL HISTORY


STAGES OF
DEVELOPMENT AND
EVOLUTION OF
HYPOTHETICAL
SEDIMENTARY BASIN

A number of basins
formed in
extensional settings
can undergo
inversion, which has
accounted for a
number of the
economically viable
oil & Gas reserves
on earth.
Sedimentary Basins Of India
Total 26 sedimentary basins have been recognized
and they are divided into four categories based on
their degree of hydrocarbon prospectivity.

The sedimentary basins of India, onland and


shallow offshore, up to the 200m isobath, area is
about 1.79 million sq. km.

In the deep water offshore beyond the 200m


isobath, the sedimentary area has been estimated
about 1.35 million sq. km.

The total area of sedimentary basins in Indian


scenario works out to 3.14 million sq. km.
CATEGORIZATION OF INDIAN SEDIMENTARY BASINS

Category- I Basin is the petroliferous basins with proved hydrocarbon


reserves and where commercial production has already started. These
basins are: Assam shelf, Tripura, Bombay offshore, Cambay, Cauvery
and Krishna-Godavari Basins.

Category – II basin comprises with occurrence of hydrocarbons but from


which no commercial production has been obtained yet. These basins are:
Kutch-Sourashtra & MBA( Mahanadi, Bangal & Andaman) Basins.

Category – III basin comprises with no significant oil & gas shows but
which are considered to be prospective on G&G analysis. These are
mainly todays Frontier basins : Himalayan foreland, Ganga Basin,
Vyndhyan basin etc.

Category – IV basin comprises uncertain prospects. It includes the basins


which bear an analogy with hydrocarbon producing basins in the world. Ie.
Deccan Plateau, Cuddapah & Chattisgarh Syncline etc.
7
CATEGORY- I 2
1 6
BASINS WITH COMMERCIAL 3
HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION.
4

1. CAMBAY 5
2. ASSAM SHELF
3. BOMBAY OFFSHORE
4. KRISHNA-GODAVARI
5. CAUVERY
6. ASSAM-ARAKAN FOLD BELT
7. RAJASTHAN
Category-I (Proven Commercial Productivity)

Basin Name Onland Area Offshore Area Total

Assam-Arakan 1,16,000 - 1,16,000

Cambay 51,000 2,500 53,500

Cauvery 25,000 30,000 55,000

Krishna
28,000 24,000 52,000
Godavari

Mumbai
- 1,16,000 1,16,000
Offshore

Rajasthan 1,26,000 - 1,26,000


CATEGORY- II

BASINS WITH KNOWN


ACCUMULATION OF
HYDROCARBON BUT FROM
WHICH NO COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTION.

8. KUTCH
9. MAHANADI
10. ANDAMAN-NICOBAR
Category-II (Identified Prospectivity)

Basin Name Onland Area Offshore Area Total

Kutch 35,000 13,000 48,000

Mahanadi 55,000 14,000 69,000

Andaman
6,000 41,000 47,000
Nicobar
11
12
13 16
14
CATEGORY-III

BASINS GEOLOGICALLY CONSIDERED 15


PROSPECTIVE WITH HYDROCARBONS.

11. HIMALAYAN FOOTHILLS


12. GANGA BASIN
13. VINDHYAN
14. KUTCH-SAURASHTRA
15. KERALA-KONKAN-LAKSHWADEEP
16. BENGAL

Today’s frontiers may tomorrows cat. I……..


Category-III (Potentially Prospective Basins)
Basin Name Onland Area Offshore Area Total

Bengal 57,000 32,000 89,000

Ganga Valley 1,86,000 - 1,86,000

Himalayan
30,000 - 30,000
Foreland
Kerala-Konkan
- 94,000 94,000
Lakshdweep

Saurashtra 52,000 28,000 80,000

Vindhyan 1,62,000 - 1,62,000


CATEGORY- IV

BASINS WITH UNCERTAIN PROSPECTS WHICH MAY


BE PROSPECTIVE ON ANALOGY WITH SIMILAR BASIN
IN THE WORLD.

