Factors Influencing ConB

Psychological (I) Cultural (E) Culture Subculture Social (E) Reference Groups Family Perception Motivation Personality Learning Attitudes

What comes to your mind when you see ...


How we see the world around us.

Basic Concepts of Perception

1.Sensation 2.Absolute Threshold 3.Differential Threshold 4.Subliminal Perception

1. Sensation
Immediate & direct response of sensory organs to stimuli.

Products Packages Brand Name Advt Theme / Commercials

Eyes Ears Nose Mouth Skin

See Hear Smell Taste Touch

Evolution & Use of Products


Sensory Inputs Sensory Functions (receptors)

(Proces of Transforming a Sensation)

Some Examples w.r.t. Sensation
1. Vision: Package size with eye-catching shapes / Colours-warm (roy) vs cool (gvb) 2. Sound: Ad jingle; Auto engine sound; Retail env (fast vs slow tempo) 3. Smell: Cosmetics, Foods; Scented stores (Barista, CCD, Krispy Kreme); Scented cars (ambipure); Soaps (Liril & Cinthol); Pleasant Cola smell. 4. Taste: Beverages / Food markets; Taste test 5. Touch: Fabric; REI chain of sporting goods

Dutch detergent advt demonstrates (Flowery orange fades without Dreft)

2. Absolute Thresholds
‡ The minimum level of stimulus needed for it to be perceived i.e., the point of detecting a difference between something & nothing.

‡ For example: the point at which one can first see the billboard on a high way. Before that point the billboard is below the absolute threshold.

3. Differential Thresholds
The minimum difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli is known as the differential stimuli or the noticeable difference). j.n.d. (just

The minimum detectable difference.

Example of Differential Threshold
1. A black & white television commercial. (Levi¶s black & white ad) 2. Cadbury¶s relaunched version of ³Dairy Milk´. 3. Jenson and Nicholson¶s full page ad. 5. Advertorial (Reader¶s Digest) 6. LG is expensive

Gradual Changes in Brand Name Fall Below the J.N.D.

Strategic Applications of JND
‡ Pricing: ± When raising the price, try to move ............. ‡ Sales promotion: ± Make coupons ___________ than the JND. ‡ Product: ± Make decreases in size of food product _______ than JND. ± When the word new is used, product change is ______ than JND. ‡ Packaging: ± To update package styling & logo keep ________ the JND. ± To change image, make styling changes ________ than the JND.

4. Subliminal Perception

Occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer¶s awareness.

Stimulus Organisation
‡ Consumers show a tendency to organise various stimuli into groups and perceive them as unified whole objects. ‡ Closure Principle: Consumers tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete. E.g., Herohonda ad. ‡ Principle of Grouping: Consumers tend to group stimuli. E.g., Pepsi has associated itself with Indian Cricket; Axe effect are best for youth ‡ Figure-ground Principle: Combo of dominant i.e., figure

(message) and secondary background stimulus i.e., ground (jingle, humour, graphics etc). E.g., Airtel ad having A R Rahman's

Principle of Closure

This Land Rover ad illustrates the use of the principle of closure, in which people participate in the ad by mentally filling in the gaps in the sentence.

Principle of Grouping
‡ Proximity
± Seeing 3 pair of lines in A.

‡ Similarity
± Seeing columns of orange and red dots in B.

‡ Continuity
± Seeing lines that connect 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 in C.

‡ Closure
± Seeing a horse in D.

Figure-ground Principle

This billboard for Wrangler jeans makes creative use of the figureground principle.


³. . . an inner state of arousal [drive] that [creates] . . . energy to achieve a goal.´

Consumer Motivation
Meaning: to understand why consumers do what they do. i.e., why do people buy our product.

Goal of marketing is to satisfy consumer¶s needs.

Simple Model of Motivation

NEEDS (Desires or Wants) Need for food & water

DRIVES (Motives) Hunger & Thirst drives

GOALS (Incentives) Pizza, Coca-Cola

‡ Primary (Psychological i.e., thirst, hunger and sex) ‡ Secondary (Acquired i.e., sense of belongingness, status and self-esteem) ‡ Consumers may be unaware about secondary needs so symbolism is attached with brands. E.g., Louis Philip, Park Avenue in apparel, Mercedes in automobile and Fast Track in watch reflect symbolism. ‡ Research supports this. For e.g., Liril soap was launched in 70¶s after a research that housewives had a distinctive need for fantasizing. Ad of Liril captured that- waterfall, freshness (green) & carefree attitude of model.

Changing Consumer Needs


Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs
To earn a PhD / to win gold medal / To serve nation as politician / to play for country / become a great musician, actor Cars / furniture / credit cards / luxury products Superior clothing / clubs / entertainment Insurance / investments / helmet / seat belt / anti-virus Basic food / clothing / drinks / sex

Need Hierarchy Theory & Marketing
‡ Marketers should not promise what they cannot deliver or create unrealistic expectations ‡ An useful framework for developing advertising appeals. ‡ Is often used as a basis for market segmentation, with specific Ad appeals directed to one or more need-segment levels. ‡ Works well in developing positioning strategies (to find a niche ± an unsatisfied need).

Appeal to Egoistic Needs

Appeal to SelfActualization

Ad for an athletic shoes ³converse´

A Trio of Needs (McClelland)
* Power - individual¶s desire to control environment * Affiliation - need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging - to be in the company of other people - products are consumed in groups (team sports, shopping malls) * Achievement - need for personal accomplishment - closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

Appeal to Power Needs

United colours of Benetton
Appeal to Affiliation Needs

Appeal to Achievement Needs

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