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Commonly used methods are mean, median, mode, geometric mean etc.

observations. Mean of 20, 30, 40 is (20+30+40)/3 = 30.

x. Then the mean of this variable,

n

x1 x2 ... xn x i

x i 1

n n

Methods of Center Measurement

That is, to find the median we need to order the data set and

then find the middle value. In case of an even number of

observations the average of the two middle most values is the

median. For example, to find the median of {9, 3, 6, 7, 5}, we first

sort the data giving {3, 5, 6, 7, 9}, then choose the middle value

6. If the number of observations is even, e.g., {9, 3, 6, 7, 5, 2},

then the median is the average of the two middle values from the

sorted sequence, in this case, (5 + 6) / 2 = 5.5.

undefined for sequences in which no observation is repeated.

Mean or Median

The median is less sensitive to outliers (extreme scores) than the

mean and thus a better measure than the mean for highly skewed

distributions, e.g. family income. For example mean of 20, 30, 40,

between 20-40. So, the mean 270 really fails to give a realistic

value 990.

2.3. Measures of Dispersion (Variation):

The variation or dispersion in a set of values refers to how spread out the values are from

each other.

· There is no variation if the values are the same.

Larger variation

Smaller variation

· Same at Center

Smaller variation

Larger variation

Some measures of dispersion:

Range – Variance – Standard deviation

Coefficient of variation

Range:

Range is the difference between the largest (Max) and smallest (Min) values.

Range = Max Min

Example:

Find the range for the sample values: 26, 25, 35, 27, 29, 29.

Solution:

Range = 35 25 = 10 (unit)

Note:

The range is not useful as a measure of the variation since it only takes into account two of

the values. (it is not good, crude measure of variability)

Variance

the mean of a set of data. It is used to find the

standard deviation.

5

xi

10 21 33 53 54 171

x

i 1

34.2 (unit)

5 5 5

x x

n 5

i

2

2

i x 34 .2

S 2 i 1

i 1

n 1 5 1

S2

10 34.2 2

21 34.2 2

33 34.2 2

53 34.2 2

54 34.2 2

4

1506.8

376.7 (unit) 2

4

Another method:

x x

5

x xi

2

x

xi i i

i 1

xi 34.2 xi 34.2

2 x

5

10 -24.2 585.64 171

21 -13.2 174.24 34.2

33 -1.2 1.44 5

53 18.8 353.44

54 19.8 392.04

1506 .8

S 2

4

xi x 0 xi x

5 5

xi 376.7

2

171 1506 .8

i 1 i 1

n

x

2

2

i nx

S

2 i 1 * Simple

n 1

* More accurate

Standard Deviation

Standard Deviation shows the

variation in data. If the data is close

together, the standard deviation will

be small. If the data is spread out, the

standard deviation will be large.

by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, .

The bell curve which represents a

normal distribution of data shows

what standard deviation represents.

either direction on the horizontal axis accounts for

around 68 percent of the data. Two standard

deviations away from the mean accounts for roughly

95 percent of the data with three standard deviations

representing about 99 percent of the data.

Standard Deviation

Find the variance.

a) Find the mean of the data.

b) Subtract the mean from each value.

c) Square each deviation of the mean.

d) Find the sum of the squares.

e) Divide the total by the number of

items.

Take the square root of the variance.

Standard Deviation Formula

represented using Sigma Notation:

( x ) 2

is the square root of the variance.

Find the variance and

standard deviation

are: 92,88,80,68 and 52.

1) Find the mean: (92+88+80+68+52)/5 = 76.

2) Find the deviation from the mean:

92-76=16

88-76=12

80-76=4

68-76= -8

52-76= -24

Find the variance and

standard deviation

students are: 92,88,80,68 and 52.

3) Square the deviation from the

mean: (16) 2 256

(12) 144

2

(4) 16

2

(8) 64

2

(24) 576

2

Find the variance and

standard deviation

are: 92,88,80,68 and 52.

4) Find the sum of the squares of the

deviation from the mean:

256+144+16+64+576= 1056

5) Divide by the number of data

items to find the variance:

1056/5 = 211.2

Find the variance and

standard deviation

The math test scores of five students

are: 92,88,80,68 and 52.

variance: 211.2 14.53

the test scores is 14.53.