17. KAREWA
18. SPITI- ZANSKAR
19. SATPURA- SOUTH REWA- DAMODAR
20. NARMADA
21. DECCAN SYNECLISE
22. BHIMA- KALADGI
23. CUDDAPAH
24. PRANHITA- GODAVARI
25. BASTAR
26. CHATTISGARH
Category-IV (Potentially Prospective )
Onland Offshore
Basin Name Total
Area Area
Bastar 5,000 - 5,000
Bhima-Kaladgi 8,500 - 8,500
Chattisgarh 32,000 - 32,000
Cuddapah 39,000 - 39,000
Deccan
2,73,000 - 2,73,000
Syncline
Karewa 3,700 - 3,700
Narmada 17,000 - 17,000
Pranhita-
15,000 - 15,000
Godavari

Satpura-South
46,000 - 46,000
Rewa-Damodar

Spiti-Zanskar 22,000 - 22,000


DEEP WATER BASINS

WESTERN OFFSHORE BASIN

Mumbai Offshore and


Kerala Kankan Offshore

In Western offshore basin the


reservoirs are mainly carbonates
and maximum production of oil is
from this basin.
DEEP WATER BASINS

EAST COAST OFFSHORE


BASINS

Cauvery Offshore
KG Offshore and
MBA Offshore

In East cost offshore the


reservoirs are mainly Clastics
and & rich in gaseous
hydrocarbon.
Indian Sedimentary Basins
Deepwater
43%

Category-1
17%

Category-2
5%

Category-4
Category-3
15%
20%

Deepwater: 1,350,000 Sq.Km


ASSAM AND ASSAM-ARAKAN BASIN

* ASSAM SHELF

* ARAKAN FOLD BELT


WESTERN ONLAND BASIN

Rajsthan Basin

Cambay Basin

Kutch Basin

Saurastra Basin
Rajasthan Basin( Jaisalmer, Bikaner-Nagour and Barmer Basins)
THE RAJASTHAN SHELF IS CARVED OUT
INTO A NUMBER OF BASINS

• JAISALMER BASIN

• BIKANER-NAGAR BASIN

• BARMER BASIN

MAJOR OIL AND GAS FIELDS

GHOTARU, KHARTAR, BANIKA,


BAKHRI TIBBA, SADEWALA TIBBA,
CHINNEWALA TIBBA, MIAJALAR.
THE CAMBAY BASIN :

The Cambay Basin occupies an area of


approximately 54,000 sq.km.

The Cambay Shale is the main source


rock in this basin.
CAMBAY BASIN DIVIDED INTO FIVE TECTONIC
BLOCKS FORM NORTH TO SOUTH:

1. SANCHOR – PATAN BLOCK

2. MEHSANA – AHMEDABAD BLOCK

3. TARAPUR – CAMBAY BLOCK

4. JAMBUSAR – BROACH BLOCK

5. NARMADA – TAPTI BLOCK


CAMBAY BASIN
MAJOR OIL FIELDS OF CAMBAY BASIN

MEHSANA BLOCK- N. KADI, SANTHAL,


BALOL, SOBHSAN, NANDASAN, LINCH,
JOTANA, BECHRAJEE, LANGHNAJ, MANSA,
MEWAD etc.

AHMEDABAD BLOCK-
KALOL, WADU- PALIYAD, NAWAGAM,
NANDEJ, AHMEDABAD, WASNA, JHALORA,
SANAND, LIMBODRA, GAMIJ, ASMALI etc.

ANKLESHWAR BLOCK-
ANKLESHWAR, MOTERA, SISODRA, KIM,
KOSAMBA, GANDHAR, PAKHAJAN, NADA,
DABKA, JAMBUSAR, PADRA, KARZAN etc.
WESTERN OFFSHORE BASIN

Mumbai Offshore Basin

&

Keraka-Konkan Offshore Basin


BOMBAY OFFSHORE BASIN:

It lies in region of Western continental shelf of India and forms


an important hydrocarbon bearing province.

It is extending from Saurashtra Coast in the North to Vengurla


arch near Goa in the South covering an area of about 1,20,000
sq.km. up to 200 m isobaths.

Tectonically the basin can be subdivided into Surat


depression, Bombay High, Ratnagiri block, Shelf margin
basin and the Shelf-edge basement arc.

