Water scenario in Punjab

By

Dr. Manoj Sharma
Deputy Director ( Training) KVK, Kapurthala 144620
drmanojsh1@gmail.com 098727098727-45890 0182201822-233056

Ravi Himalayas Beas

Sutlej

Punjab

Ghaghar

Haryana

Landscape setting & natural resources

Introduction of Canal Irrigation System in Punjab

1 1

6

S. No Headworks 1. Madopur 2. Ropar 3. Haussainiwala 4. Nangal 5. Harike 6. Talwara

1859 1873 1927 1954 1952 1962

Year Canal UBD BD & Sirhind Eastern & Bikaner Bakhra Main & Hydal Rajasthan & Sirhind Shah

4 2 5 3

AREA, PRODUCT ON AND Y E D OF R CE N PUNJAB, ND A
12000 10000

Area (000 ha) Production (000 tons) Productivity (Kg/ha)
9157 8716 8816 8880

11200 10437 9600 10193 10489 10140

8000
6535

7703

6000

5585

4000
3233 2552 2732 1447 1714 1183 390 567 3258

3229

3565

3347

3506

3545

3510

3672

3943

3858

3868

4019

4072

2000
1000 292

1764 688

2604 2024 2161

2612

2487

2530

2614

2647

2642

2620

2610

2750

0

19 65 -6 6 19 70 -7 1 19 75 -7 6 19 80 -8 1 19 85 -8 6 19 90 -9 1 19 95 -9 6 19 99 -2 00 0 20 00 -0 1 20 01 -0 2 20 02 -0 3 20 03 -0 4 20 04 -0 5 20 05 -0 6 20 06 -0 7 20 07 -0 8 20 08 -0 9

YEAR

RICE PRODU CTIVITY DIAVS. IMPORT N ST TES -IN A T A
45 40 35
39.43

Yield (qtl/h

30 25 20 15 10 5 0
t
14.6 18.06

29.41 27.12 27.03 25.74

17.9

18.69

19.84

7.92

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3.9 tim jum in productivity es p More than 30 tim increase in production es 

A bout 8 tim increase in area es 

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IMPACT OF PAU RELEASED RICE VARIETIES IN PUNJAB

WATER USE BY RICE
1 ACRE=4000 sq. m 1 irrigation= 10 cm= 0.10m 25 irrigation= 250 cm=2.50m Total water used=4000 x 2.50=10,000 m3 1 m3 = 1000 ltr 10,000 m3 = 10,000,000 ltr 3000 kg paddy = 10,000,000 ltr 1 kg paddy =3333 ltr

IRRIGATED ECOSYSTEM
PUNJAB
INDIA

The promising rice genotypes are tested at four locations± Gurdaspur Kapurthala Ludhiana Patiala

VARIETY TESTING AND RELEASE PROCEDURE
OYT

State trials (RYT-1) RYT-2nd year RYT-3rd year RYT-4th year + adaptive trials at farmers field (100) REC (University)

AICRIP trials IVT

AVT-1 AVT-2

Identification of variety on the basis of ecosystem/ regions

Release by CVRC Release by SVRC

Notification (Min. of Agriculture, GOI)

Food Insecurity of India Population
At Present = 110 crore By 2023 = 130 crore

Food Grain Production
During Last Decade Oscillated India = 205 million tonnes Punjab = 25 million tonnes

Will India be Able to Feed its Growing Population ?

India
Irrigated Area = 39.5 % Rain fed Area = 60.5 %

Agricultural Growth Rate
During the Last Decade

Rain fed = - 10 % Punjab = Declined from 3.2 to 1.86 %

Irrigated Area
Punjab =97 % Haryana = 83 % UP = 68 % Others = < 51 %

Contribution of Punjab to Central Pool of Food Grains During the 4 Last Decades 60 % Wheat, 40 % Rice

Will Punjab be Able to Produce the Same Amount of Wheat & Rice in Future ?????

