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Pragmatism

Charles Sanders Peirce


(1839 –1914)

William James
(1842-1910)

John Dewey
(1859-1952)
an American best known as Immanuel Kant's
polymath, the earliest "Critique of
physicist, and proponent of
philosopher pragmatism Pure Reason“

‘pragmatic’ ‘pragmaticism’

Used to describe a
judgment for which
there is no objective
evidence but one is
practically certain
about it
“Belief is the basis of
action.”

“Truth is something
which is an outcome of
an inquiry.”
Fallibilism

“All knowledge claims, including those


metaphysical, methodological,
introspective, and even mathematical
claims - all of these remain uncertain,
provisional, merely fallible conjectures.”
- a 20th Century American
philosopher and psychologist

- Generally considered as one


of the most influential of all
American philosophers

-was interested in applying


pragmatism to religion
“An idea is true if it satisfies, is verifiable and verified in
experience.”

“Reality is malleable and subject to change in accordance with human


desires, so therefore is truth.”

‘cash-value’

‘pluralistic conception of universe’


became the
American leader of outlook in
philosopher pragmatism pragmatism
and after is scientific
educator William and social
James’s
death
Instrumentalism
- the methodological view that concepts
and theories are merely useful
instruments, and their worth is measured
not by whether the concepts and theories
are true or false (Instrumentalism denies
that theories are truth-evaluable) or
whether they correctly depict reality, but
by how effective they are in explaining
and predicting phenomena.
“Education should “Meliorism“ "learning-by-
be ‘pragmatic’.” doing"

- life is neither
perfectly good nor
bad, and it can be
improved only through
human effort
Pragmatism in its original form
might not have survived, but many
of its central ideas have been
accepted, modified and applied by
contemporary philosophers like W.
V. O. Quine, and Richard Rorty.
Hence, in many ways, pragmatism is
still alive and influential even today.
TEACHER
• helper,
guide, and
arranger of
experiences

EDUCATIONAL
CONTRIBUTIONS

CURRICULUM STUDENT
• learner- • experiencing
centered organism
Field
trips

Experimental Laboratory
Methods works

Models/
Strategies
Creative and Activity
constructive
projects centered
Student-
centered
activity
• 1. Breaks away from the use of so much memorization and
drill, while still recognizing the usefulness and necessity of
these methods for some disciplines.
• 2. Asked students not to take “truth” handed to them on a
platter.
• 3. Recognized the differing needs of children and their
inherent desire to learn.
• 4. Recognized the existence of a diverse culture and their
differing educational needs.
• 5. Play was accepted as an important method of learning.
• 6. Selected approaches that sparked students’ interest,
rather than using the traditional lecture approach.
• 1. Not all knowledge can be gained through
experience.
• 2. Can be misinterpreted as permissive.
• A student can receive A’s and still not be a master.
Avoids specialization and full exploration. They know
just enough “to be dangerous.’
“Experience
is the BEST
teacher.”
Thank you! 
Discussants: Robert R. Natividad
Jesica H. Dalangin