Bombay Offshore Basin is producing nearly 70% oil and


gas of India’s total hydrocarbon production. Major
reservoirs are the Carbonates.
WESTERN OFFSHORE BASIN(Mumbai Offshore)
MID MIOCENE EARLY MIOCENE
EARLY OLIGOCENE
LATE OLIGOCENE
MID-LATE EOCENE LATE PALEOCENE-EARLY
EOCENE
Prospects in Bombay Offshore Basin

Dry

Gas

Oil
EAST COAST BASINS

CAUVERI Basin
KG-PG Basin
MBA Basin
CAUVERY BASIN

The Cauvery Basin


encompasses an area of
55,000 sq. km.

The basin is subdivided into


six sub-basin:-

1. Ariyalur Pondicherry

2. Tranquebar

3. Thannjavur

4. Nagapatinam

5. Ramnad Palk Bay

6. Mannar sub-basin.
Ariyalur-Pondicherry sub-basin Madanam horst
Tranquebar sub-basin

Kumbakonam horst Karaikal horst

Nagapattinam sub-basin
Tanjore sub-basin

Pattukottai horst
Mandapam horst

Ramnad sub-basin

Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Cauvery Basin


GENERALISED STRATIGRAPHY OF CAUVERY BASIN
Kumbakonam ridge
Tranquebar sub-basin Karaikal ridge

Nagapattinam
Sub-basin

Vedaranyam ridge

Pattukottai ridge

3D view at Basement level showing various structural elements


15-08-2018 47
Cauvery basin, india
MAJOR OIL AND GAS FIELDS OF CAUVERI BASIN

NARIMANAM,
ADIYAKKAMANGALAM,
NANNILAM,
MATTUR,
KAMLAPURAM,
KUTHANALUR,
TIRVARUR,
KOVILKALAPPAM,
BHUVNAGIRI,
VIJAYAPURAM,
PUNDI,
KUTHALAM,
RAMNAD etc.
KG-PG Basin
KRISHNA GODAVARI BASIN

The Krishna Godavari Basin is a proven


petroliferous basin of continental margin
located on the east coast of India.

Its onland part covers an area of 28,000 sq.


km and the offshore part covers an area of
25,000 sq. km up to 1000 m isobath.

The basin contains about 7km thick


sediments with several cycles of deposition
and H/C occurrences ranging from Permo-
Triassic(Gondwana) to Plio-Pleistocene age .
Geological map: KG-PG Basin
800 00’ 30’ 810 00’ 30’ 820 00’ 82 30’
0

GEOLOGICAL & TECTONIC MAP OF


KRISHNA-GODAVARI BASIN
SCALE
5 0 + 10 30 50km
0
17
30’ + 17
0

30’

Tuni

Khammampett
Khammampet Polavaram

GOD
AVA
RI
Pithapuram

RIV
ER
Chintalapudi
170
00’ + + + + Rajahmundry + + 170
00’
KAKINADA
Jaggayyapeta

T
RS
Nuzvid Nuzivd HO

KU
U
IN

N
AS
ELLORE

TA
MI RIVER

B -B GAUTHA

SU

N
BE
KRISHN

RIVER
A RIVE

RI
RA
R

VA

VASISHATA
Kaikalur

I G

DA

RIVER
O
VIJAYAWADA

LL
30’

G
30’

VAINATEYAM
MI

ST
U
NT

EA
Sattrnapalle
Sattenapalle

BA
RS
HO
Guntur

EN

ZA
KA
AB
GR

0m
20
DA
T

0m
RS

40 00
m
VA

10
HO

DI

0
GU

16
+ + Avanigadda
A

+ 0

+ + AL +
00’ 16
TL

Paruchuru
00’
PA

G
BA

Nizampatnam
BEN

N
BE
GRA

Addanki

F
HNA

EN
AB O
GR
AY
KRIS

AM
TN
GU
ND
ALA
KA
MM M
PA B
ZA
ST

A
R.
NI 200m
R

T
RS
+
O

+ HO
400m
H

Ongole
30’ RE
TA

KS-3
O
LL 30’
PE

m
1000
NE
LI-
U
D

MUSI R.
VA
U

KA
AY

T
PALLERU R. RS
N

HO ALLUVIUM PLIOCENE TO RECENT


RE
R. LO RAJAHMUNDRY MIOCENE TO PLIOCENE
EL
U

I-N
ER

AL
N
AN

V TRAP WITH INTER TRAPPEANS/


KA
M

LOWER EOCENE TO PALAEOCENE


INFRA TRAPPEANS

0
TIRUPATHI - PAVALUR
15
00’ + + RAGHAVAPURAM - VEMAVARAM
LOWER CRETACEOUS
150
UPPER GONDWANA
00’
Kavali
GOLLAPALLI - BUDAVADA UPPER JURASSIC
ST
HOR