Standard Deviation

test with these five test scores:

92,92,92,52,52.

class.

Hint:

1. Find the mean of the data.

2. Subtract the mean from each value

– called the deviation from the

mean.

3. Square each deviation of the mean.

4. Find the sum of the squares.

5. Divide the total by the number of

items – result is the variance.

6. Take the square root of the

variance – result is the standard

deviation.

Solve:

A different math class took the same

test with these five test scores:

92,92,92,52,52.

class.

Answer Now

The math test scores of five students

are: 92,92,92,52 and 52.

1) Find the mean: (92+92+92+52+52)/5 = 76

2) Find the deviation from the mean:

92-76=16 92-76=16 92-76=16

52-76= -24 52-76= -24

3) Square the deviation from the mean:

(16)2 256(16)2 256(16)2 256

4) Find the sum of the squares:

256+256+256+576+576= 1920

The math test scores of five

students are: 92,92,92,52 and 52.

by the number of items :

1920/5 = 384 variance

6) Find the square root of the variance:

384 19.6

Thus the standard deviation of the

second set of test scores is 19.6.

Analyzing the data:

have the same mean, 76. However, each

class does not have the same scores. Thus

we use the standard deviation to show the

variation in the scores. With a standard

variation of 14.53 for the first class and 19.6

for the second class, what does this tell us?

Answer Now

Analyzing the data:

Class A: 92,88,80,68,52

Class B: 92,92,92,52,52

for the first class and 19.6 for the

second class, the scores from the

second class would be more spread

out than the scores in the second

class.

Analyzing the data:

Class A: 92,88,80,68,52

Class B: 92,92,92,52,52

Class C: 77,76,76,76,75

Estimate the standard deviation for Class C.

a) Standard deviation will be less than 14.53.

b) Standard deviation will be greater than 19.6.

c) Standard deviation will be between 14.53

and 19.6.

d) Can not make an estimate of the standard

deviation.

Answer Now

Analyzing the data:

Class A: 92,88,80,68,52

Class B: 92,92,92,52,52

Class C: 77,76,76,76,75

Estimate the standard deviation for Class C.

a) Standard deviation will be less than 14.53.

b) Standard deviation will be greater than 19.6.

c) Standard deviation will be between 14.53

and 19.6

d) Can not make an estimate if the standard

deviation.

Answer: A

The scores in class C have the same

mean of 76 as the other two classes.

However, the scores in Class C are all

much closer to the mean than the other

classes so the standard deviation will be

smaller than for the other classes.

Summary:

measures the dispersion of data.

standard deviation, the further the

data tend to be dispersed from the

mean.

· We need a measure of the relative variation that will not depend on either the units or

on how large the values are. This measure is the coefficient of variation (C.V.) which is

defined by:

S

C.V *100% (free of unit or unit

x less)

S1

1stdata x1 S1 C.V1 100 %

x1

set

S2

2nd data x2 S2 C.V2 100 %

set x2

· The relative variability in the 1st data set is larger than the relative variability in the 2nd

data set if C.V1> C.V2 (and vice versa).

Sample Data Sample Sample Sample

mean st.dev. Variance

x1 , x 2 , , x n x S S2

ax1 , ax 2 , , ax n ax aS a2S 2

x1 b, ,, xn b xb S S2

ax1 b, , ax n b a x b aS a2S 2

Absolute value:

a a

a

if a 0

if a 0

Correlation

quantitative variables without being

able to infer causal relationships

used to determine the degree to which

two variables are related

Scatter diagram

• Rectangular coordinate

• Two quantitative variables

• One variable is called independent (X) and the

second is called dependent (Y)

• Points are not joined

• No frequency table Y

* *

*

X

Example

Wt. 67 69 85 83 74 81 97 92 114 85

(kg)

SBP 120 125 140 160 130 180 150 140 200 130

mmHg)

Wt. 67 69 85 83 74 81 97 92 114 85

SBP(mmHg)

(kg)

SBP 120 125 140 160 130 180 150 140 200 130

220 (mmHg)

200

180

160

140

120

100

80 wt (kg)

60 70 80 90 100 110 120

pressure

SBP(mmHg)

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

Wt (kg)

60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Scatter plots

relationship between your two variables:

positive relationship

negative relationship

no relationship

Positive relationship

18

16

14

12

Height in CM

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Age in Weeks

Negative relationship

Reliability

Age of Car

No relation

Correlation Coefficient

between two variables

Simple Correlation coefficient (r)

or product moment correlation

coefficient.