Landscape Topography & Ground Water Quality Of Punjab

Rise of Ground Water Table in Punjab and its Consequences

Percent area under different water table depths in Punjab (October 1964)
Water Table Depth ( ft ) <0 0±5 5 ±10 10 ± 20 > 20 Percent Area 0.3 22.6 24.0 11.5 41.6

Era of Green Revolution
started with Wheat and followed by Rice

Number of tube wells (000) in Punjab
Year 1960-61 1980-81 2004-05 Diesel Electricity 52 320 288 46 280 880 Tube wells 98 600 1168

Shift in Cropping Pattern
Wheat (ET40) : Gram (ET30) : Rice (ET65) : 37 22 6 24 78 % 0.4 % 60 % 1.3 %

Pulses (ET40) :

Status of water resources
(million ha m / year) Canal Water Rainfall and seepage Total availability Water demand Deficit = 1.45 = 1.68 = 3.13 = 4.33 = 1.2

Fall of Water Table in Punjab

Measured & predicted water table fall & depth in Moga district
Block Moga-II Moga-I Nihal Singh Wala Bagha Purana Max. Water Water table depth, ft table fall, ft/yr 2004-05 2004 2023 6.6 8.2 6.4 4.9 95 89 71 42 208 244 193 136

Measured & predicted water table fall and depth in Sangrur district
Block Ahmedgarh Sherpur Barnala Dhuri Water table fall, ft/yr 2004-05 8.7 6.1 3.9 4.5 Water table depth, ft 2005 90 91 87 74 2023 247 201 157 155

Reasons for the Fall of Water Table
1.Farmers have plowed most of the water courses in the central Punjab 2. 85% area during kharif season under rice 3. Early transplantation of rice

Water Courses In Central Punjab
Farmers in the Central Punjab have plowed most of the water courses due to abundant supply of good quality ground water at shallow depth & Tube well Irrigation / Subsidised / Free Power

With the result ground water recharge has decreased in the central Punjab

Large Area Under Rice During Kharif Season

Why Farmers Resorted to Early Rice Transplantation in the Past?

Paddy (PR-118) yield (PRwith spray

Date of transplanting 25th May 10th June 25th June LSD (0.05)

Yield (t/ha) 2004 9.97 10.86 11.02 NS 2005 9.21 8.90 8.87 NS Mean 9.57 9.79 9.95 NS

No Reduction in Rice Yield will occur even if we start Transplanting of Rice from
th 30

June

Impact of Falling Water Table
Increase in power requirement for tube wells Deterioration of ground water quality Increase in cost of infrastructure development for tube wells

History Of Dug Well & Tube Well Irrigation
Dug Well 1.Charas 2.Persian Wheel

Tube Well Irrigation 1.Centrifugal Pump 2.Submersible Pump

Infrastructure Cost for Tube wells 

Centrifugal pump system Diesel engine and generator Regular diesel cost Submersible pump   

Deepening of Tube well Pit

Purchase & Repurchase of Electric motor, pump, starter, cable, capacitor, switch, voltage stabilizer etc.

Widening of Tube Well Pit

Installation of Submersible Pump

Cost of Generator Sets

Hand Pump

Indebtedness of Punjab Farmers
Total indebtedness of Punjab farmers = Rs 24,000 Crore One of the major reason for this indebtedness is cost of infrastructure development for tube wells due due to fall of water table

Is the Statement True or False ?

Are not we heading towards Disaster ?

Future of Punjab Agriculture ????????????

Food Security of India ??????????

Solutions to escape from the present crisis

1. Arrest Falling Water Table 2. Save Energy For Pumping

Percent Water Demand
Rice Wheat Fodder, Vegetables and Forests Other crops Municipal and Industrial use = 37.0 = 32.0 = 13.3 = 14.3 = 3.4

Falling Water Table can be Arrested 1.Delay Transplanting of Rice 2.Revive the Old Water Courses 3.Increase Canal Water Supply 4.Crop Diversification

Mass Campaign to Farmers through Wall Posters

Out come of Mass Campaign in Arrest of Water Table

Arrest in average water table fall in central districts of Punjab: Water table fall ( WTF )during 2003 - 05 = 164 cm 2005 - 07 = 128 cm Arrest in WTF = 36 cm

Arrest in Average Water Table Fall in Critical Moga District : Water Table Fall ( WTF ) during 2003 ± 05 = 292 cm 2005 ± 07 = 160 cm Arrest in WTF = 132 cm

Future Projections of Water Table Fall if above Hypothesis is accepted

Will it be Possible ? The Answer is Yes

PAU 201 Sowing 27th June Yield = 36 q / acre

Pusa 44 Sowing 12th June Yield = 35 q / acre

To Save Energy for Pumping Adopt Water saving Technologies

Water saving Technologies 1. Irrigation Scheduling 2. Laser Land Leveller 3. irrigation Methods 4. Mulching

2. Gradually shift in transplanting of rice to 30 June. It will help alleviate economic stress of farmers & PSEB.
cont...

th

3.To Save Energy for Pumping Adopt Water Saving Technologies
-Irrigation to Rice with Tensiometer -Laser Land Levelling -Furrow Irrigation -Mulching

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