CHINTALAPUDI UPPER PERMIAN TO


LOWER TRIASSIC LOWER GONDWANA
TA
UPE

TALCHIR / BARAKAR
AB R

LOWER PERMIAN
EN
GR NNA

CUDDAPAH-PAKHAL-SULLAVAI
PE

PRECAMBRAIN - EARLY PALAEOZOIC


NAYU

E R
RIV
NA
R METAMORPHICS (Dharwar’s) ARCHAEAN-PRECAMBRIAN
0 EN
14
30’ + P
14
0

Nellore 30’
DRAWING SECTION
E & D, EBG
SR B C
CHENNAI

81 00’
0
800 00’ 30’ 30’ 82 00’
0
82 30’
0
Geological/ Geophysical Surveys:

ONGC has carried out detailed geological mapping in the


area covering 4220 sq. km since 1959.
Gravity-Magnetic surveys, in onland part have been carried out by
ONGC over an area of 19,200 sq. km.

In offshore area, M/s. Prakla Seismos and GSI acquired the gravity-
magnetic data for ONGC.

Composite Bouguer gravity & composite magnetic anomaly map


BASIN FILL MAP – KRISHNA GODAVARI BASIN
KRISHNA GODAVARI BASIN :
This basin is divided into six sub-basins:

1. Mandapeta Sub-basin,
2. West Godavari sub-basin,
3. East Godavari sub-basin,
4. Krishna sub-basin,
5. Nizamapatnam sub-basin
&
6. K.G. Offshore sub-basin:
-shallow offshore,
-deep offshore and
-ultra-deep offshore.
GODAVARI
KAKINADA

MD EM
KRISHNA GODAVARI BASIN

RIVER
10 0 10 20KM
MW
YANAM I-E 0m
GR 20

RU
LLE KE
1-B
KO LA PM AC AMALAPURAM
MA MM
LP RA I-G
KK-12 SU
MP
EG PS GM GS-29
EL
BHIMAVARAM TP MG BN I-B
LG RZ ML
1-A KP
KR

LS PO SI
ISH

VA KK AP GS-23-4
NA

MR KW GS-23 RAVVA
G2
I-F GS-15
RIV

NG

KG-OS-DW-IV
KV G1 0m
ER

I-A 1 00
KZ GS-8

INDEX
MASULIPATNAM
OIL
KG-OS-DW-III GAS
GD-1-1
RELEASED

RAVVA & GODAVARI


CLAY PLAY

GS-38 AL GODAVARI CLAY


G (PLIOCENE) PLAY
N
0m BE
20 F RAVVA PLAY
O
m AY MATSYAPURI /
00 B
FIELD NAMES:
KD-1-1 10 VADAPARU PLAY
AC ACHANTA KV KESAVADASUPALEM MM MUMMIDIVARAM PASARALAPUDI/
AP ADIVIPALEM KW KESANAPALLI-WEST MW MANDAPETA-WEST PALAKOLLU PLAY
BN BANDAMURULANKA-NORTH LP LANKAPALEM NG NANDIGAMA TIRUPATHI PLAY
KG-OS-DW EG ENUGUPALLI LG LINGALA PS PASARLAPUDI
RAGHAVAPURAM
EL ELAMANCHILLI LS LAKSHMANESWARAM PM PENUMADAM
PLAY
EM ENDAMURU MP MEDAPADU PO PONNAMANADA
MD MANDAPETA
KANUKOLLU PLAY
GR GOKARNAPURAM RA RANGAPURAM

KG-OS-DW-EXTN. GM GOPAVARAM MG MAGATAPALLI RZ RAZOLE NANDIGAMA PLAY


KK KAIKALUR MA MAHADEVAPATNAM SI SIRIGATTAPALLE
KZ KAZA MR MORI SU SURYARAOPETA GOLLAPALLI PLAY
KP KESANAPALLI ML MULIKIPALLI TP TATIPAKA
MANDAPETA PLAY
VA VADALI
PEL-PLAY-KG1-A-MAR’03

E&D, DRAWING SECTION., SRBC., CHENNAI.