It measures the nature and strength

between two variables of

the quantitative type.

The sign of r denotes the nature of

association

strength of association.

If the sign is +ve this means the relation

is direct (an increase in one variable is

associated with an increase in the

other variable and a decrease in one

variable is associated with a

decrease in the other variable).

inverse or indirect relationship (which

means an increase in one variable is

associated with a decrease in the other).

The value of r ranges between ( -1) and ( +1)

The value of r denotes the strength of the

association as illustrated

by the following diagram.

indirect Direct

perfect perfect

correlation correlation

no relation

If r = Zero this means no association or

correlation between the two variables.

If r = l = perfect correlation.

How to compute the simple correlation

coefficient (r)

xy x y

r n

x

2

( x) 2

. y

2

( y) 2

n n

Example:

A sample of 6 children was selected, data about their

age in years and weight in kilograms was recorded as

shown in the following table . It is required to find the

correlation between age and weight.

No (years) (Kg)

1 7 12

2 6 8

3 8 12

4 5 10

5 6 11

6 9 13

These 2 variables are of the quantitative type, one

variable (Age) is called the independent and

denoted as (X) variable and the other (weight)

is called the dependent and denoted as (Y)

variables to find the relation between age and

weight compute the simple correlation coefficient

using the following formula:

xy x y

r n

( x) 2 ( y) 2

x

2 . y

2

n n

Age Weight

Serial

(years) (Kg) xy X2 Y2

n.

(x) (y)

1 7 12 84 49 144

2 6 8 48 36 64

3 8 12 96 64 144

4 5 10 50 25 100

5 6 11 66 36 121

6 9 13 117 81 169

Total ∑x= ∑y= ∑xy= ∑x2= ∑y2=

41 66 461 291 742

41 66

461

r 6

(41) 2 (66) 2

291 .742

6 6

r = 0.759

strong direct correlation

EXAMPLE: Relationship between Anxiety and Test

Scores

Anxiety Test X2 Y2 XY

(X) score (Y)

10 2 100 4 20

8 3 64 9 24

2 9 4 81 18

1 7 1 49 7

5 6 25 36 30

6 5 36 25 30

∑X = 32 ∑Y = 32 ∑X2 = 230 ∑Y2 = 204 ∑XY=129

Calculating Correlation Coefficient

r .94

6(230) 32 6(204) 32

2 2

(356)( 200)

r = - 0.94

Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs)

This procedure makes use of the two sets of

ranks that may be assigned to the sample

values of x and Y.

Spearman Rank correlation coefficient could be

computed in the following cases:

Both variables are quantitative.

Both variables are qualitative ordinal.

One variable is quantitative and the other is

qualitative ordinal.

Procedure:

1. Rank the values of X from 1 to n where n

is the numbers of pairs of values of X and

Y in the sample.

2. Rank the values of Y from 1 to n.

3. Compute the value of di for each pair of

observation by subtracting the rank of Yi

from the rank of Xi

4. Square each di and compute ∑di2 which

is the sum of the squared values.

5. Apply the following formula

6 (di) 2

rs 1

n(n 2 1)

and nature of association giving the same

interpretation as simple r.

Example

In a study of the relationship between level

education and income the following data was

obtained. Find the relationship between them

and comment.

numbers (X) (Y)

A Preparatory. 25

B Primary. 10

C University. 8

D secondary 10

E secondary 15

F illiterate 50

G University. 60

Answer:

Rank Rank di di2

(X) (Y) X Y

A Preparatory 25 5 3 2 4

C University. 8 1.5 7 -5.5 30.25

D secondary 10 3.5 5.5 -2 4

E secondary 15 3.5 4 -0.5 0.25

F illiterate 50 7 2 5 25

G university. 60 1.5 1 0.5 0.25

∑ di2=64

6 64

rs 1 0.1

7(48)

Comment:

There is an indirect weak correlation

between level of education and income.

