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Visual Inspection

Corrosion Erosion
PEW 106
What is Corrosion??????
What does corrosion do??
Can it be controlled ????
Corrosion Cell
A corrosion cell consists of four parts

 Anode
 Cathode
 Electrolyte
 Metallic Pathway
The Anode is the active portion of
the metal surface that is corroded…
This is the passive portion of the
metal surface that does not
The electrolyte connects the anode
and the cathode by a conductive
Metallic Pathway
The metallic pathway completes the
Corrosive Environments

 Moist air is more corrosive than dry air

 Hot air is more corrosive than cold air

 Hot water is more corrosive than cold water

 Polluted air is more corrosive than clean air

Corrosive Environments
 Fresh water is less corrosive than polluted
 Acids are more corrosive than bases (alkalis)

 Salt water is more corrosive than fresh water

 Stainless steel will outlast ordinary steel

 No corrosion will occur in a vacuum

Erosion is the result of friction
between the metal and the product
Visual Inspection
Luminous objects emit light in the
form of radiant energy…
Visual Inspection
The radiant energy is in the form of
electromagnetic waves…
Visual Inspection
The electromagnetic waves act on
the retina of the eye which produce
the sensation of light on the optic
Measurement of visible Light
The amount of visible light to
perform visual inspection is
measured in Foot-candles or Lux…

1 fc = 10.76 lx
Types of Light Sources
Natural Light
Types of Light Sources
Incandescent Light…
A filament bulb used in lamps and
Types of Light Sources
Luminescent Light…
Fluorescent lighting
Direct Visual Inspection
Visual inspection shall be made with
the eye positioned at a minimum
angle of of 300 to the test surface
and a minimum of 600mm…
Magnifiers can be used to enhance in
viewing the test surface…
Borescopes are designed for remote
Borescopes are designed for remote
viewing and video viewing…
Pit Gauge
The inspector uses a pit gauge to
measure the depth of pits…
Micrometer Depth Gauge
The micrometer depth gauge provides
very accurate measurements…
Ultrasonic D - Meter
The inspector uses an Ultrasonic
D – Meter to measure the wall
thickness of componants…
Types of Corrosion
Uniform Attack (General Corrosion)…
Types of Corrosion
Pitting (Aluminum)…
Types of Corrosion
Cavitation (Aluminum/Bronze)…
Types of Corrosion
Erosion Corrosion…
Types of Corrosion
Hydrogen Blistering…
Types of Corrosion
Galvanic Corrosion…
Types of Corrosion
Thermal and Mechanical Fatigue…
Types of Corrosion
Carbon Dioxide Attack…
Types of Corrosion
Stress Corrosion Cracking…
Types of Corrosion
Caustic Embrittlement…
Types of Corrosion
Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion…
Types of Corrosion
Ammonia Attack…