Envisaged Depositional Model

Fan Delta

Alluvial
Fan

The environment of deposition has been envisaged to be fluvial to transitional during


the earlier period of graben formation and transitional to marginal marine during the
later stages. Sands within the syn rift are derived from the rift shoulders, deposited as
basin fan floor complexes, slope fan complexes. Deposited as alluvial fans/ braided
fluvial
58 fans, prograding as lobes with intervening lacustrine facies. Also, deltaic fan
under marginal marine environment.
More than 225 prospects have been probed by drilling of more than
557 exploratory wells. Hydrocarbon accumulations have been
proven in 75 of these prospects (22 oil & 53 gas).

Notable oil discoveries are Kaikalur, Vadali, Mori, Bantumilli,


Lingala, Suryaraopeta, Gopavaram, Kesanapalli, and Kesanapalli
West. The gas discoveries are Adavipalem, Elamanchili, Enugupalli,
Narsapur, Razole, Tatipaka-Kadali, Pasarlapudi, Mandapeta,
Chintalapalli. Nandigama, Endamuru, Penumadam, Ponnamanda,
Achanta, Mullikipalle, Magatapalli, Gokarnapuram,
Kesavadasapalem, Lakshamaneshwaram, Rangapuram and
Sirikattapalli.

In onshore, so far 141 prospects have been probed by 375


exploratory wells by ONGC, out of which 11 oil & gas pools and 31
gas pools have been discovered and most of them are on
production.

In offshore, so far more than 84 prospects have been probed by


182 exploratory wells . Hydrocarbon accumulations have been
proved in 33 of these prospects (11 oil & gas and 22 gas
prospects).
AREA- 52, 000 Sq.Km (ONLAND- 28,000 & OFFSHOE-
24,000)
TYPE- COMPOSITE BASIN

RESERVES- 46.22 (O+OEG)

RESOURCES- 1130 MMt

EXPLORATION OBJECTIVES -

 MESOZOIC STRUCTURAL PROSPECTS


ASSOCIATED WITH RIDGES (ONSHORE).
 PALEOCENE/ EOCENE CARBONATE BUILD- UP
(OFFSHORE).
 ROLLOVER ANTICLINES (OFFSHORE).
 EOCENE DELTAIC SEQUENCE ON SHALLOWER
SHELF (OFFSHORE).
 MIOCENE DELTAIC SANDS (OFFSHORE).
 PLIOCENE PINCHOUTS.
IG

IB

DWN-U-1

Oil

Gas
KG LOCATION MAP WITH DEEP WATER NELP BLOCKS
MEGA TECTONIC MAP OF KG-PG BASIN
80° 00' 81° 00' 82° 00' 83° 00' 84° 00' 85° 00'

SRIKAKULAM

VIJ AYANAGARAM

18° 18°
00' 3 1 3
8
3 00'

H
3
4
5

IG
2
5
3
PR

2
7 7
3
1
H
AN

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7 1 2
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RI
VISAKHAPATNAM

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Bhadrac halam

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HIG
00' 00'

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S
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MEGA TECTONIC ELEMENTS
AVA

00'
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5 OUT CROPS
CROSS TREND KG - PG BASIN
MAJOR FAULT AT BASEMENT LEVEL PROJECT : PS CUBE, April 2007
DRY
OIL SCALE :
5 0 10 20 Km.
GAS By :
R J Michael, Asst.D wg.Officer

80° 00' 81° 00' 82° 00' 83° 00' 84° 00' 85° 00'
MBA Basins

The Mahanadi Basin is


located on the eastern
sea board of India and
covers the coastal
districts of Orissa State
and adjoining offshore
areas in Bay of Bengal. In
the land part, it covers an
area of about 55,000
Sq.Km. Its boundaries in
the north, west, and
south are marked by
outcrops of Precambrian
rocks and in the east the
basin extends into Bay of
Bengal, having an area of
about 14000 Sq.Km.
MAHANADI MAP WITH NELP BLOCKS
Bangal Onland Basin

Bangal Offshore Basin


Andaman Offshore Basin
Hydrocarbon
Potential &
Prospectivity of
sedimentary Basins
What is a Prospect ?