Regression Analyses

some variables by knowing others

variable X

Regression

Uses a variable (x) to predict some outcome

variable (y)

Tells you how values in y change as a function of

changes in values of x

Correlation and Regression

relationship between two variables

Linear means “straight line”

described by the correlation

Regression

Calculates the “best-fit” line for a certain set of data

The regression line makes the sum of the squares of

the residuals smaller than for any other line

Regression minimizes residuals

SBP(mmHg)

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

Wt (kg)

60 70 80 90 100 110 120

By using the least squares method (a procedure

that minimizes the vertical deviations of plotted

points surrounding a straight line) we are

able to construct a best fitting straight line to the

scatter diagram points and then formulate a

regression equation in the form of:

ŷ a bX

x y

xy

ŷ y b(x x) b1

b n

( x) 2

x 2

n

Regression Equation

Regression equation

describes the

regression line

mathematically

– Intercept

– Slope

SBP(mmHg)

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

Wt (kg)

60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Linear Equations

Y

ŷY = bX

a +bX

a

Change

b = Slope in Y

Change in X

a = Y-intercept

X

Hours studying and grades

Regressing grades on hours

Linear Regression

90.00 Final grade in course = 59.95 + 3.17 * study

R-Square = 0.88

Final grade in course

80.00

70.00

59.95 + 3.17*(number of hours you study per week)

Predicted final grade in class = 59.95 + 3.17*(hours of study)

• Final grade = 59.95 + (3.17*12)

• Final grade = 97.99

• Final grade = 59.95 + (3.17*1)

• Final grade = 63.12

Exercise

A sample of 6 persons was selected the

value of their age ( x variable) and their

weight is demonstrated in the following

table. Find the regression equation and

what is the predicted weight when age is

8.5 years.

Serial no. Age (x) Weight (y)

1 7 12

2 6 8

3 8 12

4 5 10

5 6 11

6 9 13

Answer

1 7 12 84 49 144

2 6 8 48 36 64

3 8 12 96 64 144

4 5 10 50 25 100

5 6 11 66 36 121

6 9 13 117 81 169

41 66

x 6.83 y 11

6 6

41 66

461

b 6 0.92

2

(41)

291

6

Regression equation

ŷ (x) 4.675 0.92x

12.6

12.4

12.2

12

11.8

11.6

11.4

7 7.5 8 8.5 9

Age (in years)

estimated values for y against their X component,

then extending the line right and left.

Exercise 2

Age B.P Age B.P

(x) (y) (x) (y)

20 120 46 128

The following are the

age (in years) and 43 128 53 136

systolic blood 63 141 60 146

pressure of 20 26 126 20 124

apparently healthy 53 134 63 143

adults.

31 128 43 130

58 136 26 124

46 132 19 121

58 140 31 126

70 144 23 123

Find the correlation between age

and blood pressure using simple

and Spearman's correlation

coefficients, and comment.

Find the regression equation?

What is the predicted blood

pressure for a man aging 25 years?

Serial x y xy x2

1 20 120 2400 400

2 43 128 5504 1849

3 63 141 8883 3969

4 26 126 3276 676

5 53 134 7102 2809

6 31 128 3968 961

7 58 136 7888 3364

8 46 132 6072 2116

9 58 140 8120 3364

10 70 144 10080 4900

Serial x y xy x2

11 46 128 5888 2116

12 53 136 7208 2809

13 60 146 8760 3600

14 20 124 2480 400

15 63 143 9009 3969

16 43 130 5590 1849

17 26 124 3224 676

18 19 121 2299 361

19 31 126 3906 961

20 23 123 2829 529

Total 852 2630 114486 41678

x y

xy

n 114486

852 2630

b1 = 20 0.4547

( x) 2

852 2

x n

2 41678

20

ŷ =112.13 + 0.4547 x

for age 25

B.P = 112.13 + 0.4547 * 25=123.49 = 123.5 mmhg

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