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- S C Gupta v K Kapoor Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics a Modern Approach 10th Edition 2000
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and Charts

Topics

Random variable

Organizing Numerical Data

The Ordered Array and Stem-Leaf Display

Tabulating and Graphing Univariate Numerical Data

Frequency Distributions: Tables, Histograms, Polygons

Cumulative Distributions: Tables, the Ogive

Graphing Bivariate Numerical Data

Topics

(continued)

Tabulating and Graphing Univariate

Categorical Data

The Summary Table

Bar and Pie Charts, the Pareto Diagram

Tabulating and Graphing Bivariate Categorical

Data

Contingency Tables

Side by Side Bar Charts

Graphical Excellence and Common Errors in

Presenting Data

Random Variable

continuous discreet

Random Variable is

one that varies as a

matter of chance and The variable can

take any value in its

The variable can

take only specific

it follows some sort range of variation values in its range

of probability eg. Dimension, of variation eg. No.

weight, resistance, of defectives in a

distribution tensile strength sample, no. of

defects in an item,

eg. Dimension of a no. of vehicles going

component through a crossing

Distribution may be

continuous or discreet Normal, uniform,

erlang, triangular,

Hypergeometric,

binomial, Poisson,

weibull distributions geometric, negative

binomial etc.

Organizing Numerical Data

Numerical Data 41, 24, 32, 26, 27, 27, 30, 24, 38, 21

Frequency Distributions

Ordered Array

Cumulative Distributions

21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

2 144677

Stem and Leaf Histograms Ogive

3 028

Display

4 1

Tables Polygons

Organizing Numerical Data

(continued)

24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38

Data in Ordered Array from Smallest to Largest:

21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

Stem-and-Leaf Display:

2 144677

3 028

4 1

Tabulating and Graphing

Numerical Data

Numerical Data 41, 24, 32, 26, 27, 27, 30, 24, 38, 21

Frequency Distributions

Ordered Array 120

O g ive

80

60

20

0

10 20 30 40 50 60

2 144677 Ogive

Stem and Leaf Histograms

3 028

Display 7

4 1 4

Tables Polygons

3

0

10 20 30 40 50 60

Tabulating Numerical Data:

Frequency Distributions

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Find Range: 58 - 12 = 46

Select Number of Classes: 5 (usually between 5 and 15)

Compute Class Interval (Width): 10 (46/5 then round up)

Determine Class Boundaries (Limits):10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60

Compute Class Midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55

Frequency Distributions, Relative Frequency

Distributions and Percentage Distributions

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Relative

Class Frequency Frequency Percentage

10 but under 20 3 .15 15

20 but under 30 6 .30 30

30 but under 40 5 .25 25

40 but under 50 4 .20 20

50 but under 60 2 .10 10

Total 20 1 100

Graphing Numerical Data:

The Histogram

Data in Ordered Array:

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Histogram

7 6

6 5

Frequency

5 4 No Gaps

4 3

3 2

Between

2 Bars

1 0 0

0

5 15 25 35 45 55 More

Class Boundaries

Class Midpoints

Graphing Numerical Data:

The Frequency Polygon

Data in Ordered Array:

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Frequency

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

5 15 25 35 45 55 More

Class Midpoints

Tabulating Numerical Data:

Cumulative Frequency

Data in Ordered Array:

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Limit Frequency % Frequency

10 0 0

20 3 15

30 9 45

40 14 70

50 18 90

60 20 100

Graphing Numerical Data:

The Ogive (Cumulative % Polygon)

Data in Ordered Array :

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Ogive

100

80

60

40

20

0

10 20 30 40 50 60

Graphing Bivariate Numerical

Data (Scatter Plot)

Date Return (%) Mutual Funds Scatter Plot

40

Total Year to

30

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40

Net Asset Values

Tabulating and Graphing

Univariate Categorical Data

Categorical Data

Graphing Data

Tabulating Data

The Summary Table

Pie Charts

Summary Table

(for an Investor’s Portfolio)

(in thousands $)

Bonds 32 29.09

CD 15.5 14.09

Savings 16 14.55

Total 110 100

Graphing Univariate

Categorical Data

Categorical Data

Graphing Data

Tabulating Data

The Summary Table

Pie Charts

CD

S a vi n g s

B onds

S to c k s

Bar Charts Pareto Diagram

0 10 20 30 40 50

45 120

40

100

35

30 80

25

60

20

15 40

10

20

5

0 0

S to c k s B onds S a vi n g s CD

Bar Chart

(for an Investor’s Portfolio)

Investor's Portfolio

Savings

CD

Bonds

Stocks

0 10 20 30 40 50

Amount in K$

Pie Chart

(for an Investor’s Portfolio)

Amount Invested in K$

Savings

15%

Stocks

CD 42%

14%

Percentages are

rounded to the

Bonds

nearest percent

29%

Pareto Diagram

45% 100%

40% 90%

80%

bar

70%

chart 30%

shows 60%

25%

% 50%

invested 20%

40%

in each

15%

category 30% Axis for line

10%

20%

graph

shows

5% 10%

cumulative

0% 0% % invested

Stocks Bonds Savings CD

Tabulating and Graphing

Bivariate Categorical Data

Category

Bonds 32 44 19 95

CD 15.5 20 13.5 49

Savings 16 28 7 51

Total 110 147 67 324

Tabulating and Graphing

Bivariate Categorical Data

Side by Side Charts

C o m p arin g In vesto rs

S avings

CD

B onds

S toc k s

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Principles of Graphical Excellence

Well-Designed Presentation of Data that

Provides:

Substance

Statistics

Design

Communicate Complex Ideas with Clarity,

Precision and Efficiency

Gives the Largest Number of Ideas in the

Most Efficient Manner

Almost Always Involves Several Dimensions

Telling the Truth about the Data

Summary

(continued)

Data

The Summary Table

Bar and Pie Charts, the Pareto Diagram

Tabulated and Graphed Bivariate Categorical

Data

Contingency Tables

Side by Side Charts

Discussed Graphical Excellence

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