 Independent accumulation of oil, gas,


oil & gas pools in a sedimentary basin
 There could be several prospects in
sedimentary basin
 Size of prospect very from few sq km to
thousands of sq km.
Prospects Identification
 To identify the possible hydrocarbon
locales/area through Integrated
Interpretation of multi-disciplinary
data (Geological and Geophysical
data)
Types of Prospects:
• Oil prospect
• Gas prospect
• Oil & Gas prospect
Geological Aspects: Prospect Analysis
Source Rock Evaluation

Presence of Reservoir Rocks

Presence of Cap rock or Seals

Traps ( Structural / Stratigraphic)

H/C charges and Timing


REQUIREMENTS FOR HYDROCARBON
ACCUMULATION
• In a basin there must be adequate thickness of
sediments.
• There must be adequate organic material trapped in
those sediments. There should be conditions of burial
and favourable temperature long enough for generation
of oil.
• Once oil is generated it migrates out of the source
rocks. There should be adequate reservoir rocks for
holding this oil.
• There should be adequate sealing above reservoir
rocks to form traps.
Source Rock

• Rocks that contain


sufficient amount of
Kerogen are called Source
Rock

• When a source rock starts


generating oil and gas then
it is said to be mature.

When the Kerogen is further
heated with time, the chains
of HC break away from the
Kerogen and form waxy and
viscous crude oil.
Source Rock Evaluation

 Total quantity of organic matter

 Type of organic matter

 Maturity of organic matter

 Generative capacity of the basin


Reservoir Rocks:

The essential element of petroleum


accumulation is Reservoir and essential
features of a reservoir rock is Porosity
i.e its ability to store fluid.

Sandstones: 59%
Carbonates: 40% &
Other fractured rocks: 1%
RESERVOIR ROCKS
A rock with enough porosity to be capable of storing economic
quantities of petroleum, and enough permeability to transmit flow
of hydrocarbons.

POROSITY :

The total sum of opening or voids that occur within a


rock. Usually expressed as a decimal percent.
Porosity is denoted by phi (ф) and is given by the
equation

ф = Bulk Volume – Grain Volume x 100


Bulk Volume
EFFECTIVE POROSITY :

Porosity that is available for storage of fluids.


What is good porosity?
0-5% - Negligible
5-10% - Poor
10-15% - Fair
15-20% - Good
>20% - Very good

Practical cut off for oil


Sandstone ~8%
Limestone ~5%
For gas the cut off is lower
Cap Rocks

The cap/seal rocks have pore throats


too small and poorly connected to
allow the passage of hydrocarbons.

The geographical extent of seal rocks


defines the effective limits of the
Petroleum system.
Traps
 Traps are the geometric arrangement in which
petroleum accumulation takes place.

 Petroleum expelled from an active source


rock (Primary migration) migrate along a fault
plane or a permeable carrier bed (secondary
migration to a porous reservoir rock) capped
or surrounded by a comparatively impervious
seal that together form a trap.
Prospect types:

 Structural prospect (Structural


Entrapment )

 Stratigraphic Prospect (Entrapment


is stratigraphic)

 Stati-structural prospect
(Entrapment combination of structural &
stratigraphic)
ANTICLINAL TRAP SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF OIL, GAS AND WATER
Structural Prospect: Fault Trap
Structural Prospect: Salt Dome
Stratigraphic Prospect:
Stratigraphic Prospect:
Stratigraphic Prospect:
Diagenetic
traps:
This area more
common in carbonate
reservoirs which are
more easily affected
by cementation,
dissolution and
dolomitization. These
post-depositional
processes lead to a
lateral change in
reservoir quality to
acts as the trapping
mechanism
Structural Prospect: Fold Trap
Oil & Gas accumulations are governed by an intricate
mechanism of generation, migration and entrapment with
uniquely subjective boundary conditions that are not so
exacting